Abstract

We develop and demonstrate a source of polarization-entangled photon pairs using spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) in domain-engineered, periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) at telecom wavelengths. Pumped at 775 nm, this domain-engineered type-II SPDC source produces non-degenerate signal and idler pairs at 1530 nm and 1569 nm. Because of birefringence, the photon pair with horizontally polarized signal and vertically polarized idler has a different phasematching condition than the pair with vertically polarized signal and horizontally polarized idler. Using phase-modulation of the domain structure, we produced a crystal that can simultaneously generate both states in a distributed fashion throughout a single crystal. Performing SPDC using this aperiodically poled crystal, we observed polarization entanglement visibility above 93%. We compare the phase-modulated crystal to other aperiodic structures, including dual-periodically-poled and interlaced biperiodic structures.

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References

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2019 (2)

2018 (1)

P. Bierhorst, E. Knill, S. Glancy, Y. Zhang, A. Mink, S. Jordan, A. Rommal, Y.-K. Liu, B. Christensen, S. W. Nam, M. J. Stevens, and L. K. Shalm, “Experimentally generated randomness certified by the impossibility of superluminal signals,” Nature 556(7700), 223–226 (2018).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

A. Dosseva, L. Cincio, and A. M. Brańczyk, “Shaping the joint spectrum of down-converted photons through optimized custom poling,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1), 013801 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. S. Kuo, T. Gerrits, V. B. Verma, and S. W. Nam, “Spectral correlation and interference in nondegenerate photon pairs at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 5074–5077 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. S. Kuo, T. Gerrits, V. Verma, S. W. Nam, O. Slattery, L. Ma, and X. Tang, “Characterization of type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion in domain-engineered PPLN,” Proc. SPIE 9762, 976211 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

T. Gerrits, F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, L. K. Shalm, M. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Spectral correlation measurements at the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference dip,” Phys. Rev. A 91(1), 013830 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism*,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Giustina, M. A. M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J.-A. Larsson, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, L. K. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-loophole-free test of Bell’s theorem with entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, B. Wittmann, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Teleportation of entanglement over 143 km,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 112(46), 14202–14205 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

P. S. Kuo, J. S. Pelc, O. Slattery, L. Ma, and X. Tang, “Domain-engineered PPLN for entangled photon generation and other quantum information applications,” Proc. SPIE 9136, 913603 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (5)

2011 (1)

Y.-X. Gong, Z.-D. Xie, P. Xu, X.-Q. Yu, P. Xue, and S.-N. Zhu, “Compact source of narrow-band counterpropagating polarization-entangled photon pairs using a single dual-periodically-poled crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 053825 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

K. Thyagarajan, J. Lugani, S. Ghosh, K. Sinha, A. Martin, D. B. Ostrowsky, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “Generation of polarization-entangled photons using type-II doubly periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 052321 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Suhara, G. Nakaya, J. Kawashima, and M. Fujimura, “Quasi-phase-matched waveguide devices for generation of postselection-free polarization-entangled twin photons,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1096–1098 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Avenhaus, A. Eckstein, P. J. Mosley, and C. Silberhorn, “Fiber-assisted single-photon spectrograph,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2873–2875 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Trojek and H. Weinfurter, “Collinear source of polarization-entangled photon pairs at nondegenerate wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 211103 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. J. Kimble, “The quantum internet,” Nature 453(7198), 1023–1030 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

N. Gisin and R. Thew, “Quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 165–171 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2003 (3)

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance teleportation of qubits at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nature 421(6922), 509–513 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, “Multiple quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 wavelength converter with a continuously phase-modulated domain structure,” Opt. Lett. 28(7), 558–560 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Shih, “Entangled photons,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(6), 1455–1467 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

W. P. Grice, A. B. U’Ren, and I. A. Walmsley, “Eliminating frequency and space-time correlations in multiphoton states,” Phys. Rev. A 64(6), 063815 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature 390(6660), 575–579 (1997).
[Crossref]

I. Shoji, T. Kondo, A. Kitamoto, M. Shirane, and R. Ito, “Absolute scale of second-order nonlinear-optical coefficients,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(9), 2268–2294 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(24), 4337–4341 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

W. B. Whitten and H. H. Ross, “Fiber optic waveguides for time-of-flight optical spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 51(3), 417–419 (1979).
[Crossref]

Abellán, C.

M. Giustina, M. A. M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J.-A. Larsson, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, L. K. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-loophole-free test of Bell’s theorem with entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism*,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alibart, O.

K. Thyagarajan, J. Lugani, S. Ghosh, K. Sinha, A. Martin, D. B. Ostrowsky, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “Generation of polarization-entangled photons using type-II doubly periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 052321 (2009).
[Crossref]

Allman, M. S.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism*,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Amaya, W.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism*,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Giustina, M. A. M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J.-A. Larsson, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, L. K. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-loophole-free test of Bell’s theorem with entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arie, A.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[Crossref]

Asobe, M.

Avenhaus, M.

Bai, Y. F.

Y. F. Bai, P. Xu, Z. D. Xie, Y. X. Gong, and S. N. Zhu, “Mode-locked biphoton generation by concurrent quasi-phase-matching,” Phys. Rev. A 85(5), 053807 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing, (1984), pp. 175–179.

Beyer, J.

M. Giustina, M. A. M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J.-A. Larsson, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, L. K. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-loophole-free test of Bell’s theorem with entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bienfang, J. C.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism*,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bierhorst, P.

P. Bierhorst, E. Knill, S. Glancy, Y. Zhang, A. Mink, S. Jordan, A. Rommal, Y.-K. Liu, B. Christensen, S. W. Nam, M. J. Stevens, and L. K. Shalm, “Experimentally generated randomness certified by the impossibility of superluminal signals,” Nature 556(7700), 223–226 (2018).
[Crossref]

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L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism*,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250402 (2015).
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T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, B. Wittmann, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Teleportation of entanglement over 143 km,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 112(46), 14202–14205 (2015).
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Yu, X.-Q.

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I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance teleportation of qubits at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nature 421(6922), 509–513 (2003).
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N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
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T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, B. Wittmann, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Teleportation of entanglement over 143 km,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 112(46), 14202–14205 (2015).
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P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(24), 4337–4341 (1995).
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P. Bierhorst, E. Knill, S. Glancy, Y. Zhang, A. Mink, S. Jordan, A. Rommal, Y.-K. Liu, B. Christensen, S. W. Nam, M. J. Stevens, and L. K. Shalm, “Experimentally generated randomness certified by the impossibility of superluminal signals,” Nature 556(7700), 223–226 (2018).
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L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism*,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250402 (2015).
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Zhu, S. N.

Y. F. Bai, P. Xu, Z. D. Xie, Y. X. Gong, and S. N. Zhu, “Mode-locked biphoton generation by concurrent quasi-phase-matching,” Phys. Rev. A 85(5), 053807 (2012).
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C.-W. Sun, S.-H. Wu, J.-C. Duan, J.-W. Zhou, J.-L. Xia, P. Xu, Z. Xie, Y.-X. Gong, and S.-N. Zhu, “Compact polarization-entangled photon-pair source based on a dual-periodically-poled Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 44(22), 5598–5601 (2019).
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D. Bonneau, M. Lobino, P. Jiang, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Fast path and polarization manipulation of telecom wavelength single photons in lithium niobate waveguide devices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(5), 053601 (2012).
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Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (6)

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T. Gerrits, F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, L. K. Shalm, M. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Spectral correlation measurements at the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference dip,” Phys. Rev. A 91(1), 013830 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

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M. Giustina, M. A. M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J.-A. Larsson, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, L. K. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-loophole-free test of Bell’s theorem with entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, B. Wittmann, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Teleportation of entanglement over 143 km,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 112(46), 14202–14205 (2015).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

P. S. Kuo, J. S. Pelc, O. Slattery, L. Ma, and X. Tang, “Domain-engineered PPLN for entangled photon generation and other quantum information applications,” Proc. SPIE 9136, 913603 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. S. Kuo, T. Gerrits, V. Verma, S. W. Nam, O. Slattery, L. Ma, and X. Tang, “Characterization of type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion in domain-engineered PPLN,” Proc. SPIE 9762, 976211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing, (1984), pp. 175–179.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Section of a phase-modulated grating with phase shifts $\pi$ and 0. (b) Example phase-modulation functions, $\phi (z/\Lambda _\textrm {pm})$, that produce different relative amplitudes. The functions differ from each other in a short section around $z/\Lambda _\textrm {pm} = 0.5$ where the phase shift deviates from $\pi$. The domain-engineered grating associated with the 50:50 phase-modulation function is sketched in (a).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Normalized SPDC intensity at different positions inside a crystal for different domain-engineered structures for (a) two consecutive periods, (b) 50:50 phase modulation or dual-periodic-poling, (c) phase-modulation function #2 from Fig. 1b, and interlaced biperiodic structures with (d) $N=10$, (e) $N=22$, and (f) $N=175$.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental setup for characterizing (a) SPDC spectra using time-of-flight spectroscopy and (b) polarization entanglement. CW, continuous-wave; HWP, half-wave plate; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; DCM, dispersion compensation module; TC, temporal compensation crystal; Dic, dichroic mirror; F, filter; D1(2), superconducting nanowire single-photon detector 1(2).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) SPDC spectrum for grating #2 at 144 $^\circ$C with closely matched peaks at 1530.4 nm and 1569.1 nm. (b) Spectra of horizontally (H) and vertically (V) polarized signal.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Reflection and transmission of the filter system.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Coincidence counts as a function of idler polarization with the signal polarization set to horizontal (H), diagonal (D) or anti-diagonal (A). (b) Coincidence counts with the signal polarization in the diagonal direction with and without the TC crystal.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Calculated SPDC peak intensities and peak FWHM for different domain-engineered structures

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Table 2. Comparison of designed and measured Δ λ and peak intensity ratios of several phase-modulated gratings

Equations (3)

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Δ k m = 2 π ( 1 Λ 0 + m Λ pm ) = 0.
Λ 0 = 4 π Δ k 1 + Δ k 1 Λ pm = 4 π Δ k 1 Δ k 1 .
I out | 0 L d ( z ) exp ( i Δ k z ) d z | 2 ,