Abstract

We propose the generation of a high-speed four-level pulse amplitude modulated (PAM4) signal by combining two on-off keying (OOK) signals obtained by overdriving two Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs). By using this method, we can overcome the limited modulation bandwidth of the MZM and generate the high-speed PAM4 signal (faster than the PAM4 signal generated by modulating an MZM with a four-level electrical signal). For a demonstration, we generate the 95-Gb/s PAM4 signal by combining two OOK signals obtained from the bandwidth-limited MZM having a 3-dB bandwidth of only 10.5 GHz. In comparison, when we generate the PAM4 signal by using the conventional method, it is not possible to increase the bit rate to be faster than 60 Gb/s. We also successfully demonstrate the transmission of the 95-Gb/s PAM4 signal generated by the proposed method over 4 km of the standard single-mode fiber.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2018 (1)

2016 (1)

2015 (4)

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz Silicon photonics modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photon. J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, K. Takahata, T. Ito, Y. Ueda, W. Member, H. Kobayashi, H. Ishii, and Sanjoh, “Flip-chip interconnection lumped-electrode EADFB laser for 100-Gb/s/λ transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27(16), 1699–1701 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Xu, E. Zhou, G. N. Liu, T. Zuo, Q. Zhong, L. Zhang, Y. Bao, X. Zhang, J. Li, and Z. Li, “Advanced modulation formats for 400-Gbps short-reach optical inter-connection,” Opt. Express 23(1), 492–500 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Sadot, G. Dorman, A. Gorshtein, E. Sonkin, and O. Vidal, “Single channel 112Gbit/sec PAM4 at 56Gbaud with digital signal processing for data centers applications,” Opt. Express 23(2), 991–997 (2015).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

N. Liu, W. Zhong, Y. Wen, C. Lu, L. Cheng, and Y. Wang, “PMD and chirp effects suppression in RF tone-based chromatic dispersion monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(5), 673–675 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

J. Kondo, K. Aoki, A. Kondo, T. Ejiri, Y. Iwata, A. Hamajima, T. Mori, Y. Mizuno, M. Imaeda, Y. Kozuka, O. Mitomi, and M. Minakata, “High-speed and low-driving-voltage thin-sheet X-cut LiNbO3 modulator with laminated low-dielectric-constant adhesive,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2077–2079 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. Hayee, M. Cardakli, A. Sahin, and A. Willner, “Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 881–883 (2001).
[Crossref]

Aoki, K.

J. Kondo, K. Aoki, A. Kondo, T. Ejiri, Y. Iwata, A. Hamajima, T. Mori, Y. Mizuno, M. Imaeda, Y. Kozuka, O. Mitomi, and M. Minakata, “High-speed and low-driving-voltage thin-sheet X-cut LiNbO3 modulator with laminated low-dielectric-constant adhesive,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2077–2079 (2005).
[Crossref]

Avramopoulos, H.

V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, A. Baretta, A. Dede, J. Dupuy, V. Nodjiadjim, G. Cangini, G. Buren, E. Miller, R. Dinu, N. Keil, H. Bach, N. Grote, A. Vannucci, and H. Avramopoulos, “Integrated transmitter for 100 Gb/s OOK connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (2012), paper Th.3.B.4.

Bach, H.

V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, A. Baretta, A. Dede, J. Dupuy, V. Nodjiadjim, G. Cangini, G. Buren, E. Miller, R. Dinu, N. Keil, H. Bach, N. Grote, A. Vannucci, and H. Avramopoulos, “Integrated transmitter for 100 Gb/s OOK connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (2012), paper Th.3.B.4.

Bae, S.

Baeuerle, B.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, R. Schmid, D. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Moller, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Broadband plasmonic modulator enabling single carrier operation beyond 100 Gbit/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (2017), paper W4I.6.

Bao, Y.

Baretta, A.

V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, A. Baretta, A. Dede, J. Dupuy, V. Nodjiadjim, G. Cangini, G. Buren, E. Miller, R. Dinu, N. Keil, H. Bach, N. Grote, A. Vannucci, and H. Avramopoulos, “Integrated transmitter for 100 Gb/s OOK connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (2012), paper Th.3.B.4.

Buren, G.

V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, A. Baretta, A. Dede, J. Dupuy, V. Nodjiadjim, G. Cangini, G. Buren, E. Miller, R. Dinu, N. Keil, H. Bach, N. Grote, A. Vannucci, and H. Avramopoulos, “Integrated transmitter for 100 Gb/s OOK connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (2012), paper Th.3.B.4.

Cangini, G.

V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, A. Baretta, A. Dede, J. Dupuy, V. Nodjiadjim, G. Cangini, G. Buren, E. Miller, R. Dinu, N. Keil, H. Bach, N. Grote, A. Vannucci, and H. Avramopoulos, “Integrated transmitter for 100 Gb/s OOK connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (2012), paper Th.3.B.4.

Cardakli, M.

M. Hayee, M. Cardakli, A. Sahin, and A. Willner, “Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 881–883 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chagnon, M.

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz Silicon photonics modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photon. J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

W. Huang, C. Weil, and J. Chen, “Optical DAC for generation of PAM4 using parallel electro-absorption modulators,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (2016), paper Th2.P2.SC4.1.

Cheng, L.

N. Liu, W. Zhong, Y. Wen, C. Lu, L. Cheng, and Y. Wang, “PMD and chirp effects suppression in RF tone-based chromatic dispersion monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(5), 673–675 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chung, Y.

Dalton, L.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, R. Schmid, D. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Moller, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Broadband plasmonic modulator enabling single carrier operation beyond 100 Gbit/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (2017), paper W4I.6.

Dede, A.

V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, A. Baretta, A. Dede, J. Dupuy, V. Nodjiadjim, G. Cangini, G. Buren, E. Miller, R. Dinu, N. Keil, H. Bach, N. Grote, A. Vannucci, and H. Avramopoulos, “Integrated transmitter for 100 Gb/s OOK connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (2012), paper Th.3.B.4.

Dinu, R.

S. Nuccio, R. Dinu, B. Shamee, D. Parkh, C. Hasnain, and A. Willner, “Modulation and chirp characterization of a 100-GHz EO polymer Mach-Zehnder modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2011), paper JThA30.

V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, A. Baretta, A. Dede, J. Dupuy, V. Nodjiadjim, G. Cangini, G. Buren, E. Miller, R. Dinu, N. Keil, H. Bach, N. Grote, A. Vannucci, and H. Avramopoulos, “Integrated transmitter for 100 Gb/s OOK connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (2012), paper Th.3.B.4.

Dorman, G.

Dupuy, J.

V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, A. Baretta, A. Dede, J. Dupuy, V. Nodjiadjim, G. Cangini, G. Buren, E. Miller, R. Dinu, N. Keil, H. Bach, N. Grote, A. Vannucci, and H. Avramopoulos, “Integrated transmitter for 100 Gb/s OOK connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (2012), paper Th.3.B.4.

Ejiri, T.

J. Kondo, K. Aoki, A. Kondo, T. Ejiri, Y. Iwata, A. Hamajima, T. Mori, Y. Mizuno, M. Imaeda, Y. Kozuka, O. Mitomi, and M. Minakata, “High-speed and low-driving-voltage thin-sheet X-cut LiNbO3 modulator with laminated low-dielectric-constant adhesive,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2077–2079 (2005).
[Crossref]

Elder, D.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, R. Schmid, D. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Moller, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Broadband plasmonic modulator enabling single carrier operation beyond 100 Gbit/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (2017), paper W4I.6.

Fedoryshyn, Y.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, R. Schmid, D. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Moller, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Broadband plasmonic modulator enabling single carrier operation beyond 100 Gbit/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (2017), paper W4I.6.

Fujisawa, T.

S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, K. Takahata, T. Ito, Y. Ueda, W. Member, H. Kobayashi, H. Ishii, and Sanjoh, “Flip-chip interconnection lumped-electrode EADFB laser for 100-Gb/s/λ transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27(16), 1699–1701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, S.

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz Silicon photonics modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photon. J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gorshtein, A.

Grote, N.

V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, A. Baretta, A. Dede, J. Dupuy, V. Nodjiadjim, G. Cangini, G. Buren, E. Miller, R. Dinu, N. Keil, H. Bach, N. Grote, A. Vannucci, and H. Avramopoulos, “Integrated transmitter for 100 Gb/s OOK connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (2012), paper Th.3.B.4.

Groumas, P.

V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, A. Baretta, A. Dede, J. Dupuy, V. Nodjiadjim, G. Cangini, G. Buren, E. Miller, R. Dinu, N. Keil, H. Bach, N. Grote, A. Vannucci, and H. Avramopoulos, “Integrated transmitter for 100 Gb/s OOK connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (2012), paper Th.3.B.4.

Haffner, C.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, R. Schmid, D. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Moller, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Broadband plasmonic modulator enabling single carrier operation beyond 100 Gbit/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (2017), paper W4I.6.

Hale, P.

Hamajima, A.

J. Kondo, K. Aoki, A. Kondo, T. Ejiri, Y. Iwata, A. Hamajima, T. Mori, Y. Mizuno, M. Imaeda, Y. Kozuka, O. Mitomi, and M. Minakata, “High-speed and low-driving-voltage thin-sheet X-cut LiNbO3 modulator with laminated low-dielectric-constant adhesive,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2077–2079 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hasnain, C.

S. Nuccio, R. Dinu, B. Shamee, D. Parkh, C. Hasnain, and A. Willner, “Modulation and chirp characterization of a 100-GHz EO polymer Mach-Zehnder modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2011), paper JThA30.

Hayee, M.

M. Hayee, M. Cardakli, A. Sahin, and A. Willner, “Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 881–883 (2001).
[Crossref]

Heni, W.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, R. Schmid, D. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Moller, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Broadband plasmonic modulator enabling single carrier operation beyond 100 Gbit/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (2017), paper W4I.6.

Hettrich, H.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, R. Schmid, D. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Moller, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Broadband plasmonic modulator enabling single carrier operation beyond 100 Gbit/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (2017), paper W4I.6.

Hillerkuss, D.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, R. Schmid, D. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Moller, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Broadband plasmonic modulator enabling single carrier operation beyond 100 Gbit/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (2017), paper W4I.6.

Hoessbacher, C.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, R. Schmid, D. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Moller, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Broadband plasmonic modulator enabling single carrier operation beyond 100 Gbit/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (2017), paper W4I.6.

Huang, W.

W. Huang, C. Weil, and J. Chen, “Optical DAC for generation of PAM4 using parallel electro-absorption modulators,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (2016), paper Th2.P2.SC4.1.

Imaeda, M.

J. Kondo, K. Aoki, A. Kondo, T. Ejiri, Y. Iwata, A. Hamajima, T. Mori, Y. Mizuno, M. Imaeda, Y. Kozuka, O. Mitomi, and M. Minakata, “High-speed and low-driving-voltage thin-sheet X-cut LiNbO3 modulator with laminated low-dielectric-constant adhesive,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2077–2079 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ishii, H.

S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, K. Takahata, T. Ito, Y. Ueda, W. Member, H. Kobayashi, H. Ishii, and Sanjoh, “Flip-chip interconnection lumped-electrode EADFB laser for 100-Gb/s/λ transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27(16), 1699–1701 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Kanazawa, S. Tsunashima, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Muramoto, H. Yamazaki, Y. Ueda, W. Kobayashi, H. Ishii, and H. Sanjoh, “Equalizer-free 2-km SMF transmission of 106-Gbit/s 4-PAM signal using optical transmitter/ receiver with 50 GHz bandwidth,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (2016), paper ThD1-2.

Ito, T.

S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, K. Takahata, T. Ito, Y. Ueda, W. Member, H. Kobayashi, H. Ishii, and Sanjoh, “Flip-chip interconnection lumped-electrode EADFB laser for 100-Gb/s/λ transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27(16), 1699–1701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Iwata, Y.

J. Kondo, K. Aoki, A. Kondo, T. Ejiri, Y. Iwata, A. Hamajima, T. Mori, Y. Mizuno, M. Imaeda, Y. Kozuka, O. Mitomi, and M. Minakata, “High-speed and low-driving-voltage thin-sheet X-cut LiNbO3 modulator with laminated low-dielectric-constant adhesive,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2077–2079 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jargon, J.

Jorge, F.

V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, A. Baretta, A. Dede, J. Dupuy, V. Nodjiadjim, G. Cangini, G. Buren, E. Miller, R. Dinu, N. Keil, H. Bach, N. Grote, A. Vannucci, and H. Avramopoulos, “Integrated transmitter for 100 Gb/s OOK connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (2012), paper Th.3.B.4.

Josten, A.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, R. Schmid, D. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Moller, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Broadband plasmonic modulator enabling single carrier operation beyond 100 Gbit/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (2017), paper W4I.6.

Kanazawa, S.

S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, K. Takahata, T. Ito, Y. Ueda, W. Member, H. Kobayashi, H. Ishii, and Sanjoh, “Flip-chip interconnection lumped-electrode EADFB laser for 100-Gb/s/λ transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27(16), 1699–1701 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Kanazawa, S. Tsunashima, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Muramoto, H. Yamazaki, Y. Ueda, W. Kobayashi, H. Ishii, and H. Sanjoh, “Equalizer-free 2-km SMF transmission of 106-Gbit/s 4-PAM signal using optical transmitter/ receiver with 50 GHz bandwidth,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (2016), paper ThD1-2.

Katopodis, V.

V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, A. Baretta, A. Dede, J. Dupuy, V. Nodjiadjim, G. Cangini, G. Buren, E. Miller, R. Dinu, N. Keil, H. Bach, N. Grote, A. Vannucci, and H. Avramopoulos, “Integrated transmitter for 100 Gb/s OOK connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (2012), paper Th.3.B.4.

Keil, N.

V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, A. Baretta, A. Dede, J. Dupuy, V. Nodjiadjim, G. Cangini, G. Buren, E. Miller, R. Dinu, N. Keil, H. Bach, N. Grote, A. Vannucci, and H. Avramopoulos, “Integrated transmitter for 100 Gb/s OOK connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (2012), paper Th.3.B.4.

Kim, H.

Kobayashi, H.

S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, K. Takahata, T. Ito, Y. Ueda, W. Member, H. Kobayashi, H. Ishii, and Sanjoh, “Flip-chip interconnection lumped-electrode EADFB laser for 100-Gb/s/λ transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27(16), 1699–1701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, W.

S. Kanazawa, S. Tsunashima, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Muramoto, H. Yamazaki, Y. Ueda, W. Kobayashi, H. Ishii, and H. Sanjoh, “Equalizer-free 2-km SMF transmission of 106-Gbit/s 4-PAM signal using optical transmitter/ receiver with 50 GHz bandwidth,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (2016), paper ThD1-2.

Konczykowska, A.

V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, A. Baretta, A. Dede, J. Dupuy, V. Nodjiadjim, G. Cangini, G. Buren, E. Miller, R. Dinu, N. Keil, H. Bach, N. Grote, A. Vannucci, and H. Avramopoulos, “Integrated transmitter for 100 Gb/s OOK connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (2012), paper Th.3.B.4.

Kondo, A.

J. Kondo, K. Aoki, A. Kondo, T. Ejiri, Y. Iwata, A. Hamajima, T. Mori, Y. Mizuno, M. Imaeda, Y. Kozuka, O. Mitomi, and M. Minakata, “High-speed and low-driving-voltage thin-sheet X-cut LiNbO3 modulator with laminated low-dielectric-constant adhesive,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2077–2079 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kondo, J.

J. Kondo, K. Aoki, A. Kondo, T. Ejiri, Y. Iwata, A. Hamajima, T. Mori, Y. Mizuno, M. Imaeda, Y. Kozuka, O. Mitomi, and M. Minakata, “High-speed and low-driving-voltage thin-sheet X-cut LiNbO3 modulator with laminated low-dielectric-constant adhesive,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2077–2079 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kouloumentas, C.

V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, A. Baretta, A. Dede, J. Dupuy, V. Nodjiadjim, G. Cangini, G. Buren, E. Miller, R. Dinu, N. Keil, H. Bach, N. Grote, A. Vannucci, and H. Avramopoulos, “Integrated transmitter for 100 Gb/s OOK connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (2012), paper Th.3.B.4.

Kozuka, Y.

J. Kondo, K. Aoki, A. Kondo, T. Ejiri, Y. Iwata, A. Hamajima, T. Mori, Y. Mizuno, M. Imaeda, Y. Kozuka, O. Mitomi, and M. Minakata, “High-speed and low-driving-voltage thin-sheet X-cut LiNbO3 modulator with laminated low-dielectric-constant adhesive,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2077–2079 (2005).
[Crossref]

Leuthold, J.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, R. Schmid, D. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Moller, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Broadband plasmonic modulator enabling single carrier operation beyond 100 Gbit/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (2017), paper W4I.6.

Li, J.

Li, M.

Li, X.

Li, Z.

Liu, G. N.

Liu, N.

N. Liu, W. Zhong, Y. Wen, C. Lu, L. Cheng, and Y. Wang, “PMD and chirp effects suppression in RF tone-based chromatic dispersion monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(5), 673–675 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lu, C.

N. Liu, W. Zhong, Y. Wen, C. Lu, L. Cheng, and Y. Wang, “PMD and chirp effects suppression in RF tone-based chromatic dispersion monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(5), 673–675 (2006).
[Crossref]

Member, W.

S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, K. Takahata, T. Ito, Y. Ueda, W. Member, H. Kobayashi, H. Ishii, and Sanjoh, “Flip-chip interconnection lumped-electrode EADFB laser for 100-Gb/s/λ transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27(16), 1699–1701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Miller, E.

V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, A. Baretta, A. Dede, J. Dupuy, V. Nodjiadjim, G. Cangini, G. Buren, E. Miller, R. Dinu, N. Keil, H. Bach, N. Grote, A. Vannucci, and H. Avramopoulos, “Integrated transmitter for 100 Gb/s OOK connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (2012), paper Th.3.B.4.

Minakata, M.

J. Kondo, K. Aoki, A. Kondo, T. Ejiri, Y. Iwata, A. Hamajima, T. Mori, Y. Mizuno, M. Imaeda, Y. Kozuka, O. Mitomi, and M. Minakata, “High-speed and low-driving-voltage thin-sheet X-cut LiNbO3 modulator with laminated low-dielectric-constant adhesive,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2077–2079 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mitomi, O.

J. Kondo, K. Aoki, A. Kondo, T. Ejiri, Y. Iwata, A. Hamajima, T. Mori, Y. Mizuno, M. Imaeda, Y. Kozuka, O. Mitomi, and M. Minakata, “High-speed and low-driving-voltage thin-sheet X-cut LiNbO3 modulator with laminated low-dielectric-constant adhesive,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2077–2079 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mizuno, Y.

J. Kondo, K. Aoki, A. Kondo, T. Ejiri, Y. Iwata, A. Hamajima, T. Mori, Y. Mizuno, M. Imaeda, Y. Kozuka, O. Mitomi, and M. Minakata, “High-speed and low-driving-voltage thin-sheet X-cut LiNbO3 modulator with laminated low-dielectric-constant adhesive,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2077–2079 (2005).
[Crossref]

Moller, M.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, R. Schmid, D. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Moller, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Broadband plasmonic modulator enabling single carrier operation beyond 100 Gbit/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (2017), paper W4I.6.

Mori, T.

J. Kondo, K. Aoki, A. Kondo, T. Ejiri, Y. Iwata, A. Hamajima, T. Mori, Y. Mizuno, M. Imaeda, Y. Kozuka, O. Mitomi, and M. Minakata, “High-speed and low-driving-voltage thin-sheet X-cut LiNbO3 modulator with laminated low-dielectric-constant adhesive,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2077–2079 (2005).
[Crossref]

Muramoto, Y.

S. Kanazawa, S. Tsunashima, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Muramoto, H. Yamazaki, Y. Ueda, W. Kobayashi, H. Ishii, and H. Sanjoh, “Equalizer-free 2-km SMF transmission of 106-Gbit/s 4-PAM signal using optical transmitter/ receiver with 50 GHz bandwidth,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (2016), paper ThD1-2.

Nakanishi, Y.

S. Kanazawa, S. Tsunashima, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Muramoto, H. Yamazaki, Y. Ueda, W. Kobayashi, H. Ishii, and H. Sanjoh, “Equalizer-free 2-km SMF transmission of 106-Gbit/s 4-PAM signal using optical transmitter/ receiver with 50 GHz bandwidth,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (2016), paper ThD1-2.

Nodjiadjim, V.

V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, A. Baretta, A. Dede, J. Dupuy, V. Nodjiadjim, G. Cangini, G. Buren, E. Miller, R. Dinu, N. Keil, H. Bach, N. Grote, A. Vannucci, and H. Avramopoulos, “Integrated transmitter for 100 Gb/s OOK connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (2012), paper Th.3.B.4.

Nuccio, S.

S. Nuccio, R. Dinu, B. Shamee, D. Parkh, C. Hasnain, and A. Willner, “Modulation and chirp characterization of a 100-GHz EO polymer Mach-Zehnder modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2011), paper JThA30.

Osman, M.

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz Silicon photonics modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photon. J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Parkh, D.

S. Nuccio, R. Dinu, B. Shamee, D. Parkh, C. Hasnain, and A. Willner, “Modulation and chirp characterization of a 100-GHz EO polymer Mach-Zehnder modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2011), paper JThA30.

Patel, D.

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz Silicon photonics modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photon. J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Plant, D.

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz Silicon photonics modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photon. J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sadot, D.

Sahin, A.

M. Hayee, M. Cardakli, A. Sahin, and A. Willner, “Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 881–883 (2001).
[Crossref]

Salamin, Y.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, R. Schmid, D. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Moller, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Broadband plasmonic modulator enabling single carrier operation beyond 100 Gbit/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (2017), paper W4I.6.

Samani, A.

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz Silicon photonics modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photon. J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sanjoh,

S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, K. Takahata, T. Ito, Y. Ueda, W. Member, H. Kobayashi, H. Ishii, and Sanjoh, “Flip-chip interconnection lumped-electrode EADFB laser for 100-Gb/s/λ transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27(16), 1699–1701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sanjoh, H.

S. Kanazawa, S. Tsunashima, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Muramoto, H. Yamazaki, Y. Ueda, W. Kobayashi, H. Ishii, and H. Sanjoh, “Equalizer-free 2-km SMF transmission of 106-Gbit/s 4-PAM signal using optical transmitter/ receiver with 50 GHz bandwidth,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (2016), paper ThD1-2.

Schmid, R.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, R. Schmid, D. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Moller, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Broadband plasmonic modulator enabling single carrier operation beyond 100 Gbit/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (2017), paper W4I.6.

Shamee, B.

S. Nuccio, R. Dinu, B. Shamee, D. Parkh, C. Hasnain, and A. Willner, “Modulation and chirp characterization of a 100-GHz EO polymer Mach-Zehnder modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2011), paper JThA30.

Sonkin, E.

Takahata, K.

S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, K. Takahata, T. Ito, Y. Ueda, W. Member, H. Kobayashi, H. Ishii, and Sanjoh, “Flip-chip interconnection lumped-electrode EADFB laser for 100-Gb/s/λ transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27(16), 1699–1701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tsunashima, S.

S. Kanazawa, S. Tsunashima, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Muramoto, H. Yamazaki, Y. Ueda, W. Kobayashi, H. Ishii, and H. Sanjoh, “Equalizer-free 2-km SMF transmission of 106-Gbit/s 4-PAM signal using optical transmitter/ receiver with 50 GHz bandwidth,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (2016), paper ThD1-2.

Ueda, Y.

S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, K. Takahata, T. Ito, Y. Ueda, W. Member, H. Kobayashi, H. Ishii, and Sanjoh, “Flip-chip interconnection lumped-electrode EADFB laser for 100-Gb/s/λ transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27(16), 1699–1701 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Kanazawa, S. Tsunashima, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Muramoto, H. Yamazaki, Y. Ueda, W. Kobayashi, H. Ishii, and H. Sanjoh, “Equalizer-free 2-km SMF transmission of 106-Gbit/s 4-PAM signal using optical transmitter/ receiver with 50 GHz bandwidth,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (2016), paper ThD1-2.

Vannucci, A.

V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, A. Baretta, A. Dede, J. Dupuy, V. Nodjiadjim, G. Cangini, G. Buren, E. Miller, R. Dinu, N. Keil, H. Bach, N. Grote, A. Vannucci, and H. Avramopoulos, “Integrated transmitter for 100 Gb/s OOK connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (2012), paper Th.3.B.4.

Veerasubramanian, V.

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz Silicon photonics modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photon. J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vidal, O.

Wang, C.

Wang, L.

Wang, Y.

N. Liu, W. Zhong, Y. Wen, C. Lu, L. Cheng, and Y. Wang, “PMD and chirp effects suppression in RF tone-based chromatic dispersion monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(5), 673–675 (2006).
[Crossref]

Weil, C.

W. Huang, C. Weil, and J. Chen, “Optical DAC for generation of PAM4 using parallel electro-absorption modulators,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (2016), paper Th2.P2.SC4.1.

Wen, Y.

N. Liu, W. Zhong, Y. Wen, C. Lu, L. Cheng, and Y. Wang, “PMD and chirp effects suppression in RF tone-based chromatic dispersion monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(5), 673–675 (2006).
[Crossref]

Willner, A.

M. Hayee, M. Cardakli, A. Sahin, and A. Willner, “Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 881–883 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Nuccio, R. Dinu, B. Shamee, D. Parkh, C. Hasnain, and A. Willner, “Modulation and chirp characterization of a 100-GHz EO polymer Mach-Zehnder modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2011), paper JThA30.

Xiao, X.

Xu, X.

Yamazaki, H.

S. Kanazawa, S. Tsunashima, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Muramoto, H. Yamazaki, Y. Ueda, W. Kobayashi, H. Ishii, and H. Sanjoh, “Equalizer-free 2-km SMF transmission of 106-Gbit/s 4-PAM signal using optical transmitter/ receiver with 50 GHz bandwidth,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (2016), paper ThD1-2.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics (Oxford University Press, 2007)

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics (Oxford University Press, 2007)

Yu, S.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Z.

V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, A. Baretta, A. Dede, J. Dupuy, V. Nodjiadjim, G. Cangini, G. Buren, E. Miller, R. Dinu, N. Keil, H. Bach, N. Grote, A. Vannucci, and H. Avramopoulos, “Integrated transmitter for 100 Gb/s OOK connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (2012), paper Th.3.B.4.

Zhong, Q.

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz Silicon photonics modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photon. J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Xu, E. Zhou, G. N. Liu, T. Zuo, Q. Zhong, L. Zhang, Y. Bao, X. Zhang, J. Li, and Z. Li, “Advanced modulation formats for 400-Gbps short-reach optical inter-connection,” Opt. Express 23(1), 492–500 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhong, W.

N. Liu, W. Zhong, Y. Wen, C. Lu, L. Cheng, and Y. Wang, “PMD and chirp effects suppression in RF tone-based chromatic dispersion monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(5), 673–675 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhou, E.

Zuo, T.

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz Silicon photonics modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photon. J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

J. Kondo, K. Aoki, A. Kondo, T. Ejiri, Y. Iwata, A. Hamajima, T. Mori, Y. Mizuno, M. Imaeda, Y. Kozuka, O. Mitomi, and M. Minakata, “High-speed and low-driving-voltage thin-sheet X-cut LiNbO3 modulator with laminated low-dielectric-constant adhesive,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2077–2079 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, K. Takahata, T. Ito, Y. Ueda, W. Member, H. Kobayashi, H. Ishii, and Sanjoh, “Flip-chip interconnection lumped-electrode EADFB laser for 100-Gb/s/λ transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27(16), 1699–1701 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Hayee, M. Cardakli, A. Sahin, and A. Willner, “Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 881–883 (2001).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, W. Zhong, Y. Wen, C. Lu, L. Cheng, and Y. Wang, “PMD and chirp effects suppression in RF tone-based chromatic dispersion monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(5), 673–675 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (3)

Photon. Res. (1)

Other (8)

The homepage of IEEE P802.3bs 400 Gb/s Ethernet Task Force, http://www.ieee802.org/3/bs/

S. Nuccio, R. Dinu, B. Shamee, D. Parkh, C. Hasnain, and A. Willner, “Modulation and chirp characterization of a 100-GHz EO polymer Mach-Zehnder modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2011), paper JThA30.

V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, A. Baretta, A. Dede, J. Dupuy, V. Nodjiadjim, G. Cangini, G. Buren, E. Miller, R. Dinu, N. Keil, H. Bach, N. Grote, A. Vannucci, and H. Avramopoulos, “Integrated transmitter for 100 Gb/s OOK connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (2012), paper Th.3.B.4.

S. Kanazawa, S. Tsunashima, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Muramoto, H. Yamazaki, Y. Ueda, W. Kobayashi, H. Ishii, and H. Sanjoh, “Equalizer-free 2-km SMF transmission of 106-Gbit/s 4-PAM signal using optical transmitter/ receiver with 50 GHz bandwidth,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (2016), paper ThD1-2.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, R. Schmid, D. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Moller, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Broadband plasmonic modulator enabling single carrier operation beyond 100 Gbit/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (2017), paper W4I.6.

ITU-T REC. G.975.1: Forward error correction for high-bit-rate DWDM submarine systems, Int. Telecommun. Union, Geneva, Switzerland, Feb. 2004

W. Huang, C. Weil, and J. Chen, “Optical DAC for generation of PAM4 using parallel electro-absorption modulators,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications (2016), paper Th2.P2.SC4.1.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics (Oxford University Press, 2007)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) MZM model and (b) frequency response of the 4th-order Bessel LPF (of which the 3-dB bandwidth is assumed to be 35% of the baud rate of the signal to be transmitted).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) The E/O responses of the MZM obtained at various values of ΔV by numerical simulation. The eye diagrams of the OOK signal obtained by using an MZM (3-dB bandwidth = 0.35B) when ΔV is set to be equal to
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) The simulation setup to generate the PAM4 signal by using an MZM with the conventional method, (b) the achieved eye diagram by using the conventional method, (c) the simulation setup to generate the PAM4 signal by using two MZMs with the proposed method, and (d) the achieved eye diagram by using the proposed method. (e) The ratio of the achievable baud rate of the PAM4 signal by using the proposed method to the 3-dB E/O bandwidth of the MZM estimated as a function of ΔV. The dashed line indicates the value achievable by using the conventional method (and setting ΔV = 0.6Vπ).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Measured eye diagrams of the (a) 40-Gb/s and (b) 47.5-Gb/s electrical binary signals applied to the MZM. (c) Measured E/O response of the LiNbO3 MZM used in this experiment and (d) measured eye heights of the OOK signal generated by using this MZM as a function of the bit rate for various values of ΔV. Measured eye diagrams of the 40-Gb/s OOK signal when ΔV was set to be (e) 0.4Vπ, (f) Vπ, and (g) 1.3Vπ.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Experimental setups to generate the PAM4 signal by using (a) the conventional and (b) proposed methods.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Measured BER curves of the PAM4 signals generated by using the conventional and proposed methods. Measured eye diagrams of (b) the 60-Gb/s four-level electrical signal and (c) the 60-Gb/s optical PAM4 signal generated by using the conventional method. Measured eye diagrams of (d) the 60-Gb/s and (e) 80-Gb/s optical PAM4 signals generated by using the proposed method.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Transmission performances of the 95-Gb/s PAM4 signal generated by the proposed method.

Equations (2)

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I out ( t ) = I in 2 { 1 cos ( π ( V sig ( t ) h ( t ) ) V π ) } ,
( Eye height ) = ( I N 3 σ N ) ( I N 1 + 3 σ N 1 ) I N I N 1 ,

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