Abstract

A confocal configuration is added to the detection path in third harmonic generation (THG) microscopes for resolution improvement. The three-dimensional (3D) point-spread function (PSF) is a key indicator for the practical imaging ability of THG confocal microscopy. However, due to the coherent emission feature of THG, the 3D PSF for THG confocal microscopy is still pending and has not been investigated. In this paper, we have presented, for the first time to our knowledge, the 3D PSF model of THG confocal microscopy under circularly or radially polarized excitations. To make our study more realistic, based on the proposed model, the 3D PSF distributions of THG confocal microscopy with aberrations are analyzed further. The effects of the size of the confocal pinhole are also discussed. This work is important for the interpretation of THG confocal microscope images and for the adaptive aberration correction in THG confocal microscopy.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Third-harmonic generation microscopy in highly scattering media

Carlo Mar Blanca and Caesar Saloma
Appl. Opt. 39(28) 5187-5193 (2000)

Effects of aberrations on effective point spread function in STED microscopy

Yanghui Li, Hui Zhou, Xiaoyu Liu, Yuxue Li, and Le Wang
Appl. Opt. 57(15) 4164-4170 (2018)

Depth-resolved multiphoton polarization microscopy by third-harmonic generation

Dan Oron, Eran Tal, and Yaron Silberberg
Opt. Lett. 28(23) 2315-2317 (2003)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2008).
  2. H. Lim, D. Sharoukhov, I. Kassim, Y. Zhang, J. L. Salzer, and C. V. Melendez-vasquez, “Label-free imaging of schwann cell myelination by third harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(50), 18025–18030 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Morizet, G. Ducourthial, W. Supatto, A. Boutillon, R. Legouis, M. C. Schanne-Klein, C. Stringari, and E. Beaurepaire, “High-speed polarization-resolved third-harmonic microscopy,” Optica 6(3), 385–388 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. S. Pochechuev, A. A. Lanin, I. V. Kelmanson, D. S. Bilan, D. A. Kotova, A. S. Chebotarev, V. Tarabykin, A. B. Fedotov, V. V. Belousov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Stain-free subcellular-resolution astrocyte imaging using third-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 44(12), 3166–3169 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A. M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods 3(1), 47–53 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. Harpel, R. D. Baker, B. Amirsolaimani, S. Mehravar, J. Vagner, T. O. Matsunaga, B. Banerjee, and K. Kieu, “Imaging of targeted lipid microbubbles to detect cancer cells using third harmonic generation microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2849–2860 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. A. Squier, M. Müller, G. J. Brakenhoff, and K. R. Wilson, “Third harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 3(9), 315–324 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Thayil, T. Watanabe, A. Jesacher, T. Wilson, S. Srinivas, and M. Booth, “Long-term imaging of mouse embryos using adaptive harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 046018 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  9. B. Weigelin, G. J. Bakker, and P. Friedl, “Third harmonic generation microscopy of cells and tissue organization,” J. Cell Sci. 129(2), 245–255 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. M. Liu, C. Y. Lin, H. J. Tsai, and C. K. Sun, “In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3093–3099 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  11. C. H. Wu, T. D. Wang, C. H. Hsieh, S. H. Huang, J. W. Lin, S. C. Hsu, H. T. Wu, Y. M. Wu, and T. M. Liu, “Imaging cytometry of human leukocytes with third harmonic generation microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37210 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  12. L. V. Doronina-Amitonova, A. A. Lanin, I. V. Fedotov, O. I. Ivashkina, M. A. Zots, A. B. Fedotov, K. V. Anokhin, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Dark-field third-harmonic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(9), 093701 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. Witte, A. Negrean, J. C. Lodder, C. P. J. de Kock, G. T. Silva, H. D. Mansvelder, and M. L. Groot, “Label-free live brain imaging and targeted patching with third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(15), 5970–5975 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. Y. Chen, S. U. Chen, H. Y. Wu, W. J. Lee, Y. H. Liao, and C. K. Sun, “In vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 478–492 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. P. Tai, W. J. Lee, D. B. Shieh, P. C. Wu, H. Y. Huang, C. H. Yu, and C. K. Sun, “In vivo optical biopsy of hamster oral cavity with epi-third-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6178–6187 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. Karunendiran, R. Cisek, D. Tokarz, V. Barzda, and B. A. Stewart, “Examination of drosophila eye development with third harmonic generation microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(10), 4504–4513 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  18. W. Lee, M. M. Kabir, R. Emmadi, and K. C. Toussaint, “Third-harmonic generation imaging of breast tissue biopsies,” J. Microsc. 264(2), 175–181 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. R. Tsai, S. Y. Chen, D. B. Shieh, P. J. Lou, and C. K. Sun, “In vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral cavity with harmonic generation microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2317–2328 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. K. Tsai, T. D. Wang, J. W. Lin, R. B. Hsu, L. Z. Guo, S. T. Chen, and T. M. Liu, “Virtual optical biopsy of human adipocytes with third harmonic generation microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(1), 178–186 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. Y. C. Chen, S. Y. Lee, Y. Wu, K. Brink, D. B. Shieh, T. D. Huang, R. R. Reisz, and C. K. Sun, “Third-harmonic generation microscopy reveals dental anatomy in ancient fossils,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1354–1357 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. Yang and Q. Zhan, “Third-harmonic generation microscopy with tightly focused radial polarization,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10(12), 125103 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  23. R. Gauderon, P. B. Lukins, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Three-dimensional second-harmonic generation imaging with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(15), 1209–1211 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  24. D. P. Biss and T. G. Brown, “Primary aberrations in focused radially polarized vortex beams,” Opt. Express 12(3), 384–393 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. Schwertner, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Characterizing specimen induced aberrations for high NA adaptive optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 12(26), 6540–6552 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  26. W. Wang, B. Wu, S. Lin, X. Li, J. Liu, and J. Tan, “Rigorous modelling of second harmonic generation imaging through stratified media focused by radially polarized beams,” Opt. Express 27(14), 19737–19748 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. Jesacher, A. Thayil, K. Grieve, D. Débarre, T. Watanabe, T. Wilson, S. Srinivas, and M. Booth, “Adaptive harmonic generation microscopy of mammalian embryos,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3154–3156 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  28. N. Olivier, D. Débarre, and E. Beaurepaire, “Dynamic aberration correction for multiharmonic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3145–3147 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  29. A. Thayil, A. Jesacher, T. Wilson, and M. J. Booth, “The influence of aberrations in third harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084009 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  30. J. Deitche, M. Kempe, and W. Rudolph, “Resolution in nonlinear laser scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 174(2), 69–73 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  31. B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 253(1274), 358–379 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  32. M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “New modal wave-front sensor: a theoretical analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(6), 1098–1107 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  33. R. J. Noll, “Zernike polynomials and atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66(3), 207–211 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  34. K. Youngworth and T. Brown, “Focusing of high numerical aperture cylindrical-vector beams,” Opt. Express 7(2), 77–87 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  35. R. H. Jordan and D. G. Hall, “Free-space azimuthal paraxial wave equation: the azimuthal Bessel-Gauss beam solution,” Opt. Lett. 19(7), 427–429 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  36. J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Green's function formulation for third-harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(7), 1604–1610 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  37. M. R. Foreman and P. Török, “Computational methods in vectorial imaging,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(5-6), 339–364 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  38. P. Török, P. D. Higdon, and T. Wilson, “Theory for confocal and conventional microscopes imaging small dielectric scatterers,” J. Mod. Opt. 45(8), 1681–1698 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  39. P. D. Higdon, P. Török, and T. Wilson, “Imaging properties of high aperture multiphoton fluorescence scanning optical microscopes,” J. Microsc. 193(2), 127–141 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  40. S. Wilhelm, B. Gröbler, M. Gluch, and H. Heinz, “Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy,” http://nisms.stanford.edu/Equipment/pdf/ConfocalLaserScanningMicroscopy_45-0029_e.pdf .
  41. J. Huff, “The airyscan detector from zeiss: confocal imaging with improved signal-to-noise ratio and super-resolution,” Nat. Methods 12(12), i–ii (2015).
    [Crossref]
  42. M. J. Booth, “Wave front sensor-less adaptive optics: a model-based approach using sphere packings,” Opt. Express 14(4), 1339–1352 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2019 (3)

2017 (1)

2016 (4)

K. Harpel, R. D. Baker, B. Amirsolaimani, S. Mehravar, J. Vagner, T. O. Matsunaga, B. Banerjee, and K. Kieu, “Imaging of targeted lipid microbubbles to detect cancer cells using third harmonic generation microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2849–2860 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. H. Wu, T. D. Wang, C. H. Hsieh, S. H. Huang, J. W. Lin, S. C. Hsu, H. T. Wu, Y. M. Wu, and T. M. Liu, “Imaging cytometry of human leukocytes with third harmonic generation microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37210 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Lee, M. M. Kabir, R. Emmadi, and K. C. Toussaint, “Third-harmonic generation imaging of breast tissue biopsies,” J. Microsc. 264(2), 175–181 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Weigelin, G. J. Bakker, and P. Friedl, “Third harmonic generation microscopy of cells and tissue organization,” J. Cell Sci. 129(2), 245–255 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

J. Huff, “The airyscan detector from zeiss: confocal imaging with improved signal-to-noise ratio and super-resolution,” Nat. Methods 12(12), i–ii (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Chen, S. Y. Lee, Y. Wu, K. Brink, D. B. Shieh, T. D. Huang, R. R. Reisz, and C. K. Sun, “Third-harmonic generation microscopy reveals dental anatomy in ancient fossils,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1354–1357 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

H. Lim, D. Sharoukhov, I. Kassim, Y. Zhang, J. L. Salzer, and C. V. Melendez-vasquez, “Label-free imaging of schwann cell myelination by third harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(50), 18025–18030 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

L. V. Doronina-Amitonova, A. A. Lanin, I. V. Fedotov, O. I. Ivashkina, M. A. Zots, A. B. Fedotov, K. V. Anokhin, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Dark-field third-harmonic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(9), 093701 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. K. Tsai, T. D. Wang, J. W. Lin, R. B. Hsu, L. Z. Guo, S. T. Chen, and T. M. Liu, “Virtual optical biopsy of human adipocytes with third harmonic generation microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(1), 178–186 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

M. R. Tsai, S. Y. Chen, D. B. Shieh, P. J. Lou, and C. K. Sun, “In vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral cavity with harmonic generation microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2317–2328 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Witte, A. Negrean, J. C. Lodder, C. P. J. de Kock, G. T. Silva, H. D. Mansvelder, and M. L. Groot, “Label-free live brain imaging and targeted patching with third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(15), 5970–5975 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. R. Foreman and P. Török, “Computational methods in vectorial imaging,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(5-6), 339–364 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Thayil, T. Watanabe, A. Jesacher, T. Wilson, S. Srinivas, and M. Booth, “Long-term imaging of mouse embryos using adaptive harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 046018 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

A. Thayil, A. Jesacher, T. Wilson, and M. J. Booth, “The influence of aberrations in third harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084009 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Chen, S. U. Chen, H. Y. Wu, W. J. Lee, Y. H. Liao, and C. K. Sun, “In vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

S. Yang and Q. Zhan, “Third-harmonic generation microscopy with tightly focused radial polarization,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10(12), 125103 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

P. D. Higdon, P. Török, and T. Wilson, “Imaging properties of high aperture multiphoton fluorescence scanning optical microscopes,” J. Microsc. 193(2), 127–141 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

1994 (2)

R. H. Jordan and D. G. Hall, “Free-space azimuthal paraxial wave equation: the azimuthal Bessel-Gauss beam solution,” Opt. Lett. 19(7), 427–429 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Deitche, M. Kempe, and W. Rudolph, “Resolution in nonlinear laser scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 174(2), 69–73 (1994).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

1959 (1)

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 253(1274), 358–379 (1959).
[Crossref]

Amirsolaimani, B.

Anokhin, K. V.

L. V. Doronina-Amitonova, A. A. Lanin, I. V. Fedotov, O. I. Ivashkina, M. A. Zots, A. B. Fedotov, K. V. Anokhin, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Dark-field third-harmonic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(9), 093701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baker, R. D.

Bakker, G. J.

B. Weigelin, G. J. Bakker, and P. Friedl, “Third harmonic generation microscopy of cells and tissue organization,” J. Cell Sci. 129(2), 245–255 (2016).
[Crossref]

Banerjee, B.

Barzda, V.

Beaurepaire, E.

Belousov, V. V.

Bilan, D. S.

Biss, D. P.

Booth, M.

A. Thayil, T. Watanabe, A. Jesacher, T. Wilson, S. Srinivas, and M. Booth, “Long-term imaging of mouse embryos using adaptive harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 046018 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Jesacher, A. Thayil, K. Grieve, D. Débarre, T. Watanabe, T. Wilson, S. Srinivas, and M. Booth, “Adaptive harmonic generation microscopy of mammalian embryos,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3154–3156 (2009).
[Crossref]

Booth, M. J.

Boutillon, A.

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2008).

Brakenhoff, G. J.

Brink, K.

Brown, T.

Brown, T. G.

Chebotarev, A. S.

Chen, S. T.

Chen, S. U.

S. Y. Chen, S. U. Chen, H. Y. Wu, W. J. Lee, Y. H. Liao, and C. K. Sun, “In vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. Y.

Chen, Y. C.

Cheng, J. X.

Chu, S. W.

Cisek, R.

Clark, C. G.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Combettes, L.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A. M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods 3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[Crossref]

de Kock, C. P. J.

S. Witte, A. Negrean, J. C. Lodder, C. P. J. de Kock, G. T. Silva, H. D. Mansvelder, and M. L. Groot, “Label-free live brain imaging and targeted patching with third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(15), 5970–5975 (2011).
[Crossref]

Débarre, D.

Deitche, J.

J. Deitche, M. Kempe, and W. Rudolph, “Resolution in nonlinear laser scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 174(2), 69–73 (1994).
[Crossref]

Doronina-Amitonova, L. V.

L. V. Doronina-Amitonova, A. A. Lanin, I. V. Fedotov, O. I. Ivashkina, M. A. Zots, A. B. Fedotov, K. V. Anokhin, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Dark-field third-harmonic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(9), 093701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ducourthial, G.

Emmadi, R.

W. Lee, M. M. Kabir, R. Emmadi, and K. C. Toussaint, “Third-harmonic generation imaging of breast tissue biopsies,” J. Microsc. 264(2), 175–181 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fabre, A.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A. M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods 3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fedotov, A. B.

M. S. Pochechuev, A. A. Lanin, I. V. Kelmanson, D. S. Bilan, D. A. Kotova, A. S. Chebotarev, V. Tarabykin, A. B. Fedotov, V. V. Belousov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Stain-free subcellular-resolution astrocyte imaging using third-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 44(12), 3166–3169 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. V. Doronina-Amitonova, A. A. Lanin, I. V. Fedotov, O. I. Ivashkina, M. A. Zots, A. B. Fedotov, K. V. Anokhin, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Dark-field third-harmonic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(9), 093701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fedotov, I. V.

L. V. Doronina-Amitonova, A. A. Lanin, I. V. Fedotov, O. I. Ivashkina, M. A. Zots, A. B. Fedotov, K. V. Anokhin, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Dark-field third-harmonic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(9), 093701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Foreman, M. R.

M. R. Foreman and P. Török, “Computational methods in vectorial imaging,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(5-6), 339–364 (2011).
[Crossref]

Friedl, P.

B. Weigelin, G. J. Bakker, and P. Friedl, “Third harmonic generation microscopy of cells and tissue organization,” J. Cell Sci. 129(2), 245–255 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gauderon, R.

Gluch, M.

S. Wilhelm, B. Gröbler, M. Gluch, and H. Heinz, “Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy,” http://nisms.stanford.edu/Equipment/pdf/ConfocalLaserScanningMicroscopy_45-0029_e.pdf .

Grieve, K.

Gröbler, B.

S. Wilhelm, B. Gröbler, M. Gluch, and H. Heinz, “Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy,” http://nisms.stanford.edu/Equipment/pdf/ConfocalLaserScanningMicroscopy_45-0029_e.pdf .

Groot, M. L.

S. Witte, A. Negrean, J. C. Lodder, C. P. J. de Kock, G. T. Silva, H. D. Mansvelder, and M. L. Groot, “Label-free live brain imaging and targeted patching with third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(15), 5970–5975 (2011).
[Crossref]

Guo, L. Z.

Hall, D. G.

Harpel, K.

Heinz, H.

S. Wilhelm, B. Gröbler, M. Gluch, and H. Heinz, “Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy,” http://nisms.stanford.edu/Equipment/pdf/ConfocalLaserScanningMicroscopy_45-0029_e.pdf .

Higdon, P. D.

P. D. Higdon, P. Török, and T. Wilson, “Imaging properties of high aperture multiphoton fluorescence scanning optical microscopes,” J. Microsc. 193(2), 127–141 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. Török, P. D. Higdon, and T. Wilson, “Theory for confocal and conventional microscopes imaging small dielectric scatterers,” J. Mod. Opt. 45(8), 1681–1698 (1998).
[Crossref]

Horton, N. G.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, C. H.

C. H. Wu, T. D. Wang, C. H. Hsieh, S. H. Huang, J. W. Lin, S. C. Hsu, H. T. Wu, Y. M. Wu, and T. M. Liu, “Imaging cytometry of human leukocytes with third harmonic generation microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37210 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hsu, R. B.

Hsu, S. C.

C. H. Wu, T. D. Wang, C. H. Hsieh, S. H. Huang, J. W. Lin, S. C. Hsu, H. T. Wu, Y. M. Wu, and T. M. Liu, “Imaging cytometry of human leukocytes with third harmonic generation microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37210 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, H. Y.

Huang, S. H.

C. H. Wu, T. D. Wang, C. H. Hsieh, S. H. Huang, J. W. Lin, S. C. Hsu, H. T. Wu, Y. M. Wu, and T. M. Liu, “Imaging cytometry of human leukocytes with third harmonic generation microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37210 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, T. D.

Huff, J.

J. Huff, “The airyscan detector from zeiss: confocal imaging with improved signal-to-noise ratio and super-resolution,” Nat. Methods 12(12), i–ii (2015).
[Crossref]

Ivashkina, O. I.

L. V. Doronina-Amitonova, A. A. Lanin, I. V. Fedotov, O. I. Ivashkina, M. A. Zots, A. B. Fedotov, K. V. Anokhin, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Dark-field third-harmonic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(9), 093701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jesacher, A.

A. Thayil, T. Watanabe, A. Jesacher, T. Wilson, S. Srinivas, and M. Booth, “Long-term imaging of mouse embryos using adaptive harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 046018 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Thayil, A. Jesacher, T. Wilson, and M. J. Booth, “The influence of aberrations in third harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084009 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Jesacher, A. Thayil, K. Grieve, D. Débarre, T. Watanabe, T. Wilson, S. Srinivas, and M. Booth, “Adaptive harmonic generation microscopy of mammalian embryos,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3154–3156 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jordan, R. H.

Kabir, M. M.

W. Lee, M. M. Kabir, R. Emmadi, and K. C. Toussaint, “Third-harmonic generation imaging of breast tissue biopsies,” J. Microsc. 264(2), 175–181 (2016).
[Crossref]

Karunendiran, A.

Kassim, I.

H. Lim, D. Sharoukhov, I. Kassim, Y. Zhang, J. L. Salzer, and C. V. Melendez-vasquez, “Label-free imaging of schwann cell myelination by third harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(50), 18025–18030 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kelmanson, I. V.

Kempe, M.

J. Deitche, M. Kempe, and W. Rudolph, “Resolution in nonlinear laser scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 174(2), 69–73 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kieu, K.

Kobat, D.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kotova, D. A.

Lanin, A. A.

M. S. Pochechuev, A. A. Lanin, I. V. Kelmanson, D. S. Bilan, D. A. Kotova, A. S. Chebotarev, V. Tarabykin, A. B. Fedotov, V. V. Belousov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Stain-free subcellular-resolution astrocyte imaging using third-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 44(12), 3166–3169 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. V. Doronina-Amitonova, A. A. Lanin, I. V. Fedotov, O. I. Ivashkina, M. A. Zots, A. B. Fedotov, K. V. Anokhin, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Dark-field third-harmonic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(9), 093701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. Y.

Lee, W.

W. Lee, M. M. Kabir, R. Emmadi, and K. C. Toussaint, “Third-harmonic generation imaging of breast tissue biopsies,” J. Microsc. 264(2), 175–181 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, W. J.

S. Y. Chen, S. U. Chen, H. Y. Wu, W. J. Lee, Y. H. Liao, and C. K. Sun, “In vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. P. Tai, W. J. Lee, D. B. Shieh, P. C. Wu, H. Y. Huang, C. H. Yu, and C. K. Sun, “In vivo optical biopsy of hamster oral cavity with epi-third-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6178–6187 (2006).
[Crossref]

Legouis, R.

Li, X.

Liao, Y. H.

S. Y. Chen, S. U. Chen, H. Y. Wu, W. J. Lee, Y. H. Liao, and C. K. Sun, “In vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lim, H.

H. Lim, D. Sharoukhov, I. Kassim, Y. Zhang, J. L. Salzer, and C. V. Melendez-vasquez, “Label-free imaging of schwann cell myelination by third harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(50), 18025–18030 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. Y.

Lin, J. W.

C. H. Wu, T. D. Wang, C. H. Hsieh, S. H. Huang, J. W. Lin, S. C. Hsu, H. T. Wu, Y. M. Wu, and T. M. Liu, “Imaging cytometry of human leukocytes with third harmonic generation microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37210 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. K. Tsai, T. D. Wang, J. W. Lin, R. B. Hsu, L. Z. Guo, S. T. Chen, and T. M. Liu, “Virtual optical biopsy of human adipocytes with third harmonic generation microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(1), 178–186 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, S.

Liu, J.

Liu, T. M.

Lodder, J. C.

S. Witte, A. Negrean, J. C. Lodder, C. P. J. de Kock, G. T. Silva, H. D. Mansvelder, and M. L. Groot, “Label-free live brain imaging and targeted patching with third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(15), 5970–5975 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lou, P. J.

Lukins, P. B.

Mansvelder, H. D.

S. Witte, A. Negrean, J. C. Lodder, C. P. J. de Kock, G. T. Silva, H. D. Mansvelder, and M. L. Groot, “Label-free live brain imaging and targeted patching with third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(15), 5970–5975 (2011).
[Crossref]

Matsunaga, T. O.

Mehravar, S.

Melendez-vasquez, C. V.

H. Lim, D. Sharoukhov, I. Kassim, Y. Zhang, J. L. Salzer, and C. V. Melendez-vasquez, “Label-free imaging of schwann cell myelination by third harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(50), 18025–18030 (2014).
[Crossref]

Morizet, J.

Müller, M.

Negrean, A.

S. Witte, A. Negrean, J. C. Lodder, C. P. J. de Kock, G. T. Silva, H. D. Mansvelder, and M. L. Groot, “Label-free live brain imaging and targeted patching with third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(15), 5970–5975 (2011).
[Crossref]

Neil, M. A. A.

Noll, R. J.

Olivier, N.

Pena, A. M.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A. M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods 3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pochechuev, M. S.

Reisz, R. R.

Richards, B.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 253(1274), 358–379 (1959).
[Crossref]

Rudolph, W.

J. Deitche, M. Kempe, and W. Rudolph, “Resolution in nonlinear laser scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 174(2), 69–73 (1994).
[Crossref]

Salzer, J. L.

H. Lim, D. Sharoukhov, I. Kassim, Y. Zhang, J. L. Salzer, and C. V. Melendez-vasquez, “Label-free imaging of schwann cell myelination by third harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(50), 18025–18030 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schaffer, C. B.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schanne-Klein, M. C.

J. Morizet, G. Ducourthial, W. Supatto, A. Boutillon, R. Legouis, M. C. Schanne-Klein, C. Stringari, and E. Beaurepaire, “High-speed polarization-resolved third-harmonic microscopy,” Optica 6(3), 385–388 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A. M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods 3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schwertner, M.

Sharoukhov, D.

H. Lim, D. Sharoukhov, I. Kassim, Y. Zhang, J. L. Salzer, and C. V. Melendez-vasquez, “Label-free imaging of schwann cell myelination by third harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(50), 18025–18030 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Shieh, D. B.

Silva, G. T.

S. Witte, A. Negrean, J. C. Lodder, C. P. J. de Kock, G. T. Silva, H. D. Mansvelder, and M. L. Groot, “Label-free live brain imaging and targeted patching with third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(15), 5970–5975 (2011).
[Crossref]

Squier, J. A.

Srinivas, S.

A. Thayil, T. Watanabe, A. Jesacher, T. Wilson, S. Srinivas, and M. Booth, “Long-term imaging of mouse embryos using adaptive harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 046018 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Jesacher, A. Thayil, K. Grieve, D. Débarre, T. Watanabe, T. Wilson, S. Srinivas, and M. Booth, “Adaptive harmonic generation microscopy of mammalian embryos,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3154–3156 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stewart, B. A.

Stringari, C.

Sun, C. K.

Supatto, W.

J. Morizet, G. Ducourthial, W. Supatto, A. Boutillon, R. Legouis, M. C. Schanne-Klein, C. Stringari, and E. Beaurepaire, “High-speed polarization-resolved third-harmonic microscopy,” Optica 6(3), 385–388 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A. M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods 3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tai, S. P.

Tan, J.

Tarabykin, V.

Thayil, A.

A. Thayil, T. Watanabe, A. Jesacher, T. Wilson, S. Srinivas, and M. Booth, “Long-term imaging of mouse embryos using adaptive harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 046018 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Thayil, A. Jesacher, T. Wilson, and M. J. Booth, “The influence of aberrations in third harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084009 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Jesacher, A. Thayil, K. Grieve, D. Débarre, T. Watanabe, T. Wilson, S. Srinivas, and M. Booth, “Adaptive harmonic generation microscopy of mammalian embryos,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3154–3156 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tokarz, D.

Tordjmann, T.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A. M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods 3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[Crossref]

Török, P.

M. R. Foreman and P. Török, “Computational methods in vectorial imaging,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(5-6), 339–364 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. D. Higdon, P. Török, and T. Wilson, “Imaging properties of high aperture multiphoton fluorescence scanning optical microscopes,” J. Microsc. 193(2), 127–141 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. Török, P. D. Higdon, and T. Wilson, “Theory for confocal and conventional microscopes imaging small dielectric scatterers,” J. Mod. Opt. 45(8), 1681–1698 (1998).
[Crossref]

Toussaint, K. C.

W. Lee, M. M. Kabir, R. Emmadi, and K. C. Toussaint, “Third-harmonic generation imaging of breast tissue biopsies,” J. Microsc. 264(2), 175–181 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C. K.

Tsai, H. J.

Tsai, M. R.

Tsai, T. H.

Vagner, J.

Wang, K.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, T. D.

C. H. Wu, T. D. Wang, C. H. Hsieh, S. H. Huang, J. W. Lin, S. C. Hsu, H. T. Wu, Y. M. Wu, and T. M. Liu, “Imaging cytometry of human leukocytes with third harmonic generation microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37210 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. K. Tsai, T. D. Wang, J. W. Lin, R. B. Hsu, L. Z. Guo, S. T. Chen, and T. M. Liu, “Virtual optical biopsy of human adipocytes with third harmonic generation microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(1), 178–186 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

Watanabe, T.

A. Thayil, T. Watanabe, A. Jesacher, T. Wilson, S. Srinivas, and M. Booth, “Long-term imaging of mouse embryos using adaptive harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 046018 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Jesacher, A. Thayil, K. Grieve, D. Débarre, T. Watanabe, T. Wilson, S. Srinivas, and M. Booth, “Adaptive harmonic generation microscopy of mammalian embryos,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3154–3156 (2009).
[Crossref]

Weigelin, B.

B. Weigelin, G. J. Bakker, and P. Friedl, “Third harmonic generation microscopy of cells and tissue organization,” J. Cell Sci. 129(2), 245–255 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wilhelm, S.

S. Wilhelm, B. Gröbler, M. Gluch, and H. Heinz, “Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy,” http://nisms.stanford.edu/Equipment/pdf/ConfocalLaserScanningMicroscopy_45-0029_e.pdf .

Wilson, K. R.

Wilson, T.

A. Thayil, T. Watanabe, A. Jesacher, T. Wilson, S. Srinivas, and M. Booth, “Long-term imaging of mouse embryos using adaptive harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 046018 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Thayil, A. Jesacher, T. Wilson, and M. J. Booth, “The influence of aberrations in third harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084009 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Jesacher, A. Thayil, K. Grieve, D. Débarre, T. Watanabe, T. Wilson, S. Srinivas, and M. Booth, “Adaptive harmonic generation microscopy of mammalian embryos,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3154–3156 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Schwertner, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Characterizing specimen induced aberrations for high NA adaptive optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 12(26), 6540–6552 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “New modal wave-front sensor: a theoretical analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(6), 1098–1107 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. D. Higdon, P. Török, and T. Wilson, “Imaging properties of high aperture multiphoton fluorescence scanning optical microscopes,” J. Microsc. 193(2), 127–141 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. Török, P. D. Higdon, and T. Wilson, “Theory for confocal and conventional microscopes imaging small dielectric scatterers,” J. Mod. Opt. 45(8), 1681–1698 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wise, F. W.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Witte, S.

S. Witte, A. Negrean, J. C. Lodder, C. P. J. de Kock, G. T. Silva, H. D. Mansvelder, and M. L. Groot, “Label-free live brain imaging and targeted patching with third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(15), 5970–5975 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wolf, E.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 253(1274), 358–379 (1959).
[Crossref]

Wu, B.

Wu, C. H.

C. H. Wu, T. D. Wang, C. H. Hsieh, S. H. Huang, J. W. Lin, S. C. Hsu, H. T. Wu, Y. M. Wu, and T. M. Liu, “Imaging cytometry of human leukocytes with third harmonic generation microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37210 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, H. T.

C. H. Wu, T. D. Wang, C. H. Hsieh, S. H. Huang, J. W. Lin, S. C. Hsu, H. T. Wu, Y. M. Wu, and T. M. Liu, “Imaging cytometry of human leukocytes with third harmonic generation microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37210 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, H. Y.

S. Y. Chen, S. U. Chen, H. Y. Wu, W. J. Lee, Y. H. Liao, and C. K. Sun, “In vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, P. C.

Wu, Y.

Wu, Y. M.

C. H. Wu, T. D. Wang, C. H. Hsieh, S. H. Huang, J. W. Lin, S. C. Hsu, H. T. Wu, Y. M. Wu, and T. M. Liu, “Imaging cytometry of human leukocytes with third harmonic generation microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37210 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xie, X. S.

Xu, C.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

S. Yang and Q. Zhan, “Third-harmonic generation microscopy with tightly focused radial polarization,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10(12), 125103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Youngworth, K.

Yu, C. H.

Zhan, Q.

S. Yang and Q. Zhan, “Third-harmonic generation microscopy with tightly focused radial polarization,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10(12), 125103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

H. Lim, D. Sharoukhov, I. Kassim, Y. Zhang, J. L. Salzer, and C. V. Melendez-vasquez, “Label-free imaging of schwann cell myelination by third harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(50), 18025–18030 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheltikov, A. M.

M. S. Pochechuev, A. A. Lanin, I. V. Kelmanson, D. S. Bilan, D. A. Kotova, A. S. Chebotarev, V. Tarabykin, A. B. Fedotov, V. V. Belousov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Stain-free subcellular-resolution astrocyte imaging using third-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 44(12), 3166–3169 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. V. Doronina-Amitonova, A. A. Lanin, I. V. Fedotov, O. I. Ivashkina, M. A. Zots, A. B. Fedotov, K. V. Anokhin, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Dark-field third-harmonic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(9), 093701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zots, M. A.

L. V. Doronina-Amitonova, A. A. Lanin, I. V. Fedotov, O. I. Ivashkina, M. A. Zots, A. B. Fedotov, K. V. Anokhin, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Dark-field third-harmonic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(9), 093701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. V. Doronina-Amitonova, A. A. Lanin, I. V. Fedotov, O. I. Ivashkina, M. A. Zots, A. B. Fedotov, K. V. Anokhin, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Dark-field third-harmonic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(9), 093701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Y. Chen, S. U. Chen, H. Y. Wu, W. J. Lee, Y. H. Liao, and C. K. Sun, “In vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. Thayil, T. Watanabe, A. Jesacher, T. Wilson, S. Srinivas, and M. Booth, “Long-term imaging of mouse embryos using adaptive harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 046018 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Cell Sci. (1)

B. Weigelin, G. J. Bakker, and P. Friedl, “Third harmonic generation microscopy of cells and tissue organization,” J. Cell Sci. 129(2), 245–255 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Microsc. (3)

W. Lee, M. M. Kabir, R. Emmadi, and K. C. Toussaint, “Third-harmonic generation imaging of breast tissue biopsies,” J. Microsc. 264(2), 175–181 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Deitche, M. Kempe, and W. Rudolph, “Resolution in nonlinear laser scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 174(2), 69–73 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. D. Higdon, P. Török, and T. Wilson, “Imaging properties of high aperture multiphoton fluorescence scanning optical microscopes,” J. Microsc. 193(2), 127–141 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

M. R. Foreman and P. Török, “Computational methods in vectorial imaging,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(5-6), 339–364 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Török, P. D. Higdon, and T. Wilson, “Theory for confocal and conventional microscopes imaging small dielectric scatterers,” J. Mod. Opt. 45(8), 1681–1698 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

A. Thayil, A. Jesacher, T. Wilson, and M. J. Booth, “The influence of aberrations in third harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084009 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

S. Yang and Q. Zhan, “Third-harmonic generation microscopy with tightly focused radial polarization,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10(12), 125103 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Methods (2)

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A. M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods 3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Huff, “The airyscan detector from zeiss: confocal imaging with improved signal-to-noise ratio and super-resolution,” Nat. Methods 12(12), i–ii (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Optica (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. (2)

H. Lim, D. Sharoukhov, I. Kassim, Y. Zhang, J. L. Salzer, and C. V. Melendez-vasquez, “Label-free imaging of schwann cell myelination by third harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(50), 18025–18030 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Witte, A. Negrean, J. C. Lodder, C. P. J. de Kock, G. T. Silva, H. D. Mansvelder, and M. L. Groot, “Label-free live brain imaging and targeted patching with third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(15), 5970–5975 (2011).
[Crossref]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1)

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 253(1274), 358–379 (1959).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

C. H. Wu, T. D. Wang, C. H. Hsieh, S. H. Huang, J. W. Lin, S. C. Hsu, H. T. Wu, Y. M. Wu, and T. M. Liu, “Imaging cytometry of human leukocytes with third harmonic generation microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37210 (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2008).

S. Wilhelm, B. Gröbler, M. Gluch, and H. Heinz, “Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy,” http://nisms.stanford.edu/Equipment/pdf/ConfocalLaserScanningMicroscopy_45-0029_e.pdf .

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of a complete model of THG confocal microscopy system. This numerical model consists of focusing of incident light, interaction of focal field with the specimen structures, and imaging of THG signal. CP, circular polarization; RP, radial polarization; OL, objective lens; CL, collector lens; OF, optical filter; DL, detector lens; PD, confocal pinhole detector.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The PSF distributions of THG confocal microscopy with varying amounts of spherical aberration. As, aberration coefficient of spherical aberration; CP, circular polarization; RP, radial polarization; Scale bar: 400 nm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The PSF distributions of THG confocal microscopy with varying amounts of coma. Ac, aberration coefficient of coma; CP, circular polarization; RP, radial polarization; Scale bar: 400 nm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The PSF distributions of THG confocal microscopy with varying amounts of astigmatism. Aa, aberration coefficient of astigmatism; CP, circular polarization; RP, radial polarization; Scale bar: 400 nm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The Strehl ratio as a function of the aberration coefficients for primary aberrations. (a) Circularly polarized excitation, (b) radially polarized excitation.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. The FWHM values of the PSF for THG confocal microscopy as a function of the aberration coefficients for primary aberrations. (a) For a 1.0 AU pinhole, (b) for a 0.2 AU pinhole.

Equations (22)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ecirx=iAπ0α102πp(r,ϕ)cos1/2θ1sinθ1[cosθ1cos2ϕ+sin2ϕ+isinϕcosϕ(cosθ11)]×exp[ik1(zscosθ1+ρssinθ1cos(ϕϕs))]dθ1dϕ,
Eciry=iAπ0α102πp(r,ϕ)cos1/2θ1sinθ1[cosϕsinϕ(cosθ11)+i(cosθ1sin2ϕ+cos2ϕ)]×exp[ik1(zscosθ1+ρssinθ1cos(ϕϕs))]dθ1dϕ,
Ecirz=iAπ0α102πp(r,ϕ)cos1/2θ1sinθ1[sinθ1(cosϕ+isinϕ)]×exp[ik1(zscosθ1+ρssinθ1cos(ϕϕs))]dθ1dϕ,
p(r,ϕ)=exp[iΦ(r,ϕ)].
Φ(r,ϕ)=jajZj(r,ϕ),
Z6(r,ϕ)=6r2cos(2ϕ),
Z7(r,ϕ)=22(3r32r)cosϕ,
Z11(r,ϕ)=5(6r46r2+1).
[EralxEralyEralz]=iAπ0α102πp(r,ϕ)cos1/2θ1sinθ1l0(θ1)×exp[ik1(zscosθ1+ρssinθ1cos(ϕϕs))][cosθ1cosϕcosθ1sinϕsinθ1]dθ1dϕ.
l0(θ1)=exp[β02(sinθ1sinα1)2]J1(2β0sinθ1sinα1).
P(THG)(r)=χ(3)(r)E(r)E(r)E(r),
Edx(ρd,ϕd,zd)=Px(THG)[K0A+K2Acos(2ϕd)]+Py(THG)K2Asin(2ϕd)+2iPz(THG)K1Acosϕd,
Edy(ρd,ϕd,zd)=Px(THG)K2Asin(2ϕd)+Py(THG)[K0AK2Acos(2ϕd)]+2iPz(THG)K1Asinϕd,
Edz(ρd,ϕd,zd)=2i(Px(THG)cosϕd+Py(THG)sinϕd)K1B2Pz(THG)K0B,
K0A=0α2cosθ2cosθ1sinθ2(1+cosθ1cosθ2)J0(k2ρdsinθ2)exp(ik2zdcosθ2)dθ2,
K0B=0α2cosθ2cosθ1sin2θ2sinθ1J0(k2ρdsinθ2)exp(ik2zdcosθ2)dθ2,
K1A=0α2cosθ2cosθ1sinθ2sinθ1cosθ1J1(k2ρdsinθ2)exp(ik2zdcosθ2)dθ2,
K1B=0α2cosθ2cosθ1sin2θ2cosθ1J1(k2ρdsinθ2)exp(ik2zdcosθ2)dθ2,
K2A=0α2cosθ2cosθ1sinθ2(1cosθ1cosθ2)J2(k2ρdsinθ2)exp(ik2zdcosθ2)dθ2,
k1sinα1k2sinα2=k1sinθ1k2sinθ2=M,
ITHG=0R02π|Ed|2rpdrpdϕp.
S=IabI0,