Abstract

The processing of analog microwave-frequency signals using optical means becomes increasingly important as part of advanced cellular networks. Chip-level integration of microwave photonic filters, particularly in silicon, is considered necessary for their large-scale deployment. Discrete-time, delay-and-sum filters are widely used to select narrow spectral bands out of broad optical bandwidths. However, the long delays that are required to obtain narrowband filters are difficult to accommodate in integrated optic waveguide paths. In this work, we report discrete-time, integrated microwave photonic filters on standard silicon-on-insulator. Long delays are realized through the conversion of incoming radio-frequency modulation to the form of slow-moving surface acoustic waves. Conversion relies on thermo-elastic expansion of metallic gratings and does not involve piezoelectricity. Information is recovered in the optical domain via photoelastic modulation of probe light in a resonator waveguide. The resonator is patterned to support multiple delayed modulation events. Filters having up to 12 taps are demonstrated, with 175 ns-long delays and passbands as narrow as 5 MHz. The magnitude and radio-frequency phase of each filter tap are designed arbitrarily, independent of those of all others. The coherent summation of delayed waveform replicas is free of environmental phase drifts. Surface acoustic wave modulation of a compact, defect grating waveguide is demonstrated as well. Surface acoustic wave devices can significantly extend the signal-processing capabilities of silicon photonics.

© 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. INTRODUCTION

The research field of microwave photonics (MWP) addresses the generation, distribution, and processing of analog radio-frequency (RF) signals using optical means [13]. MWP takes up an increasing role in advanced cellular networks [4]: Optical fibers distribute signals among large numbers of cells [5], optical carriers can be modulated at millimeter-wave frequencies [6], and photonics may serve in the steering of multiple beams as part of phased-array systems [7]. MWP modules have been traditionally assembled from discrete electro-optic components and long fiber paths. Nowadays, however, the production volume, footprint, cost, and power consumption requirements of wireless communications are driving a new generation of MWP devices in which functions are integrated on-chip [8,9]. The push for integrated MWP coincides with massive development efforts of photonic integrated circuits for digital data centers communication [1012]. The standard silicon-on-insulator (SOI) layer stack is often the medium of choice for photonic circuits, due to mature fabrication technology and the prospects of cointegration alongside electronics [1012].

The filtering of narrowband spectral channels out of vast optical bandwidths is among the most common tasks of MWP processing [13,14]. A widely employed filtering architecture is based on discrete-time processing: the summation of delayed replicas of an input waveform with carefully designed weights, also referred to as tap coefficients [15]. Group delays within the filter are usually integer multiples of a basic unit value [15]. The realization of discrete-time filters over fiber paths is prone to environmental drifts of relative phases among delayed replicas, and it is often restricted to an incoherent sum of intensities [15]. Incoherent addition can only implement real-valued and positive tap weights and severely restricts the possible transfer functions [15]. The realization of integrated discrete-time filters on-chip would be insensitive to phase drifts. However, narrow passbands and free spectral ranges (FSRs) require long delays that cannot be accommodated in integrated optical paths due to excessive footprints and losses.

Hypersonic acoustic waves are characterized by the RFs of the information of interest and by wavelengths in the optical scale. Acoustic waves are therefore excellent candidates for MWP signal processing [1622]. MWP filter devices using acoustic waves on-chip have progressed dramatically over the last decade. One very successful approach relies on the narrow bandwidths of stimulated Brillouin scattering between guided light and sound waves to select frequency bands of interest [2329]. Filters having few-megahertz and even submegahertz-wide passbands have been realized using both backward and forward Brillouin scattering [2329], with large dynamic ranges and comparatively low noise figures [2329]. The central frequencies and bandwidths of Brillouin-based filters can be dynamically tuned [2329]. However, the standard SOI layer stack does not support stimulated Brillouin scattering, as the acoustic waves involved do not propagate in waveguide cores and leak to the underlying bulk [30]. Brillouin-based integrated MWP filters are therefore realized either in chalcogenide glasses [2326] or in suspended silicon membranes [2729], both nonstandard, specialized platforms.

A different approach for the processing of microwave signals relies on the slow velocity of acoustic waves to implement the necessary long delays. The concept has been successfully employed in analog electronics for decades [31,32]: Input microwave signals are converted to slow-moving surface acoustic waves (SAWs) through the application of voltage to electrodes arrays on a piezoelectric substrate [31,32]. The waveform is recovered in the electrical domain using a second set of electrodes, following acoustic propagation [31,32]. We have recently scaled and carried over the concept to standard silicon photonics [33]. RF information is converted from one optical carrier to another through SAWs, without the need for electronics [33]. Piezoelectric transduction is replaced with the illumination of metallic gratings by a modulated input optical waveform [3436]. Absorption of light in the metallic elements leads to their periodic thermal expansion and contraction and to the launch of SAWs [3436]. Signals are reconverted back to optics through photoelastic modulation of probe light in standard resonator waveguides [33].

The readout resonator waveguides can be patterned for multiple crossings of the SAWs front to obtain integrated, discrete-time MWP filters in standard SOI [33]. In our earlier work, we provided proof-of-concept for such devices [33]. However, the filters were restricted to six taps only, and transmission bandwidths were limited to 20 MHz or broader by a maximum acoustic delay of 40 ns [33]. Most significantly, all taps weights were of equal magnitudes and RF phases, allowing only little freedom for filter design.

In this study, we report major steps forward in the design and the implementation of the SAW-photonic, discrete-time MWP filters concept. First and foremost, the magnitude and phase of each filter tap are arbitrarily designed, independent of those of all others. Complex tap weights take full advantage of the environmental stability of the integrated platform. The technique is demonstrated in the equalization and compensation of SAW propagation losses, and in adjusting the passband frequencies within the FSR. In addition, the number of taps is increased to 12 and bandwidths are reduced to 5 MHz only. Lastly, photoelastic modulation in a ring resonator is successfully replaced by a defect Bragg grating waveguides with much smaller footprint. These advances highlight the potential of discrete-time integrated MWP processing using SAWs in the standard silicon platform. The filtering concept is scalable to tens of gigahertz frequencies, applicable to any substrate, and may also be used in conjunction with piezoelectric actuation where relevant. Preliminary results were briefly reported in conferences [37,38].

2. RESULTS

A. Principle of Operation

The principle of operation of SAW-photonic, discrete-time MWP filters in standard SOI is illustrated in Fig. 1(a). An input RF waveform ${V_{{\rm in}}}(t)$, where $t$ stands for time, modulates a continuous optical pump wave in an electro-optic amplitude modulator (EOM) with known ${V_\pi}$. The EOM is biased at quadrature. The modulated wave is amplified to an average optical power ${\bar P_p}$. For ${V_{{\rm in}}}(t) \ll {V_\pi}$, the instantaneous pump power modulation about its average value is approximately given by $\Delta {P_p}(t) = [{\pi {V_{{\rm in}}}(t)/({{V_\pi}})}]{\bar P_p}$. The pump wave illuminates a grating of gold stripes, patterned along the ${\hat {\boldsymbol z}}$ direction [Fig. 1(a)]. The grating area is $l \times l$ ${{\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}}^2}$ with a spatial period of ${\Lambda}$ µm. Absorption of the modulated pump light leads to alternating heating and cooling of the grating elements at the RFs of the input waveform. The 20 nm-thin gold stripes thermalize within a few picoseconds [3436] and may follow modulation rates of tens of gigahertz [3436].

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. (a) SAW-photonic devices. An incident optical pump wave is intensity modulated at RF $f$ and illuminates a metallic grating of spatial period ${\Lambda}$. Absorption of light results in periodic heating and cooling of the thin metallic stripes, leading to thermal expansion and contraction. The strain pattern is transferred to the underlying silicon device layer. If the frequency and period match those of a surface acoustic mode of the SOI layer stack, a SAW is launched away from the grating. Information is recovered in the optical domain through photoelastic modulation of a probe light in a resonator waveguide. The resonator consists of multiple waveguide sections that run parallel to the grating elements. The SAW front induces multiple modulation events, separated by long acoustic propagation delays. The transfer function of a device comprising $N$ parallel waveguide sections is that of an $N$-tap, discrete-time MWP filter. (b) Modifying the magnitude of a specific tap weight through changing the width of the corresponding waveguide section. When the width $W$ exceeds half the SAW period ${\Lambda}/2$, photoelastic perturbations are partially canceled out (see inset). (c) Modifying the RF phase of a specific tap weight through a small-scale offset in the position of the corresponding waveguide section. (d) Schematic illustration of a SAW-photonic device in which the probe resonator waveguide is replaced by a Bragg grating waveguide with a defect region.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The temperature variations are accompanied by thermal expansion and contraction, which carry over to the SOI layer stack below [3336]. When the RF of modulation $f$ matches that of a surface acoustic mode with period ${\Lambda}$, a surface wave is launched away from the grating region in the ${\hat {\boldsymbol y}}$ direction [3336]. For ${\Lambda} = 1.4\; {\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}}$, SAWs stimulation is the most efficient for ${f_{{\max }}} = 2.4\;{\rm GHz}$ [33]. The spectral full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of SAWs stimulation through a grating of size $l = 60\; {\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}}$ is about 100 MHz [33]. Therefore, the conversion of the input modulation to SAWs also serves as a first microwave filtering stage. We define the normalized frequency response of SAW stimulation as ${H_G}(f)$, with a maximum magnitude of unity at ${f_{{\max }}}$, and the corresponding impulse response by ${h_G}(t)$. In the following we denote ${V_{{\rm mid}}}(t) \equiv {V_{{\rm in}}}(t)*{h_G}(t)$. SAWs propagate a with group velocity $v$ and intensity losses $\alpha$ [${{\rm m}^{- 1}}$]. The SAW magnitude is proportional to ${V_{{\rm mid}}}(t)$, and it is assumed to be uniform along the ${\hat {\boldsymbol z}}$ direction with extent $l$.

The reconversion of information back to the optical domain, and further filtering, take place through photoelastic modulation of a probe wave in a resonator waveguide, patterned near the metallic grating {Fig. 1(a), [33]}. The resonator layout consists of $N$ straight sections that run parallel to the gold grating stripes along the ${\hat {\boldsymbol z}}$ direction. The propagation distance of SAWs from the grating edge to waveguide section $m = 0 \ldots ({N - 1})$ is noted by ${y_m}$. The distances are chosen so that ${y_m} - {y_0}$ equal $mv\tau$, where $\tau$ is a unit acoustic delay. Tens of micrometers of acoustic propagation length between adjacent waveguide sections correspond to $\tau$ of tens of nanoseconds. The SAWs induce photoelastic perturbations to the effective index of the guided optical mode in each waveguide section. The magnitude of index perturbations scales with that of the SAW, and hence with a delayed replica of ${V_{{\rm mid}}}(t)$, and it is averaged over the optical mode profile in the waveguide cross section,

$$\begin{split}\Delta {n_m}(t)& \approx {\exp }\left({- \frac{\alpha}{2}{y_m}} \right)Q_m^{{\rm PE}}C\left[{\pi {V_{{\rm mid}}}\left({t - \frac{y_m}{v}} \right)/\left({{V_\pi}} \right)} \right]{\bar P_p}\\& = {\exp }\left({- \frac{\alpha}{2}{y_m}} \right)Q_m^{{\rm PE}}\Delta {n_{{\max }}}\left({t - \frac{y_m}{v}} \right).\\[-1.3pc]\end{split}$$

In Eq. (1), $C$ is a constant that connects between the pump power modulation $\Delta {P_p}$ and index changes. The value of $C$ depends on thermo-elastic properties of the gold grating, photoelastic parameters of silicon, and the waveguide design. In this work, $C \approx 8 \times {10^{- 7}}$ refractive index units (RIUs) per watt [33] (see experimental estimate later). $Q_m^{{\rm PE}}$ denotes a normalized transverse efficiency factor that depends on the spatial overlap between the optical mode in waveguide section $m$ and the SAW profile. $Q_m^{{\rm PE}}$ varies with the waveguide width. We define $Q_m^{{\rm PE}}$ with a maximum value of unity for the waveguide width of the highest modulation efficiency. Also, in Eq. (1), $\Delta {n_{{\max }}}(t) \equiv C[{\pi {V_{{\rm mid}}}(t)/({{V_\pi}})}]{\bar P_p}$.

The photoelastic index perturbations give rise to phase modulation in waveguide section $m$,

$$\Delta {\varphi _m}(t) = {k_0}l\Delta {n_m}(t) = {k_0}l{\exp }\left({- \frac{\alpha}{2}{y_m}} \right)Q_m^{{\rm PE}}\Delta {n_{{\max }}}\left({t - \frac{y_m}{v}} \right).$$
Here ${k_0}$ is the vacuum wavenumber of the probe wave, and $l$ denotes again the extent of the SAW front along the ${\hat {\boldsymbol z}}$ dimension.

The optical frequency of the probe wave is aligned with a maximum slope of the resonator transfer function, so that the photoelastic phase perturbations are converted to intensity modulation of the output probe. The probe wave is detected by a photoreceiver with responsivity $R$ [${\rm V} \times {{\rm W}^{- 1}}$]. For a resonator with large extinction ratio, the magnitude of RF voltage at the detector output is approximately given by (see Appendix A: Methods)

$$\begin{split}{V_{{\rm out}}}(t) &\approx \frac{{\pi {{\bar P}_p}C}}{{{V_\pi}}}\frac{l}{L}\frac{Q}{n}2{\bar P_s}R{\exp }\left({- \frac{\alpha}{2}{y_0}} \right)\\&\quad \times\mathop \sum \limits_{m = 0}^{N - 1} \left[{Q_m^{{\rm PE}}{\exp }\left({- \frac{\alpha}{2}mv\tau} \right) \times {V_{{\rm mid}}}\left({t - m\tau - \frac{{{y_0}}}{v}} \right)} \right].\end{split}$$
Here $Q$ denotes the quality factor of the resonator, ${\bar P_s}$ is the average power of the probe wave at the detector input, $n$ is the group index in the resonator waveguide, and $L$ denotes the resonator length. The common delay ${y_0}/v$ is disregarded below. The impulse response of the detected voltage to photoelastic modulation of the probe wave by propagating SAWs is that of a discrete-time, $N$-tap MWP filter [15],
$${h_R}(t) = \mathop \sum \limits_{m = 0}^{N - 1} {h_m}\delta \left({t - m\tau} \right),$$
$$\begin{split}{h_m} &= \frac{{\pi {{\bar P}_p}C}}{{{V_\pi}}}\frac{l}{L}\frac{Q}{n}2{\bar P_s}R{\exp }\left({- \frac{\alpha}{2}{y_0}} \right)Q_m^{{\rm PE}}{\exp }\left({- \frac{\alpha}{2}mv\tau} \right)\\& = KQ_m^{{\rm PE}}{\exp }\left({- \frac{\alpha}{2}mv\tau} \right).\end{split}$$
Equation (5) defines a unitless factor common to all taps, $K \equiv {\exp }({- \frac{\alpha}{2}{y_0}})({2\pi {{\bar P}_p}ClQ{{\bar P}_s}R})/({{V_\pi}nL})$.

The magnitudes of individual tap coefficients ${h_m}$ can be changed through the width ${W_m}$ of the corresponding waveguide section [Fig. 1(b)]: The spatial overlap factor $Q_m^{{\rm PE}}$ is the largest for ${W_m} = {\Lambda}/2$, and degrades for wider waveguides due to partial cancellation of photoelastic perturbations across the waveguide’s lateral extent [39] (see inset). An RF phase ${\theta _m}$ may be added to ${h_m}$ by sub-${\Lambda}$ offsets in ${y_m}$, $\delta {y_m} = ({{\theta _m}/2\pi}){\Lambda}$ [Fig. 1(c)]. We denote the frequency response corresponding to ${h_R}(t)$ as ${H_R}(f)$. The discrete-time filtering adds on top of the frequency-selective stimulation of SAWs at the metallic grating. The overall frequency response between input and output voltage waveforms is given by

$${H_{{\rm Tot}}}(f) = {H_R}(f){H_G}(f).$$
The impulse response of the entire device ${h_{{\rm Tot}}}(t)$ is the inverse Fourier transform of ${H_{{\rm Tot}}}(f)$.

The lengths of resonator waveguides used in photoelastic modulation of the probe wave are hundreds of micrometers and even millimeters, and they take up areas of 104 µm2 or larger. In some cases, the filtering provided by ${H_G}(f)$ may be sufficient, and further selectivity through multiple taps is not required. In those situations, the resonator waveguide may be replaced by a distributed Bragg grating with a defect region between two uniform reflectors [Fig. 1(d)]. The transfer function of a defect Bragg waveguide is characterized by a narrow transmission band within a broader gap of strong reflectivity [4042]. The alignment of the probe wave frequency with a slope of the narrow transmission spectrum would convert photoelastic phase modulation to an intensity reading, like in a resonator waveguide, with a much smaller footprint.

B. Experimental Results

Devices were fabricated in standard SOI substrates with a 220 nm-thick silicon device layer on top of a 2 µm-thick buried oxide layer. Figure 2(a) shows a top-view optical microscope image of a 12-tap device. Ridge waveguides were defined using electron beam lithography and subsequent inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (see Appendix A: Methods for details). The partial etching depth was 70 nm. The widths of bus waveguides, and those of the resonator waveguides through most of their lengths, were fixed at 700 nm. The widths of specific sections were varied to obtain controlled tap magnitudes, as discussed above. Gold gratings of 20 nm-thin stripes were patterned using sputtering and lift-off (see Appendix A: Methods). The gratings period ${\Lambda}$ was 1.4 µm with a 50% duty cycle for all devices, and the grating extent $l \times l$ was ${60} \times 60\;{{\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}}^2}$.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. (a) Top-view optical microscope image of a 12-tap SAW-photonic filter device. The metallic grating is patterned to the right of the resonator waveguide. (b) Measured normalized transfer function of the probe optical power through the resonator waveguide of an eight-tap SAW-photonic filter device.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Light was coupled between standard single-mode optical fibers and devices under test using vertical grating couplers. Coupling losses were 10 dB per facet. The transfer functions of the probe light through devices under test were characterized using an optical vector network analyzer (VNA). Figure 2(b) presents an example of the optical power transfer function through an eight-tap device. The quality factor $ Q $ is 30,000, and the extinction ratio of the transfer function is 6 dB. The extinction ratio is limited by propagation losses in the comparatively long resonator waveguide ($L = 2.44\;{\rm mm}$ in this case).

The experimental setup used for MWP characterization is illustrated in Fig. 3(a). Light from a first laser diode at 1540 nm wavelength was used as the source of input pump waveforms. The laser diode light passed through an EOM (${V_\pi} = 3.5$ V), driven by the output voltage of an RF VNA. The modulation voltage was scanned across a range of RFs $f$, and its electrical power was ${+}20\;{\rm dBm} $. The modulated waveform was amplified by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) to an average power ${\bar P_p}$ of 150 mW. The end facet of the EDFA output fiber was held above the metallic grating of the device under test. The vertical separation between the fiber facet and the substrate was adjusted so that the illuminating spot size matched the grating extent $l$.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. (a) Schematic illustration of the experimental setup. EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; DUT, device under test; PC, polarization controller; MZM, electro-optic Mach–Zehnder intensity modulator; PD, photodiode; BPF, optical bandpass filter; VNA, RF vector network analyzer; (b) measured (solid) and calculated (dashed) normalized transfer functions of RF power through a 12-tap, integrated SAW-photonic filter device. Agreement between design and experiment is very good. The basic unit delay of the filter is 16 ns. The FSR is 65 MHz, and the FWHM of the periodic passbands is 5 MHz. (c) Experimental absolute value of the impulse response of the same device. The decaying series of impulses corresponds to SAW propagation losses of ${12}\;{{\rm dB}\times{\rm mm}^{- 1}}$.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Light from a second laser diode of 1545 nm wavelength was the source of the optical probe wave. The optical power of the probe wave at the device input was varied between 10 and 100 mW using a second EDFA. The exact wavelength of the diode source was adjusted to a maximal slope of the optical transfer function of the device under test, using temperature and current tuning. The average power of the probe wave at the device output was amplified by another EDFA to an average power ${\bar P_s}$ of 3 mW. An optical bandpass filter was used to suppress the amplified spontaneous emission of the EDFAs. The probe wave was detected by a broadband photoreceiver ($R = 27\;{\rm V} \times {\rm W^ {- 1}}$, rise time of 15 ps), and the detected voltage was analyzed by the input port of the VNA.

Figure 3(b) shows the measured normalized transfer function ${| {{H_{{\rm Tot}}}(f)} |^2} = {| {{V_{{\rm out}}}(f)} |^2}/{| {{V_{{\rm in}}}(f)} |^2}$ of a 12-tap discrete-time MWP device, with a unit delay $\tau$ of 16 ns. The widths ${W_m}$ of all 12 waveguide sections equaled ${\Lambda}/2 = 700\;{\rm nm}$ for maximum photoelastic modulation efficiency. The positions ${y_m}$ of all sections were separated by integer multiples of $v\tau$, so that ${\theta _m}$ equaled zero for all taps. Transmission is maximal near a central frequency ${f_{{\max }}}$ of 2.4 GHz, in agreement with previous work [33]. Periodic transmission bands are observed within a spectral envelope that corresponds to the thermo-elastic response of the grating ${H_G}(f)$. The FSR of the transfer function is 65 MHz, and the FWHM of the transmission bands is 5 MHz. The figure also shows the designed normalized transfer function ${H_R}(f)$ of a filter with unit delay $\tau$ and 12 taps of equal magnitudes and phases. The measured response is in very good agreement with design. Figure 3(c) presents the normalized impulse response $| {{h_{{\rm Tot}}}(t)} |$, calculated offline from the measured complex-valued ${H_{{\rm Tot}}}(f)$. A series of 12 impulses is observed, as expected. The decay of impulse magnitudes as a function of $m$ corresponds to SAW propagation losses $\alpha$ of ${12}\;{\rm dB} \times {{\rm mm}^{- 1}}$.

Control over the magnitudes of individual filter taps was demonstrated in a series of two-tap devices [Fig. 4(a)], with delay $\tau$ of 26 ns between them. In all devices, the width ${W_0}$ of the waveguide section closer to the grating was ${\Lambda}/2 = 700\;{\rm nm}$. However, the width ${W_1}$ of the waveguide section corresponding to the second filter tap was varied across devices. Widths were broadened to implement reduced tap magnitudes [39]. Figure 4(b) presents the experimental normalized $| {{h_{{\rm Tot}}}(t)} |$ for the eight devices in the series. The relative magnitude of the second tap reduces with waveguide width, as expected. Figure 4(c) plots the tap magnitude as a function of waveguide width ${W_1}$. The curve served as calibration for the design of subsequent devices.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. (a) Top-view microscope image of a two-tap integrated SAW-photonic filter device; (b) experimental absolute values of the impulse responses of eight different two-tap integrated SAW-photonic filter devices. In all devices, the width of the waveguide section corresponding to the first filter tap was 700 nm, leading to maximal photoelastic phase modulation. The width of the waveguide section corresponding to the second filter tap was varied among the devices (see legend). The magnitude of the tap weight decreases with waveguide width, due to partial cancellation of the photo-elastic modulation across the waveguide’s lateral extent. (c) Measured relative tap magnitude as a function of waveguide width. Red markers, experimental data; blue trace, third-order polynomial fit.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Design of individual tap magnitudes was used in equalization of SAW propagation losses. Figure 5(a) shows the measured and calculated normalized transfer functions ${| {{H_{{\rm Tot}}}(f)} |^2}$ of an eight-tap device, $\tau = 16\;{\rm ns}$. The RF phases ${\theta _m}$ for all taps were set to zero. The widths of the eight waveguide sections were designed in decreasing order: ${W_0}$ through ${W_7}$ (in nm) equaled [1630, 1570, 1490, 1410, 1300, 1180, 1020, and 700]. The design provides maximal photoelastic overlap for the last tap $m = 7$, where SAW losses are the largest, and decreasing tap magnitudes for closer waveguides. The transfer function consists of 8 MHz-wide passbands with an FSR of 65 MHz. Agreement between design and measurement is very good. Figure 5(b) shows the normalized $| {{h_{{\rm Tot}}}(t)} |$. Equalization of tap magnitudes is achieved, and SAW propagation losses are corrected for.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. (a) Measured (solid) and calculated (dashed) normalized transfer functions of RF power through an eight-tap, integrated SAW-photonic filter device. The basic unit delay of the filter is 16 ns. Agreement between design and experiment is very good. The FSR is 65 MHz, and the FWHM of the periodic passbands is 8 MHz. (b) Experimental absolute value of the impulse response of the device of panel (a). The weights of individual taps are adjusted through waveguides width variations to compensate for SAWs propagation losses (see Fig. 3 for comparison). (c) Measured (solid red) and calculated (dashed red) normalized transfer functions of RF power through a second eight-tap, integrated SAW-photonic filter device. The measurement of the device of panel (a) is shown again (blue). Compared with the device of panel (a), the waveguide sections corresponding to taps $m = 1$, 3, 5, and 7 are offset by half the SAW wavelength to implement a phase shift of $ \pi \; {\rm rad}$. The transfer function is shifted by half the FSR, as expected. (d) Experimental absolute value of the impulse response of the device of panel (c). The tap weights remain equalized.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Choice of arbitrary RF phases of individual tap weights is demonstrated in a second eight-tap device of the same unit delay. The widths of the eight waveguide sections were the same as those of Figs. 5(a) and 5(b). Unlike the previous device, however, waveguide sections $m = 1$, 3, 5, and 7 were offset by $\delta {y_m} = {\Lambda}/2$. The RF phases ${\theta _m}$ of the corresponding four taps therefore equaled $\pi\; {\rm rad}$, whereas those of the other four remained zero. Figure 5(c) shows the measured and designed transfer functions ${| {{H_{{\rm Tot}}}(f)} |^2}$ of the modified device. The measured transfer function of Fig. 5(a), with ${\theta _m} = 0$ for all eight taps, is drawn again for comparison. The transfer function of the modified device is offset by half the FSR, as intended. Figure 5(d) plots the normalized experimental $| {{h_{{\rm Tot}}}(t)} |$. The equalization of tap weights is retained.

Figure 6(a) shows a top-view optical microscope image of an integrated MWP filter device in which the probe resonator waveguide is replaced with a defect Bragg waveguide. A magnified scanning electron microscope image of parts of the grating region is shown in the inset. The Bragg grating is defined by waveguide width variations of 70 nm, with a period of 282 nm. The width corrugations correspond to effective index changes of 0.04 RIU. The grating consists of two uniform sections, each 500 µm long, separated by a defect region of 60.15 µm length in which the waveguide width is uniform. The length of the defect region was designed to match an odd multiple of half the grating period [4042].

 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. (a) Top-view optical microscope image of a SAW-photonic filter device in which the probe wave propagates in a Bragg grating waveguide with a defect region instead of a race-track resonator. The inset shows a scanning electron microscope image of part of the grating waveguide. (b) Measured and calculated transfer functions of optical power through the defect grating waveguide. A narrow transmission feature is introduced within the grating stop band. The measured response is in good agreement with calculations. (c) Measured transfer function of RF power through a SAW-photonic filter device comprising a defect grating waveguide.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Figure 6(b) shows an optical VNA measurement of the optical power transfer function through the defect grating device. The stop band of the grating is centered at 1552.5 nm wavelength. The figure also presents a calculation of the device transfer function, with the exact optical path length in the defect region used as a fitting parameter. Calculations suggest that the effective path length deviates from an exact odd multiple of half the grating period by 40 nm. Such deviations are within process uncertainties. Despite this offset, a narrow transmission feature is observed within the grating stop band, with $Q$ of 30,000. In further device characterization, the wavelength of the input probe wave was aligned with a maximal slope of the spectral transmission feature, to allow for photoelastic modulation of output intensity. Figure 6(c) presents the normalized, measured ${| {{H_{{\rm Tot}}}(f)} |^2}$ of the MWP device. Conversion of RF modulation from the input optical pump to the probe wave in the defect grating waveguide is achieved, similar to the race-track resonator-based devices. A single passband is observed, centered at ${f_{{\max }}} = 2.45\;{\rm GHz}$ as before, with FWHM of 65 MHz. The defect grating waveguide represents a single tap of photoelastic modulation; hence, periodic and narrow passbands are not obtained for this device.

Figure 7(a) shows an RF spectrum analyzer measurement of the output voltage for an eight-tap MWP filter device ($\tau = 16\;{\rm ns}$, ${W_m} = 700\;{\rm nm}$, $\delta {y_m} = 0$ for all $m$). The input pump waveform illuminating the gold grating was modulated by a sine wave of frequency ${f_{{\max }}}$, and its average power ${\bar P_p}$ was set to 150 mW. The RF power of the modulating input voltage was ${+}20\;{\rm dBm} $, corresponding to intensity modulation magnitude of $\Delta {P_p} = 0.8{\bar P_p}$ at the fundamental frequency ${f_{{\max }}}$. The measured root-mean-squared RF power at the device output on a load resistance ${R_L}$ of 50 ohm was ${-}{84}\;{\rm dBm}$. RF power losses between electrical input and output were large: 104 dB. The measured output power corresponds to photoelastic index perturbations magnitude $\Delta {n_{{\max }}}$ on the order of ${1.0} \times {{10}^{- 7}}\;{\rm RIU}$ (see Appendix A: Methods), or $C = 8 \times {10^{- 7}}{\rm RIU}$ per watt of pump power modulation $\Delta {P_p}$.

 figure: Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. (a) RF power spectrum of the output voltage of an eight-tap SAW-photonic filter device as a function of RF detuning from the peak frequency ${f_{{\max }}}$. The measurement bandwidth was 30 Hz. The input waveform was a sine wave of frequency ${f_{{\max }}} = 2.366625\;{\rm GHz}$, within the maximum transmission passband of the device. The average optical power of the input pump wave was 150 mW. The input RF power was ${+}20\;{\rm dBm} $, and the corresponding output power at ${f_{{\max }}}$ was ${-}{84}\;{\rm dBm}$. The output signal-to-noise ratio per unit bandwidth was ${58}\;{\rm dB} \times {{\rm Hz}^{- 1}}$. (b) RF power spectrum of the output voltage of a two-tap SAW-photonic filter device as a function of frequency detuning from the peak frequency ${f_{{\max }}}$. The measurement bandwidth was 30 Hz. The input waveform was a sine wave of frequency ${f_{{\max }}} = 2.399875\;{\rm GHz}$, within the maximum transmission passband of the device. The $Q$ factor of the probe wave resonator waveguide in this device was 150,000. The average optical power of the pump wave was 300 mW. The input RF power was ${+}20\;{\rm dBm} $. The corresponding output power at ${f_{{\max }}}$ was ${-}{53}\;{\rm dBm}$. The output signal-to-noise ratio per unit bandwidth was ${55}\;{\rm dB} \times {{\rm Hz}^{- 1}}$.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The signal-to-noise ratio of the output waveform was ${58}\;{\rm dB} \times {{\rm Hz}^{- 1}}$. The dominant noise mechanism is due to residual amplified spontaneous emission of EDFAs within the transmission bandwidth of the optical filter used at the detector input. Harmonics of ${f_{{\max }}}$ are strongly suppressed by two mechanisms: The response of the gold gratings to multiples of ${f_{{\max }}}$ is much reduced, and the spatial overlap factor $Q_m^{{\rm PE}}$ between residual higher-frequency SAWs and the guided optical mode is considerably degraded as well. No high-order harmonics of ${f_{{\max }}}$ could be observed above the noise level of the measurements.

Figure 7(b) presents a measurement of the output spectrum for a two-tap device based on a ring resonator that was fabricated in an 20.3 cm wafer by the commercial silicon foundry Tower Semiconductors (see Appendix A: Methods). The $Q$ factor of the probe resonator waveguide in this device was higher than those of in-house fabrication: 150,000. The resonator length $L$ was 480 µm, and the widths of both straight waveguide sections were 700 nm. The wavelength of the probe laser was actively locked onto the maximum slope of the resonator transfer function (see Appendix A: Methods). The average power ${\bar P_p}$ of the pump wave in this experiment was 300 mW, and the output probe power ${\bar P_s}$ was 5 mW. Compared with Fig. 7(a), the output RF power at ${f_{{\max }}}$ increased by 31 dB, to ${-}{53}\;{\rm dBm}$. The result illustrates the potential for further reduction of link losses with higher quality devices (see Discussion below). The output signal-to-noise ratio was ${55}\;{\rm dB} \times {{\rm Hz}^{- 1}}$. The output power corresponds to magnitude $\Delta {n_{{\max }}} = 3.5 \times {10^{- 7}}\;{\rm RIU}$ of photoelastic index modulation or $C = 1.5 \times {10^{- 6}}\;{\rm RIU}$ per watt. The larger value of $C$ could be due to the different implementation of the metallic grating in this device (see Appendix A: Methods). The RF spectrum includes sidebands at 4 kHz above and below ${f_{{\max }}}$, due to frequency modulation of the input probe laser. Modulation serves for actively locking the probe wavelength to a maximum slope of the resonator transfer function (see Appendix A: Methods).

3. DISCUSSION

Integrated discrete-time MWP filters were demonstrated, based on SAW propagation in standard SOI photonic circuits. Devices with 8 and 12 taps were realized. Due to the slow velocity of acoustic waves, delays as long as 175 ns could be accommodated on-chip within 660 µm of propagation length only. Periodic passbands as narrow as 5 MHz were achieved. The transfer functions of the integrated devices are environmentally stable, and they do not suffer from the phase drifts that restrict many fiber-based realizations. The magnitude and RF phase of each filter tap could be designed arbitrarily and independent of those of all others. The design freedom was used to equalize SAW propagation losses, and to shift the transmission passbands within the FSR. For single-tap MWP bandpass filters, the resonator waveguides used for photoelastic modulation could be replaced by a more compact defect grating waveguide. The thermo-elastic actuation and photoelastic modulation principles used in the MWP filter devices do not mandate piezoelectricity, cointegration of specialty materials, or the suspension of structures. The principles are applicable to any substrate. The thermal response of the thin metallic grating elements measures in picoseconds [3436], and the frequencies of operation can be scaled to tens of gigahertz [3436].

The transfer function between SAWs and photoelastic modulation of the probe wave is fixed once a device is fabricated. The passbands’ width and shape of the MWP filters therefore cannot be programmed following fabrication. The fixed output shape is in contrast to those of several Brillouin-active integrated MWP filters, which can be reconfigured through tailoring of pump wave spectra [4345]. On the other hand, different input RFs can be selected by adding a local oscillator to the incident pump beam [28]. SAWs would be stimulated by the beating between the local oscillator and a spectral component of a modulation sideband of the pump wave, detuned by ${f_{{\max }}}$ [28]. Proper choice of the local oscillator frequency would map specific spectral contents of the input waveform onto SAWs and through to the filter passband.

The delay provided by the SAW-photonic platform is considerably longer than those of many Brillouin-based devices of comparable bandwidths [44,45]. The delay cannot be adjusted postfabrication, and it is limited eventually by SAW propagation losses. The maximum bandwidth is restricted by that of thermo-elastic SAW excitation at the metallic grating, and it is inversely proportional to the grating length. The 60 µm-long gratings used in this work provided about 100 MHz bandwidth [see Fig. 6(c)]. The delay bandwidth product demonstrated was 17.5. Broader bandwidths may be obtained with smaller gratings containing fewer periods; however, their efficiency of SAW stimulation at the peak frequency may be compromised. Limited tunability of the excitation bandwidth can be achieved by focusing the pump beam to a spot size that is smaller than the grating itself.

The main drawback of reported devices is the large link losses of electrical RF power between input and output waveforms. However, these losses are not fundamental. The composition and thickness of the metallic stripes and their embedding in the silicon device layer can be further optimized [3436,46]. The dimensions of metallic elements can also be adjusted for plasmonic enhanced absorption [47]. The output signal power scales with the value of $Q$ squared. Here, only modest values of 30,000 were attainable with our in-house process for fabricating devices with 8 and 12 taps. The potential for RF loss reduction was already demonstrated in a two-tap device with $Q$ of 150,000, which provided output RF power that was 31 dB higher. Devices with $ Q $ factors over ${{10}^6}$ are reported in the literature [48] and may be employed in future studies. A $ Q $ factor of ${{10}^6}$ would further reduce the link losses by 15 dB.

Coupling efficiency of probe light can be improved with better vertical gratings [49], or even with cointegration of detectors and light sources in the silicon-photonic circuit itself [5052]. The output probe wave may be further amplified and detected by a photoreceiver designed for higher power to obtain a larger electrical signal. Optical output power levels of 50–100 mW are routinely used in the literature [28,45]. Compared with our current results, output probe amplification may add about 20 dB to the link gain, at the possible cost of elevated amplified spontaneous emission noise. Use of low voltage electro-optic modulators, with ${V_\pi}$ on the order of 1 V, would also increase the link gain by additional 10 dB [45]. Altogether, the employment of high-$ Q $ resonators, high-power output detectors, and low-voltage modulators may bring the link losses down to 25–30 dB. Further, the magnitude of acoustic waves in overlap with optical waveguides can be enhanced by using phononic cavities [27]. Lastly, although the use of silicon is one of the advantages of this work, the concept of multitap filters through careful layout of resonators can also be carried over to piezoelectric substrates where SAWs are orders of magnitude stronger [46,5357].

The multitap, delay-and-sum filter architecture provides large freedom for filter design, and it is widely employed in optical and digital signal processing [58]. Yet in certain cases, a single output passband would be preferable over the multiple spectrally periodic passbands of delay-and-sum filters. The multitap filter concept described in this work can be extended toward having a single passband. First, the periodic transfer functions are multiplied by a spectral envelope, associated with the thermo-elastic stimulation of SAWs. The envelope bandwidth is inversely proportional to the gratings’ lengths, which are limited by the propagation length of the SAWs: few hundreds of micrometers at 2.4 GHz frequency. Gratings several times longer than the current ones can be used to reduce the envelope bandwidth well below 100 MHz.

In addition, the FSR of the filters can be extended to exceed the above envelope bandwidth. The FSR is inversely proportional to the acoustic propagation delay between adjacent parallel waveguide sections in the readout probe resonator. The separation between sections has been restricted to 60 µm or larger by the minimum required bending radii within the resonator layout. That separation can be reduced considerably, to the order of 15 µm or less, with larger-footprint devices in which bending radii are moved further away from the straight waveguide sections where photoelastic modulation takes place. An example of a 16-tap device layout is shown in the Supplementary Material. The FSR of such devices would reach 280 MHz, wider than the bandwidth of SAW stimulation, leading to effective single-passband operation with about 17 MHz bandwidth.

Integrated SAW-photonic filter devices may find applications beyond information processing. For example, submegahertz offsets in the central frequencies of transmission passbands may well be identified. Such offsets correspond to modifications in SAW velocity on the ${\rm m} \times {{\rm s}^{- 1}}$ scale, or by hundreds of ppm. In preliminary studies, we were able to identify the deposition of a 15 nm-thin layer of aluminum oxide on the SAW-photonic device surface through the resulting spectral offsets in the MWP filter response [59]. The devices may therefore serve as mass sensors. Compared with piezoelectric SAW-based sensors [6062], the photonic counterparts would operate at frequencies that are 10 times higher. Therefore, the potential sensitivity of SAW-photonic mass sensors may exceed those of existing devices.

4. CONCLUSIONS

In conclusion, the concept of SAW filtering of microwave signals, which has been a mainstay of analog electronics for decades, may find new life as part of photonic circuits in silicon or other substrates. SAW-photonic devices support megahertz-scale passbands and the freedom to design each filter tap separately. The devices may assist the convergence of photonic transport and signal processing within cellular networks. Ongoing work is dedicated to increasing the number of taps, improving the link budget, and sensor applications of the proposed devices.

APPENDIX A: METHODS

1. Fabrication of Devices

Most devices described in this work were fabricated at Bar-Ilan University in standard SOI substrates with a 220-nm-thick silicon device layer on top of a 2-µm-thick buried oxide layer. Optical waveguides were defined in the silicon device layer using electron beam lithography, followed by inductively coupled plasma reactive-ion etching. The etching process used a mixture of ${\rm SF}_6$ and ${\rm C}_4{\rm F}_8$ gases, at flow rates of 65 sccm and 10 sccm, respectively. Etching was carried out at a vacuum level of ${4} \times {{10}^{- 10}}\;{\rm bar}$ and RF power of 100 W at a ${6}\;{\rm nm} \times {{\rm s}^{- 1}}$ rate. Ridge waveguides were partially etched to a depth of 70 nm. The widths of the ridges were varied according to design (see Results). Vertical grating couplers were patterned at the ends of the bus waveguides of the resonators. The positions of metallic grating stripes were defined by electron beam lithography, together with the optical waveguides, and partial etching to the same depth. A 5-nm-thick chromium adhesion layer and 20 nm of gold were deposited inside the etched grating patterns by a sputtering process. The sputtering rates for chromium and gold were ${0.2}\;{\rm nm} \times {{\rm s}^{- 1}}$ and ${0.5}\;{\rm nm} \times {{\rm s}^{- 1}}$, respectively. The vacuum level during sputtering was ${5} \times {{10}^{- 6}}\;{\rm bar}$, and the rotation rate was 5 rpm.

Resonator waveguides in the device measured in Fig. 7(b) were fabricated in the commercial silicon foundry Tower Semiconductors in 20.3 cm SOI wafers. The thickness of the device layer and that of the buried oxide layer were the same as above. Waveguides were patterned with UV stepper photolithography followed by inductively coupled plasma reactive-ion etching. The etching depth was 70 nm, and the widths of all waveguides were 700 nm. Metallic gratings were added at Bar-Ilan University using electron beam lithography, sputtering, and lift-off processes. The sputtering parameters were the same as above. Alignment markers were used to define the position of the metallic gratings with respect to the probe resonator waveguides. Unlike other devices fabricated entirely at Bar-Ilan University, the metallic gratings were deposited on top of a uniform silicon device layer and not embedded in pre-etched patterns.

2. Conversion of Phase Modulation to Intensity Modulation at the Resonator Output

Consider section $m$ of length $l$ within a resonator waveguide, in which the effective index is perturbated by photoelastic variations $\Delta {n_m}(t)$ due to SAWs. The optical phase accumulated by a probe light propagating in that section is modified by $\Delta \varphi (t) = {k_0}l\Delta {n_m}(t)$, where ${k_0}$ is the vacuum wavenumber. The index modulation is associated with offsets in the resonance frequencies of the device,

$$\Delta {\nu _{{\rm SAW}}}(t) = \frac{{\Delta \varphi (t)}}{{2\pi}}\frac{c}{nL} = {\nu _0}\frac{l}{L}\frac{{\Delta {n_m}(t)}}{n}.$$

Here $c$ is the speed of light in vacuum, $c/({nL})$ is the FSR of the device transfer function, and ${\nu _0}$ is the central optical frequency. Note that $\Delta \varphi (t) \ll 2\pi$.

The frequency of the probe wave is chosen on a slope of the resonator transfer function, for 50% transmission. The spectral offset $\Delta {\nu _{{\rm SAW}}}(t)$ in the device transfer function leads to changes in the transmission of the probe power from input to output. When the extinction ratio of the resonator transfer function is large, we may approximate the slope of the power transfer as $\Delta {P_s}(t)/\Delta {\nu _{{\rm SAW}}}(t) \approx 2{\bar P_s}/\Delta {\nu _{{\rm FWHM}}}$. Here $\Delta {P_s}(t)$ is the probe output power modulation, ${\bar P_s}$ is the bias value of the probe output power, and $\Delta {\nu _{{\rm FWHM}}}$ denotes the FWHM of the resonator transfer function. The output power modulation may be approximated as

$$\begin{split}\Delta {P_s}(t) &\approx \frac{{2\Delta {\nu _{{\rm SAW}}}(t)}}{{\Delta {\nu _{{\rm FWHM}}}}}{\bar P_s} = \frac{{2{\nu _0}}}{{\Delta {\nu _{{\rm FWHM}}}}}\frac{l}{L}\frac{{\Delta {n_m}(t)}}{n}{\bar P_s} \\&= 2Q\frac{l}{L}\frac{{\Delta {n_m}(t)}}{n}{\bar P_s}.\end{split}$$

The detected voltage ${V_{{\rm out}}}(t)$ at the resonator output equals $R\Delta {P_s}(t)$, leading to Eq. (3) in the Results section. When the input voltage is modulated at a single RF ${f_{{\max }}}$, the overall magnitude of $\Delta {P_s}(t)$ oscillations is given by Eq. (A2) with the following index variations: $\mathop \sum \nolimits_{m = 0}^{N - 1} \Delta {n_m} = \mathop \sum \nolimits_{m = o}^{N - 1} {\exp }({- \frac{\alpha}{2}{y_m}})Q_m^{{\rm PE}}\Delta {n_{{\max }}}$. Here $\Delta {n_{{\max }}}$ denotes the magnitude of photoelastic index perturbations at frequency ${f_{{\max }}}$ at the edge of the metallic grating. The root-mean-square RF power at the device output is given by ${[{{\max }({{V_{{\rm out}}}})}]^2}/({2{R_L}})$. This relation was used in estimates of $\Delta {n_{{\max }}}$ in Results.

3. Locking of Probe Wavelength to the Maximal Slope of a Resonator Transfer Function

The conversion of photoelastic phase modulation of the optical probe wave in the resonator devices into an intensity reading requires that the probe wavelength be aligned with a spectral slope of the resonator transfer function. In most devices used in this work, the $Q$ factor of the resonator was approximately 30,000. With such modest values, the probe wavelength could be manually adjusted for maximum phase-to-intensity conversion, without feedback. The device shown in Fig. 7(b) was based on a race-track resonator with $Q$ factor of 150,000. The open-loop adjustment of the probe wavelength to the sharp spectral slope of the resonator response was impractical in this case.

To overcome this difficulty, the probe wavelength was actively locked to a maximal slope using the following protocol. A signal at frequency ${f_{{\rm lock}}} = 4\;{\rm kHz}$ from an output port of a lock-in amplifier was used to directly modulate the drive current of the probe laser diode. The instantaneous optical frequency of the input probe wave was therefore modulated at ${f_{{\rm lock}}}$. Following detection of the probe wave at the device output, an RF splitter directed part of the output voltage to the input port of the lock-in amplifier. The amplifier tracked the magnitude of the second-harmonic component, at frequency $2{f_{{\rm lock}}}$. The second-harmonic term is proportional to the second derivative of the spectral power transfer function of the resonator. The magnitude of the $2{f_{{\rm lock}}}$ term vanishes when the first derivative of the transfer function, namely, its slope, is at a maximum. The $2{f_{{\rm lock}}}$ component at the output of the lock-in amplifier served as an error signal. The error signal passed through an electronic integrator circuit, and then fed back to correct the laser frequency and keep it at the maximum slope of the resonator response.

Funding

Israel Ministry of Science, Technology and Space (3-16250); Israel Innovation Authority (Peta Cloud Consortium, MAGNET program); European Research Council (STG 679228).

Acknowledgment

Gil Bashan is supported by the Adams Fellowship Program of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities.

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Data Availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

Supplemental document

See Supplement 1 for supporting content.

REFERENCES

1. J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1, 319–330 (2007). [CrossRef]  

2. A. Seeds, “Microwave photonics,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 877–887 (2002). [CrossRef]  

3. J. Yao, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 314–335 (2009). [CrossRef]  

4. R. Waterhouse and D. Novack, “Realizing 5G: microwave photonics for 5G mobile wireless systems,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 16(8), 84–92 (2015). [CrossRef]  

5. D. Wake, A. Nkansah, and N. J. Gomes, “Radio over fiber link design for next generation wireless systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2456–2464 (2010). [CrossRef]  

6. A. Hirata, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, T. Kosugi, K. Murata, T. Nagatsuma, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Transmission characteristics of 120 GHz-band wireless link using radio-on-fiber technologies,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 2338–2344 (2008). [CrossRef]  

7. J. A. Nanzer, T. P. McKenna, and T. R. Clark, “A W-band photonic array,” in Proc. Antennas Propagation Society Int. Symp. (2014), pp. 239–243.

8. D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 506–538 (2013). [CrossRef]  

9. D. Marpaung, J. Yao, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Nat. Photonics 13, 80–90 (2019). [CrossRef]  

10. L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics III, Vol. 119 in Topics in Applied Physics (Springer, 2016).

11. C. Zhang, S. Zhang, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “8 × 8 × 40 Gbps fully integrated silicon photonic network on chip,” Optica 3, 785–786 (2016). [CrossRef]  

12. K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, S. Hu, B. Peng, M. Rakowski, S. Rauch, J. C. Rosenberg, A. Sahin, I. Sobert, and A. Stricker, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 8200611 (2019). [CrossRef]  

13. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, “A tutorial on microwave photonic filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 201–229 (2006). [CrossRef]  

14. R. Minasian, E. H. W. Chan, and X. Yi, “Microwave photonic signal processing,” Opt. Express 21, 22918–22936 (2013). [CrossRef]  

15. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, and S. Sales, “Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 702–723 (2005). [CrossRef]  

16. X. S. Yao, “Brillouin selective sideband amplification of microwave photonic signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 138–140 (1998). [CrossRef]  

17. A. Loayssa and F. J. Lahoz, “Broad-band RF photonic phase shifter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and single-sideband modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 208–210 (2005). [CrossRef]  

18. K. Y. Song, M. González Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, “Observation of pulse delaying and advancement in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Express 13, 82–88 (2005). [CrossRef]  

19. J. Li, H. Lee, and K. J. Vahala, “Microwave synthesizer using an on-chip Brillouin oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2097 (2013). [CrossRef]  

20. A. H. Safavi-Naeini, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and R. Van Laer, “Controlling phonons and photons at the wavelength scale: integrated photonics meets integrated phononics,” Optica 6, 213–232 (2019). [CrossRef]  

21. G. S. Wiederhecker, P. Dainese, and T. P. Mayer Alegre, “Brillouin optomechanics in nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 071101 (2019). [CrossRef]  

22. B. J. Eggleton, C. G. Poulton, P. T. Rakich, M. J. Steel, and G. Bahl, “Brillouin integrated photonics,” Nat. Photonics 13, 664–677 (2019). [CrossRef]  

23. R. Pant, C. G. Poulton, D.-Y. Choi, H. Mcfarlane, S. Hile, E. Li, L. Thevenaz, B. Luther-Davies, S. J. Madden, and B. J. Eggleton, “On-chip stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Express 19, 8285–8290 (2011). [CrossRef]  

24. A. Choudhary, I. Aryanfar, S. Shahnia, B. Morrison, K. Vu, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, D. Marpaung, and B. J. Eggleton, “Tailoring of the Brillouin gain for on-chip widely tunable and reconfigurable broadband microwave photonic filters,” Opt. Lett. 41, 436–439 (2016). [CrossRef]  

25. A. Choudhary, B. Morrison, I. Aryanfar, S. Shahnia, M. Pagani, Y. Liu, K. Vu, S. J. Madden, D. Marpaung, and B. J. Eggleton, “Advanced integrated microwave signal processing with giant on-chip Brillouin gain,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 846–854 (2017). [CrossRef]  

26. B. Morrison, A. Casas-Bedoya, G. Ren, K. Vu, Y. Liu, A. Zarifi, T. G. Nguyen, D.-Y. Choi, D. Marpaung, S. J. Madden, A. Mitchell, and B. J. Eggleton, “Compact Brillouin devices through hybrid integration on silicon,” Optica 4, 847–854 (2017). [CrossRef]  

27. E. A. Kittlaus, P. Kharel, N. T. Otterstrom, Z. Wang, and P. T. Rakich, “RF photonic filters via on-chip photonic–phononic emit–receive operations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 2803–2809 (2018). [CrossRef]  

28. S. Gertler, E. A. Kittlaus, N. T. Otterstrom, and P. T. Rakich, “Tunable microwave-photonic filtering with high out-of-band rejection in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 096103 (2020). [CrossRef]  

29. S. Gertler, E. A. Kittlaus, N. T. Otterstrom, P. Kharel, and P. T. Rakich, “Microwave filtering using forward Brillouin scattering in photonic-phononic emit-receive devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 38, 5248–5261 (2020). [CrossRef]  

30. B. J. Eggleton, C. G. Poulton, and R. Pant, “Inducing and harnessing stimulated Brillouin scattering in photonic integrated circuits,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 5, 536–587 (2013). [CrossRef]  

31. A. A. Oliner, “Acoustic Surface Waves,” Vol. 24 in Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1978).

32. C. Campbell, Surface Acoustic Wave Devices for Mobile and Wireless Communications (Academic, 1998).

33. D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Hen, M. Priel, M. Feldberg, T. Sharabani, S. Levy, A. Bergman, and A. Zadok, “Surface acoustic wave photonic devices in silicon on insulator,” Nat. Commun. 10, 4214 (2019). [CrossRef]  

34. C. Giannetti, B. Revaz, F. Banfi, M. Montagnese, G. Ferrini, F. Cilento, S. Maccalli, P. Vavassori, G. Oliviero, E. Bontempi, L. E. Depero, V. Metlushko, and F. Parmigiani, “Thermomechanical behavior of surface acoustic waves in ordered arrays of nanodisks studied by near-infrared pump-probe diffraction experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125413 (2007). [CrossRef]  

35. D. Nardi, M. Travagliati, M. E. Siemens, Q. Li, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, G. Ferrini, F. Parimgiani, and F. Banfi, “Probing thermomechanics at the nanoscale: impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic waves in hypersonic phononic crystals,” Nano Lett. 11, 4126–4133 (2011). [CrossRef]  

36. M. Schubert, M. Grossman, O. Ristow, M. Hettich, A. Bruchhausen, E. S. C. Barretto, E. Scheer, V. Gusev, and T. Dekorsy, “Spatial-temporally resolved high-frequency surface acoustic waves on silicon investigated by femtosecond spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013108 (2012). [CrossRef]  

37. D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Hen, M. Priel, and A. Zadok, “Surface-acoustic-wave modulation of a silicon-on-insulator defect Bragg grating,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper SM2J.5.

38. M. Katzman, D. Munk, M. Priel, E. Grunwald, M. Hen, and A. Zadok, “Integrated discrete-time surface acoustic wave photonic radio-frequency filters with arbitrary tap weights,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (to be published).

39. S. Tadesse, “Nano-optomechanical system based on microwave frequency surface acoustic waves,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Minnesota, 2016).

40. G. P. Agrawal and S. Radic, “Phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings and their application for wavelength demultiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 995–997 (1994). [CrossRef]  

41. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, “Wave propagation in periodic media,” in Photonics, 6th ed. (Oxford, 2007), chap. 12.

42. T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997). [CrossRef]  

43. L. McKay, M. Merklein, Y. Liu, A. Cramer, J. Maksymow, A. Chilton, K. Yan, D.-Y. Choi, S. J. Madden, R. DeSalvo, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated microwave photonic true-time delay with interferometric delay enhancement based on Brillouin scattering and microring resonators,” Opt. Express 28, 36020–36032 (2020). [CrossRef]  

44. I. Aryanfar, D. Marpaung, A. Choudhary, Y. Liu, K. Vu, D.-Y. Choi, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chip-based Brillouin radio frequency photonic phase shifter and wideband time delay,” Opt. Lett. 42, 1313–1316 (2017). [CrossRef]  

45. Y. Liu, A. Choudhary, D. Marpaung, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated microwave photonic filters,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 12, 485–555 (2020). [CrossRef]  

46. M. M. de Lima, W. Seidel, H. Kostial, and P. V. Santos, “Embedded interdigital transducers of high-frequency surface acoustic waves on GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3494–3500 (2004). [CrossRef]  

47. K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011). [CrossRef]  

48. A. Naiman, B. Desiatov, L. Stern, N. Mazurski, J. Shappir, and U. Levy, “Ultrahigh-Q silicon resonators in a planarized local oxidation of silicon platform,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1892–1895 (2015). [CrossRef]  

49. P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings for efficient microphotonic couplers and planar waveguide multiplexers,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2526–2528 (2010). [CrossRef]  

50. L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17, 6252–6257 (2009). [CrossRef]  

51. A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14, 9203–9210 (2006). [CrossRef]  

52. A. Y. Liu and J. E. Bowers, “Photonic integration with epitaxial III–V on silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 6000412 (2018). [CrossRef]  

53. M. M. de Lima, F. Alsina, W. Seidel, and P. V. Santos, “Focusing of surface acoustic-wave fields on (100) GaAs surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7848 (2003). [CrossRef]  

54. M. M. de Lima, M. Beck, Y. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121104 (2006). [CrossRef]  

55. H. Li, S. A. Tadesse, Q. Liu, and M. Li, “Nanophotonic cavity optomechanics with propagating acoustic waves at frequencies up to 12 GHz,” Optica 2, 826–831 (2015). [CrossRef]  

56. D. B. Sohn, S. Kim, and G. Bahl, “Time-reversal symmetry breaking with acoustic pumping of nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Photonics 12, 91–97 (2018). [CrossRef]  

57. L. Shao, M. Yu, S. Maity, N. Sinclair, L. Zheng, C. Chia, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Wang, M. Zhang, K. Lai, and M. Lončar, “Microwave-to-optical conversion using lithium niobate thin-film acoustic resonators,” Optica 6, 1498–1505 (2019). [CrossRef]  

58. C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach (Wiley, 1999).

59. M. Hen, D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Priel, S. Taragin, and A. Zadok, “Surface-acoustic-wave characterization of thin layer deposition on a standard silicon-photonic circuit,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA technical digest (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper STh1R.3.

60. H. Wohltjen, “Mechanism of operation and design considerations for surface acoustic wave device vapour sensors,” Sens. Actuators 5, 307–325 (1984). [CrossRef]  

61. L. W. Moore, K. N. Sprjnger, J. X. Shi, X. Yang, B. I. Swanson, and D. Li, “Surface acoustic wave chemical microsensors based on covalently bound self-assembled host monolayers,” Adv. Mater. 7, 729–731 (1995). [CrossRef]  

62. B. Paschke, A. Wixforth, D. Denysenko, and D. Volkmer, “Fast surface acoustic wave-based sensors to investigate the kinetics of gas uptake in ultra-microporous frameworks,” ACS Sens. 2, 740–747 (2017). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1, 319–330 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. Seeds, “Microwave photonics,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 877–887 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Yao, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 314–335 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. Waterhouse and D. Novack, “Realizing 5G: microwave photonics for 5G mobile wireless systems,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 16(8), 84–92 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. Wake, A. Nkansah, and N. J. Gomes, “Radio over fiber link design for next generation wireless systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2456–2464 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Hirata, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, T. Kosugi, K. Murata, T. Nagatsuma, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Transmission characteristics of 120 GHz-band wireless link using radio-on-fiber technologies,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 2338–2344 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. A. Nanzer, T. P. McKenna, and T. R. Clark, “A W-band photonic array,” in Proc. Antennas Propagation Society Int. Symp. (2014), pp. 239–243.
  8. D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 506–538 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Marpaung, J. Yao, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Nat. Photonics 13, 80–90 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  10. L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics III, Vol. 119 in Topics in Applied Physics (Springer, 2016).
  11. C. Zhang, S. Zhang, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “8 × 8 × 40 Gbps fully integrated silicon photonic network on chip,” Optica 3, 785–786 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, S. Hu, B. Peng, M. Rakowski, S. Rauch, J. C. Rosenberg, A. Sahin, I. Sobert, and A. Stricker, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 8200611 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, “A tutorial on microwave photonic filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 201–229 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. Minasian, E. H. W. Chan, and X. Yi, “Microwave photonic signal processing,” Opt. Express 21, 22918–22936 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, and S. Sales, “Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 702–723 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  16. X. S. Yao, “Brillouin selective sideband amplification of microwave photonic signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 138–140 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. Loayssa and F. J. Lahoz, “Broad-band RF photonic phase shifter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and single-sideband modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 208–210 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  18. K. Y. Song, M. González Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, “Observation of pulse delaying and advancement in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Express 13, 82–88 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Li, H. Lee, and K. J. Vahala, “Microwave synthesizer using an on-chip Brillouin oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2097 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. H. Safavi-Naeini, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and R. Van Laer, “Controlling phonons and photons at the wavelength scale: integrated photonics meets integrated phononics,” Optica 6, 213–232 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  21. G. S. Wiederhecker, P. Dainese, and T. P. Mayer Alegre, “Brillouin optomechanics in nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 071101 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  22. B. J. Eggleton, C. G. Poulton, P. T. Rakich, M. J. Steel, and G. Bahl, “Brillouin integrated photonics,” Nat. Photonics 13, 664–677 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  23. R. Pant, C. G. Poulton, D.-Y. Choi, H. Mcfarlane, S. Hile, E. Li, L. Thevenaz, B. Luther-Davies, S. J. Madden, and B. J. Eggleton, “On-chip stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Express 19, 8285–8290 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. Choudhary, I. Aryanfar, S. Shahnia, B. Morrison, K. Vu, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, D. Marpaung, and B. J. Eggleton, “Tailoring of the Brillouin gain for on-chip widely tunable and reconfigurable broadband microwave photonic filters,” Opt. Lett. 41, 436–439 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  25. A. Choudhary, B. Morrison, I. Aryanfar, S. Shahnia, M. Pagani, Y. Liu, K. Vu, S. J. Madden, D. Marpaung, and B. J. Eggleton, “Advanced integrated microwave signal processing with giant on-chip Brillouin gain,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 846–854 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  26. B. Morrison, A. Casas-Bedoya, G. Ren, K. Vu, Y. Liu, A. Zarifi, T. G. Nguyen, D.-Y. Choi, D. Marpaung, S. J. Madden, A. Mitchell, and B. J. Eggleton, “Compact Brillouin devices through hybrid integration on silicon,” Optica 4, 847–854 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  27. E. A. Kittlaus, P. Kharel, N. T. Otterstrom, Z. Wang, and P. T. Rakich, “RF photonic filters via on-chip photonic–phononic emit–receive operations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 2803–2809 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. Gertler, E. A. Kittlaus, N. T. Otterstrom, and P. T. Rakich, “Tunable microwave-photonic filtering with high out-of-band rejection in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 096103 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  29. S. Gertler, E. A. Kittlaus, N. T. Otterstrom, P. Kharel, and P. T. Rakich, “Microwave filtering using forward Brillouin scattering in photonic-phononic emit-receive devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 38, 5248–5261 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  30. B. J. Eggleton, C. G. Poulton, and R. Pant, “Inducing and harnessing stimulated Brillouin scattering in photonic integrated circuits,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 5, 536–587 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  31. A. A. Oliner, “Acoustic Surface Waves,” Vol. 24 in Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1978).
  32. C. Campbell, Surface Acoustic Wave Devices for Mobile and Wireless Communications (Academic, 1998).
  33. D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Hen, M. Priel, M. Feldberg, T. Sharabani, S. Levy, A. Bergman, and A. Zadok, “Surface acoustic wave photonic devices in silicon on insulator,” Nat. Commun. 10, 4214 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  34. C. Giannetti, B. Revaz, F. Banfi, M. Montagnese, G. Ferrini, F. Cilento, S. Maccalli, P. Vavassori, G. Oliviero, E. Bontempi, L. E. Depero, V. Metlushko, and F. Parmigiani, “Thermomechanical behavior of surface acoustic waves in ordered arrays of nanodisks studied by near-infrared pump-probe diffraction experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125413 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  35. D. Nardi, M. Travagliati, M. E. Siemens, Q. Li, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, G. Ferrini, F. Parimgiani, and F. Banfi, “Probing thermomechanics at the nanoscale: impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic waves in hypersonic phononic crystals,” Nano Lett. 11, 4126–4133 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  36. M. Schubert, M. Grossman, O. Ristow, M. Hettich, A. Bruchhausen, E. S. C. Barretto, E. Scheer, V. Gusev, and T. Dekorsy, “Spatial-temporally resolved high-frequency surface acoustic waves on silicon investigated by femtosecond spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013108 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  37. D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Hen, M. Priel, and A. Zadok, “Surface-acoustic-wave modulation of a silicon-on-insulator defect Bragg grating,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper SM2J.5.
  38. M. Katzman, D. Munk, M. Priel, E. Grunwald, M. Hen, and A. Zadok, “Integrated discrete-time surface acoustic wave photonic radio-frequency filters with arbitrary tap weights,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (to be published).
  39. S. Tadesse, “Nano-optomechanical system based on microwave frequency surface acoustic waves,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Minnesota, 2016).
  40. G. P. Agrawal and S. Radic, “Phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings and their application for wavelength demultiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 995–997 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  41. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, “Wave propagation in periodic media,” in Photonics, 6th ed. (Oxford, 2007), chap. 12.
  42. T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  43. L. McKay, M. Merklein, Y. Liu, A. Cramer, J. Maksymow, A. Chilton, K. Yan, D.-Y. Choi, S. J. Madden, R. DeSalvo, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated microwave photonic true-time delay with interferometric delay enhancement based on Brillouin scattering and microring resonators,” Opt. Express 28, 36020–36032 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  44. I. Aryanfar, D. Marpaung, A. Choudhary, Y. Liu, K. Vu, D.-Y. Choi, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chip-based Brillouin radio frequency photonic phase shifter and wideband time delay,” Opt. Lett. 42, 1313–1316 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  45. Y. Liu, A. Choudhary, D. Marpaung, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated microwave photonic filters,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 12, 485–555 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  46. M. M. de Lima, W. Seidel, H. Kostial, and P. V. Santos, “Embedded interdigital transducers of high-frequency surface acoustic waves on GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3494–3500 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  47. K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  48. A. Naiman, B. Desiatov, L. Stern, N. Mazurski, J. Shappir, and U. Levy, “Ultrahigh-Q silicon resonators in a planarized local oxidation of silicon platform,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1892–1895 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  49. P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings for efficient microphotonic couplers and planar waveguide multiplexers,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2526–2528 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  50. L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17, 6252–6257 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  51. A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14, 9203–9210 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  52. A. Y. Liu and J. E. Bowers, “Photonic integration with epitaxial III–V on silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 6000412 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  53. M. M. de Lima, F. Alsina, W. Seidel, and P. V. Santos, “Focusing of surface acoustic-wave fields on (100) GaAs surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7848 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  54. M. M. de Lima, M. Beck, Y. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121104 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  55. H. Li, S. A. Tadesse, Q. Liu, and M. Li, “Nanophotonic cavity optomechanics with propagating acoustic waves at frequencies up to 12 GHz,” Optica 2, 826–831 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  56. D. B. Sohn, S. Kim, and G. Bahl, “Time-reversal symmetry breaking with acoustic pumping of nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Photonics 12, 91–97 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  57. L. Shao, M. Yu, S. Maity, N. Sinclair, L. Zheng, C. Chia, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Wang, M. Zhang, K. Lai, and M. Lončar, “Microwave-to-optical conversion using lithium niobate thin-film acoustic resonators,” Optica 6, 1498–1505 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  58. C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach (Wiley, 1999).
  59. M. Hen, D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Priel, S. Taragin, and A. Zadok, “Surface-acoustic-wave characterization of thin layer deposition on a standard silicon-photonic circuit,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA technical digest (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper STh1R.3.
  60. H. Wohltjen, “Mechanism of operation and design considerations for surface acoustic wave device vapour sensors,” Sens. Actuators 5, 307–325 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  61. L. W. Moore, K. N. Sprjnger, J. X. Shi, X. Yang, B. I. Swanson, and D. Li, “Surface acoustic wave chemical microsensors based on covalently bound self-assembled host monolayers,” Adv. Mater. 7, 729–731 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  62. B. Paschke, A. Wixforth, D. Denysenko, and D. Volkmer, “Fast surface acoustic wave-based sensors to investigate the kinetics of gas uptake in ultra-microporous frameworks,” ACS Sens. 2, 740–747 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2020 (4)

2019 (7)

L. Shao, M. Yu, S. Maity, N. Sinclair, L. Zheng, C. Chia, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Wang, M. Zhang, K. Lai, and M. Lončar, “Microwave-to-optical conversion using lithium niobate thin-film acoustic resonators,” Optica 6, 1498–1505 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Hen, M. Priel, M. Feldberg, T. Sharabani, S. Levy, A. Bergman, and A. Zadok, “Surface acoustic wave photonic devices in silicon on insulator,” Nat. Commun. 10, 4214 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Marpaung, J. Yao, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Nat. Photonics 13, 80–90 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, S. Hu, B. Peng, M. Rakowski, S. Rauch, J. C. Rosenberg, A. Sahin, I. Sobert, and A. Stricker, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 8200611 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and R. Van Laer, “Controlling phonons and photons at the wavelength scale: integrated photonics meets integrated phononics,” Optica 6, 213–232 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. S. Wiederhecker, P. Dainese, and T. P. Mayer Alegre, “Brillouin optomechanics in nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 071101 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. J. Eggleton, C. G. Poulton, P. T. Rakich, M. J. Steel, and G. Bahl, “Brillouin integrated photonics,” Nat. Photonics 13, 664–677 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

E. A. Kittlaus, P. Kharel, N. T. Otterstrom, Z. Wang, and P. T. Rakich, “RF photonic filters via on-chip photonic–phononic emit–receive operations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 2803–2809 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. B. Sohn, S. Kim, and G. Bahl, “Time-reversal symmetry breaking with acoustic pumping of nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Photonics 12, 91–97 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Liu and J. E. Bowers, “Photonic integration with epitaxial III–V on silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 6000412 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

2016 (2)

2015 (3)

2013 (4)

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 506–538 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Minasian, E. H. W. Chan, and X. Yi, “Microwave photonic signal processing,” Opt. Express 21, 22918–22936 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Li, H. Lee, and K. J. Vahala, “Microwave synthesizer using an on-chip Brillouin oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2097 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. J. Eggleton, C. G. Poulton, and R. Pant, “Inducing and harnessing stimulated Brillouin scattering in photonic integrated circuits,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 5, 536–587 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. Schubert, M. Grossman, O. Ristow, M. Hettich, A. Bruchhausen, E. S. C. Barretto, E. Scheer, V. Gusev, and T. Dekorsy, “Spatial-temporally resolved high-frequency surface acoustic waves on silicon investigated by femtosecond spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013108 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

D. Nardi, M. Travagliati, M. E. Siemens, Q. Li, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, G. Ferrini, F. Parimgiani, and F. Banfi, “Probing thermomechanics at the nanoscale: impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic waves in hypersonic phononic crystals,” Nano Lett. 11, 4126–4133 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Pant, C. G. Poulton, D.-Y. Choi, H. Mcfarlane, S. Hile, E. Li, L. Thevenaz, B. Luther-Davies, S. J. Madden, and B. J. Eggleton, “On-chip stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Express 19, 8285–8290 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1, 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Giannetti, B. Revaz, F. Banfi, M. Montagnese, G. Ferrini, F. Cilento, S. Maccalli, P. Vavassori, G. Oliviero, E. Bontempi, L. E. Depero, V. Metlushko, and F. Parmigiani, “Thermomechanical behavior of surface acoustic waves in ordered arrays of nanodisks studied by near-infrared pump-probe diffraction experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125413 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

M. M. de Lima, W. Seidel, H. Kostial, and P. V. Santos, “Embedded interdigital transducers of high-frequency surface acoustic waves on GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3494–3500 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. M. de Lima, F. Alsina, W. Seidel, and P. V. Santos, “Focusing of surface acoustic-wave fields on (100) GaAs surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7848 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

A. Seeds, “Microwave photonics,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 877–887 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

X. S. Yao, “Brillouin selective sideband amplification of microwave photonic signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 138–140 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

L. W. Moore, K. N. Sprjnger, J. X. Shi, X. Yang, B. I. Swanson, and D. Li, “Surface acoustic wave chemical microsensors based on covalently bound self-assembled host monolayers,” Adv. Mater. 7, 729–731 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

G. P. Agrawal and S. Radic, “Phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings and their application for wavelength demultiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 995–997 (1994).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

H. Wohltjen, “Mechanism of operation and design considerations for surface acoustic wave device vapour sensors,” Sens. Actuators 5, 307–325 (1984).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal and S. Radic, “Phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings and their application for wavelength demultiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 995–997 (1994).
[Crossref]

Alsina, F.

M. M. de Lima, F. Alsina, W. Seidel, and P. V. Santos, “Focusing of surface acoustic-wave fields on (100) GaAs surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7848 (2003).
[Crossref]

Anderson, F. A.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, S. Hu, B. Peng, M. Rakowski, S. Rauch, J. C. Rosenberg, A. Sahin, I. Sobert, and A. Stricker, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 8200611 (2019).
[Crossref]

Aryanfar, I.

Atwater, H. A.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ayala, J.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, S. Hu, B. Peng, M. Rakowski, S. Rauch, J. C. Rosenberg, A. Sahin, I. Sobert, and A. Stricker, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 8200611 (2019).
[Crossref]

Aydin, K.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Bahl, G.

B. J. Eggleton, C. G. Poulton, P. T. Rakich, M. J. Steel, and G. Bahl, “Brillouin integrated photonics,” Nat. Photonics 13, 664–677 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. B. Sohn, S. Kim, and G. Bahl, “Time-reversal symmetry breaking with acoustic pumping of nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Photonics 12, 91–97 (2018).
[Crossref]

Banfi, F.

D. Nardi, M. Travagliati, M. E. Siemens, Q. Li, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, G. Ferrini, F. Parimgiani, and F. Banfi, “Probing thermomechanics at the nanoscale: impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic waves in hypersonic phononic crystals,” Nano Lett. 11, 4126–4133 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Giannetti, B. Revaz, F. Banfi, M. Montagnese, G. Ferrini, F. Cilento, S. Maccalli, P. Vavassori, G. Oliviero, E. Bontempi, L. E. Depero, V. Metlushko, and F. Parmigiani, “Thermomechanical behavior of surface acoustic waves in ordered arrays of nanodisks studied by near-infrared pump-probe diffraction experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125413 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barretto, E. S. C.

M. Schubert, M. Grossman, O. Ristow, M. Hettich, A. Bruchhausen, E. S. C. Barretto, E. Scheer, V. Gusev, and T. Dekorsy, “Spatial-temporally resolved high-frequency surface acoustic waves on silicon investigated by femtosecond spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Barwicz, T.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, S. Hu, B. Peng, M. Rakowski, S. Rauch, J. C. Rosenberg, A. Sahin, I. Sobert, and A. Stricker, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 8200611 (2019).
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

M. M. de Lima, M. Beck, Y. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bergman, A.

D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Hen, M. Priel, M. Feldberg, T. Sharabani, S. Levy, A. Bergman, and A. Zadok, “Surface acoustic wave photonic devices in silicon on insulator,” Nat. Commun. 10, 4214 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bian, Y.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, S. Hu, B. Peng, M. Rakowski, S. Rauch, J. C. Rosenberg, A. Sahin, I. Sobert, and A. Stricker, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 8200611 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bock, P. J.

Bontempi, E.

C. Giannetti, B. Revaz, F. Banfi, M. Montagnese, G. Ferrini, F. Cilento, S. Maccalli, P. Vavassori, G. Oliviero, E. Bontempi, L. E. Depero, V. Metlushko, and F. Parmigiani, “Thermomechanical behavior of surface acoustic waves in ordered arrays of nanodisks studied by near-infrared pump-probe diffraction experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125413 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Briggs, R. M.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bruchhausen, A.

M. Schubert, M. Grossman, O. Ristow, M. Hettich, A. Bruchhausen, E. S. C. Barretto, E. Scheer, V. Gusev, and T. Dekorsy, “Spatial-temporally resolved high-frequency surface acoustic waves on silicon investigated by femtosecond spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Campbell, C.

C. Campbell, Surface Acoustic Wave Devices for Mobile and Wireless Communications (Academic, 1998).

Capmany, J.

D. Marpaung, J. Yao, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Nat. Photonics 13, 80–90 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 506–538 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1, 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, “A tutorial on microwave photonic filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 201–229 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, and S. Sales, “Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 702–723 (2005).
[Crossref]

Casas-Bedoya, A.

Cassan, E.

Chan, E. H. W.

Cheben, P.

Chia, C.

Chilton, A.

Choi, D.-Y.

Choudhary, A.

Cilento, F.

C. Giannetti, B. Revaz, F. Banfi, M. Montagnese, G. Ferrini, F. Cilento, S. Maccalli, P. Vavassori, G. Oliviero, E. Bontempi, L. E. Depero, V. Metlushko, and F. Parmigiani, “Thermomechanical behavior of surface acoustic waves in ordered arrays of nanodisks studied by near-infrared pump-probe diffraction experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125413 (2007).
[Crossref]

Clark, T. R.

J. A. Nanzer, T. P. McKenna, and T. R. Clark, “A W-band photonic array,” in Proc. Antennas Propagation Society Int. Symp. (2014), pp. 239–243.

Cohen, O.

Cramer, A.

Crozat, P.

Dainese, P.

G. S. Wiederhecker, P. Dainese, and T. P. Mayer Alegre, “Brillouin optomechanics in nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 071101 (2019).
[Crossref]

Damlencourt, J.-F.

de Lima, M. M.

M. M. de Lima, M. Beck, Y. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121104 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. M. de Lima, W. Seidel, H. Kostial, and P. V. Santos, “Embedded interdigital transducers of high-frequency surface acoustic waves on GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3494–3500 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. M. de Lima, F. Alsina, W. Seidel, and P. V. Santos, “Focusing of surface acoustic-wave fields on (100) GaAs surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7848 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dekorsy, T.

M. Schubert, M. Grossman, O. Ristow, M. Hettich, A. Bruchhausen, E. S. C. Barretto, E. Scheer, V. Gusev, and T. Dekorsy, “Spatial-temporally resolved high-frequency surface acoustic waves on silicon investigated by femtosecond spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Denysenko, D.

B. Paschke, A. Wixforth, D. Denysenko, and D. Volkmer, “Fast surface acoustic wave-based sensors to investigate the kinetics of gas uptake in ultra-microporous frameworks,” ACS Sens. 2, 740–747 (2017).
[Crossref]

Depero, L. E.

C. Giannetti, B. Revaz, F. Banfi, M. Montagnese, G. Ferrini, F. Cilento, S. Maccalli, P. Vavassori, G. Oliviero, E. Bontempi, L. E. Depero, V. Metlushko, and F. Parmigiani, “Thermomechanical behavior of surface acoustic waves in ordered arrays of nanodisks studied by near-infrared pump-probe diffraction experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125413 (2007).
[Crossref]

DeSalvo, R.

Desiatov, B.

Dezfulian, K. K.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, S. Hu, B. Peng, M. Rakowski, S. Rauch, J. C. Rosenberg, A. Sahin, I. Sobert, and A. Stricker, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 8200611 (2019).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

Y. Liu, A. Choudhary, D. Marpaung, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated microwave photonic filters,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 12, 485–555 (2020).
[Crossref]

L. McKay, M. Merklein, Y. Liu, A. Cramer, J. Maksymow, A. Chilton, K. Yan, D.-Y. Choi, S. J. Madden, R. DeSalvo, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated microwave photonic true-time delay with interferometric delay enhancement based on Brillouin scattering and microring resonators,” Opt. Express 28, 36020–36032 (2020).
[Crossref]

B. J. Eggleton, C. G. Poulton, P. T. Rakich, M. J. Steel, and G. Bahl, “Brillouin integrated photonics,” Nat. Photonics 13, 664–677 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Choudhary, B. Morrison, I. Aryanfar, S. Shahnia, M. Pagani, Y. Liu, K. Vu, S. J. Madden, D. Marpaung, and B. J. Eggleton, “Advanced integrated microwave signal processing with giant on-chip Brillouin gain,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 846–854 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Morrison, A. Casas-Bedoya, G. Ren, K. Vu, Y. Liu, A. Zarifi, T. G. Nguyen, D.-Y. Choi, D. Marpaung, S. J. Madden, A. Mitchell, and B. J. Eggleton, “Compact Brillouin devices through hybrid integration on silicon,” Optica 4, 847–854 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Aryanfar, D. Marpaung, A. Choudhary, Y. Liu, K. Vu, D.-Y. Choi, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chip-based Brillouin radio frequency photonic phase shifter and wideband time delay,” Opt. Lett. 42, 1313–1316 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Choudhary, I. Aryanfar, S. Shahnia, B. Morrison, K. Vu, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, D. Marpaung, and B. J. Eggleton, “Tailoring of the Brillouin gain for on-chip widely tunable and reconfigurable broadband microwave photonic filters,” Opt. Lett. 41, 436–439 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. J. Eggleton, C. G. Poulton, and R. Pant, “Inducing and harnessing stimulated Brillouin scattering in photonic integrated circuits,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 5, 536–587 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Pant, C. G. Poulton, D.-Y. Choi, H. Mcfarlane, S. Hile, E. Li, L. Thevenaz, B. Luther-Davies, S. J. Madden, and B. J. Eggleton, “On-chip stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Express 19, 8285–8290 (2011).
[Crossref]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fang, A. W.

Fédéli, J.-M.

Feldberg, M.

D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Hen, M. Priel, M. Feldberg, T. Sharabani, S. Levy, A. Bergman, and A. Zadok, “Surface acoustic wave photonic devices in silicon on insulator,” Nat. Commun. 10, 4214 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ferrini, G.

D. Nardi, M. Travagliati, M. E. Siemens, Q. Li, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, G. Ferrini, F. Parimgiani, and F. Banfi, “Probing thermomechanics at the nanoscale: impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic waves in hypersonic phononic crystals,” Nano Lett. 11, 4126–4133 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Giannetti, B. Revaz, F. Banfi, M. Montagnese, G. Ferrini, F. Cilento, S. Maccalli, P. Vavassori, G. Oliviero, E. Bontempi, L. E. Depero, V. Metlushko, and F. Parmigiani, “Thermomechanical behavior of surface acoustic waves in ordered arrays of nanodisks studied by near-infrared pump-probe diffraction experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125413 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ferry, V. E.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gertler, S.

S. Gertler, E. A. Kittlaus, N. T. Otterstrom, P. Kharel, and P. T. Rakich, “Microwave filtering using forward Brillouin scattering in photonic-phononic emit-receive devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 38, 5248–5261 (2020).
[Crossref]

S. Gertler, E. A. Kittlaus, N. T. Otterstrom, and P. T. Rakich, “Tunable microwave-photonic filtering with high out-of-band rejection in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 096103 (2020).
[Crossref]

Giannetti, C.

C. Giannetti, B. Revaz, F. Banfi, M. Montagnese, G. Ferrini, F. Cilento, S. Maccalli, P. Vavassori, G. Oliviero, E. Bontempi, L. E. Depero, V. Metlushko, and F. Parmigiani, “Thermomechanical behavior of surface acoustic waves in ordered arrays of nanodisks studied by near-infrared pump-probe diffraction experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125413 (2007).
[Crossref]

Giewont, K.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, S. Hu, B. Peng, M. Rakowski, S. Rauch, J. C. Rosenberg, A. Sahin, I. Sobert, and A. Stricker, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 8200611 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gill, D. M.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, S. Hu, B. Peng, M. Rakowski, S. Rauch, J. C. Rosenberg, A. Sahin, I. Sobert, and A. Stricker, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 8200611 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gomes, N. J.

González Herráez, M.

Grossman, M.

M. Schubert, M. Grossman, O. Ristow, M. Hettich, A. Bruchhausen, E. S. C. Barretto, E. Scheer, V. Gusev, and T. Dekorsy, “Spatial-temporally resolved high-frequency surface acoustic waves on silicon investigated by femtosecond spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Grunwald, E.

M. Katzman, D. Munk, M. Priel, E. Grunwald, M. Hen, and A. Zadok, “Integrated discrete-time surface acoustic wave photonic radio-frequency filters with arbitrary tap weights,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (to be published).

Gusev, V.

M. Schubert, M. Grossman, O. Ristow, M. Hettich, A. Bruchhausen, E. S. C. Barretto, E. Scheer, V. Gusev, and T. Dekorsy, “Spatial-temporally resolved high-frequency surface acoustic waves on silicon investigated by femtosecond spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hall, T. J.

Heideman, R.

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 506–538 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hen, M.

D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Hen, M. Priel, M. Feldberg, T. Sharabani, S. Levy, A. Bergman, and A. Zadok, “Surface acoustic wave photonic devices in silicon on insulator,” Nat. Commun. 10, 4214 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Katzman, D. Munk, M. Priel, E. Grunwald, M. Hen, and A. Zadok, “Integrated discrete-time surface acoustic wave photonic radio-frequency filters with arbitrary tap weights,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (to be published).

D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Hen, M. Priel, and A. Zadok, “Surface-acoustic-wave modulation of a silicon-on-insulator defect Bragg grating,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper SM2J.5.

M. Hen, D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Priel, S. Taragin, and A. Zadok, “Surface-acoustic-wave characterization of thin layer deposition on a standard silicon-photonic circuit,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA technical digest (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper STh1R.3.

Hettich, M.

M. Schubert, M. Grossman, O. Ristow, M. Hettich, A. Bruchhausen, E. S. C. Barretto, E. Scheer, V. Gusev, and T. Dekorsy, “Spatial-temporally resolved high-frequency surface acoustic waves on silicon investigated by femtosecond spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hey, Y.

M. M. de Lima, M. Beck, Y. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hile, S.

Hirata, A.

Houghton, T.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, S. Hu, B. Peng, M. Rakowski, S. Rauch, J. C. Rosenberg, A. Sahin, I. Sobert, and A. Stricker, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 8200611 (2019).
[Crossref]

Hu, S.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, S. Hu, B. Peng, M. Rakowski, S. Rauch, J. C. Rosenberg, A. Sahin, I. Sobert, and A. Stricker, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 8200611 (2019).
[Crossref]

Janz, S.

Jones, R.

Kado, Y.

Kapteyn, H. C.

D. Nardi, M. Travagliati, M. E. Siemens, Q. Li, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, G. Ferrini, F. Parimgiani, and F. Banfi, “Probing thermomechanics at the nanoscale: impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic waves in hypersonic phononic crystals,” Nano Lett. 11, 4126–4133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Katzman, M.

D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Hen, M. Priel, M. Feldberg, T. Sharabani, S. Levy, A. Bergman, and A. Zadok, “Surface acoustic wave photonic devices in silicon on insulator,” Nat. Commun. 10, 4214 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Katzman, D. Munk, M. Priel, E. Grunwald, M. Hen, and A. Zadok, “Integrated discrete-time surface acoustic wave photonic radio-frequency filters with arbitrary tap weights,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (to be published).

D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Hen, M. Priel, and A. Zadok, “Surface-acoustic-wave modulation of a silicon-on-insulator defect Bragg grating,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper SM2J.5.

M. Hen, D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Priel, S. Taragin, and A. Zadok, “Surface-acoustic-wave characterization of thin layer deposition on a standard silicon-photonic circuit,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA technical digest (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper STh1R.3.

Kharel, P.

Kim, S.

D. B. Sohn, S. Kim, and G. Bahl, “Time-reversal symmetry breaking with acoustic pumping of nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Photonics 12, 91–97 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kittlaus, E. A.

Kostial, H.

M. M. de Lima, W. Seidel, H. Kostial, and P. V. Santos, “Embedded interdigital transducers of high-frequency surface acoustic waves on GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3494–3500 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kosugi, T.

Kukutsu, N.

Lahoz, F. J.

A. Loayssa and F. J. Lahoz, “Broad-band RF photonic phase shifter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and single-sideband modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 208–210 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lai, K.

Lamontagne, B.

Lapointe, J.

Laval, S.

Lecunff, Y.

Lee, H.

J. Li, H. Lee, and K. J. Vahala, “Microwave synthesizer using an on-chip Brillouin oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2097 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leinse, A.

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 506–538 (2013).
[Crossref]

Levy, S.

D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Hen, M. Priel, M. Feldberg, T. Sharabani, S. Levy, A. Bergman, and A. Zadok, “Surface acoustic wave photonic devices in silicon on insulator,” Nat. Commun. 10, 4214 (2019).
[Crossref]

Levy, U.

Li, D.

L. W. Moore, K. N. Sprjnger, J. X. Shi, X. Yang, B. I. Swanson, and D. Li, “Surface acoustic wave chemical microsensors based on covalently bound self-assembled host monolayers,” Adv. Mater. 7, 729–731 (1995).
[Crossref]

Li, E.

Li, H.

Li, J.

J. Li, H. Lee, and K. J. Vahala, “Microwave synthesizer using an on-chip Brillouin oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2097 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

Li, Q.

D. Nardi, M. Travagliati, M. E. Siemens, Q. Li, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, G. Ferrini, F. Parimgiani, and F. Banfi, “Probing thermomechanics at the nanoscale: impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic waves in hypersonic phononic crystals,” Nano Lett. 11, 4126–4133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, A. Y.

A. Y. Liu and J. E. Bowers, “Photonic integration with epitaxial III–V on silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 6000412 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q.

Liu, Y.

Loayssa, A.

A. Loayssa and F. J. Lahoz, “Broad-band RF photonic phase shifter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and single-sideband modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 208–210 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lockwood, D. J.

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics III, Vol. 119 in Topics in Applied Physics (Springer, 2016).

Loncar, M.

Luther-Davies, B.

Ma, P.

Maccalli, S.

C. Giannetti, B. Revaz, F. Banfi, M. Montagnese, G. Ferrini, F. Cilento, S. Maccalli, P. Vavassori, G. Oliviero, E. Bontempi, L. E. Depero, V. Metlushko, and F. Parmigiani, “Thermomechanical behavior of surface acoustic waves in ordered arrays of nanodisks studied by near-infrared pump-probe diffraction experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125413 (2007).
[Crossref]

Madden, S.

Madden, S. J.

Madsen, C. K.

C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach (Wiley, 1999).

Maity, S.

Maksymow, J.

Marpaung, D.

Y. Liu, A. Choudhary, D. Marpaung, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated microwave photonic filters,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 12, 485–555 (2020).
[Crossref]

D. Marpaung, J. Yao, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Nat. Photonics 13, 80–90 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Choudhary, B. Morrison, I. Aryanfar, S. Shahnia, M. Pagani, Y. Liu, K. Vu, S. J. Madden, D. Marpaung, and B. J. Eggleton, “Advanced integrated microwave signal processing with giant on-chip Brillouin gain,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 846–854 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Morrison, A. Casas-Bedoya, G. Ren, K. Vu, Y. Liu, A. Zarifi, T. G. Nguyen, D.-Y. Choi, D. Marpaung, S. J. Madden, A. Mitchell, and B. J. Eggleton, “Compact Brillouin devices through hybrid integration on silicon,” Optica 4, 847–854 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Aryanfar, D. Marpaung, A. Choudhary, Y. Liu, K. Vu, D.-Y. Choi, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chip-based Brillouin radio frequency photonic phase shifter and wideband time delay,” Opt. Lett. 42, 1313–1316 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Choudhary, I. Aryanfar, S. Shahnia, B. Morrison, K. Vu, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, D. Marpaung, and B. J. Eggleton, “Tailoring of the Brillouin gain for on-chip widely tunable and reconfigurable broadband microwave photonic filters,” Opt. Lett. 41, 436–439 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 506–538 (2013).
[Crossref]

Marris-Morini, D.

Mayer Alegre, T. P.

G. S. Wiederhecker, P. Dainese, and T. P. Mayer Alegre, “Brillouin optomechanics in nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 071101 (2019).
[Crossref]

Mazurski, N.

Mcfarlane, H.

McKay, L.

McKenna, T. P.

J. A. Nanzer, T. P. McKenna, and T. R. Clark, “A W-band photonic array,” in Proc. Antennas Propagation Society Int. Symp. (2014), pp. 239–243.

Merklein, M.

Metlushko, V.

C. Giannetti, B. Revaz, F. Banfi, M. Montagnese, G. Ferrini, F. Cilento, S. Maccalli, P. Vavassori, G. Oliviero, E. Bontempi, L. E. Depero, V. Metlushko, and F. Parmigiani, “Thermomechanical behavior of surface acoustic waves in ordered arrays of nanodisks studied by near-infrared pump-probe diffraction experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125413 (2007).
[Crossref]

Minasian, R.

Mitchell, A.

Montagnese, M.

C. Giannetti, B. Revaz, F. Banfi, M. Montagnese, G. Ferrini, F. Cilento, S. Maccalli, P. Vavassori, G. Oliviero, E. Bontempi, L. E. Depero, V. Metlushko, and F. Parmigiani, “Thermomechanical behavior of surface acoustic waves in ordered arrays of nanodisks studied by near-infrared pump-probe diffraction experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125413 (2007).
[Crossref]

Moore, L. W.

L. W. Moore, K. N. Sprjnger, J. X. Shi, X. Yang, B. I. Swanson, and D. Li, “Surface acoustic wave chemical microsensors based on covalently bound self-assembled host monolayers,” Adv. Mater. 7, 729–731 (1995).
[Crossref]

Morrison, B.

Munk, D.

D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Hen, M. Priel, M. Feldberg, T. Sharabani, S. Levy, A. Bergman, and A. Zadok, “Surface acoustic wave photonic devices in silicon on insulator,” Nat. Commun. 10, 4214 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Katzman, D. Munk, M. Priel, E. Grunwald, M. Hen, and A. Zadok, “Integrated discrete-time surface acoustic wave photonic radio-frequency filters with arbitrary tap weights,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (to be published).

D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Hen, M. Priel, and A. Zadok, “Surface-acoustic-wave modulation of a silicon-on-insulator defect Bragg grating,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper SM2J.5.

M. Hen, D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Priel, S. Taragin, and A. Zadok, “Surface-acoustic-wave characterization of thin layer deposition on a standard silicon-photonic circuit,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA technical digest (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper STh1R.3.

Murata, K.

Murnane, M. M.

D. Nardi, M. Travagliati, M. E. Siemens, Q. Li, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, G. Ferrini, F. Parimgiani, and F. Banfi, “Probing thermomechanics at the nanoscale: impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic waves in hypersonic phononic crystals,” Nano Lett. 11, 4126–4133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nagatsuma, T.

Naiman, A.

Nanzer, J. A.

J. A. Nanzer, T. P. McKenna, and T. R. Clark, “A W-band photonic array,” in Proc. Antennas Propagation Society Int. Symp. (2014), pp. 239–243.

Nardi, D.

D. Nardi, M. Travagliati, M. E. Siemens, Q. Li, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, G. Ferrini, F. Parimgiani, and F. Banfi, “Probing thermomechanics at the nanoscale: impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic waves in hypersonic phononic crystals,” Nano Lett. 11, 4126–4133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, T. G.

Nkansah, A.

Novack, D.

R. Waterhouse and D. Novack, “Realizing 5G: microwave photonics for 5G mobile wireless systems,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 16(8), 84–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Novak, D.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1, 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nummy, K.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, S. Hu, B. Peng, M. Rakowski, S. Rauch, J. C. Rosenberg, A. Sahin, I. Sobert, and A. Stricker, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 8200611 (2019).
[Crossref]

Oliner, A. A.

A. A. Oliner, “Acoustic Surface Waves,” Vol. 24 in Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1978).

Oliviero, G.

C. Giannetti, B. Revaz, F. Banfi, M. Montagnese, G. Ferrini, F. Cilento, S. Maccalli, P. Vavassori, G. Oliviero, E. Bontempi, L. E. Depero, V. Metlushko, and F. Parmigiani, “Thermomechanical behavior of surface acoustic waves in ordered arrays of nanodisks studied by near-infrared pump-probe diffraction experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125413 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ortega, B.

Osmond, J.

Otterstrom, N. T.

Pagani, M.

Paniccia, M. J.

Pant, R.

Parimgiani, F.

D. Nardi, M. Travagliati, M. E. Siemens, Q. Li, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, G. Ferrini, F. Parimgiani, and F. Banfi, “Probing thermomechanics at the nanoscale: impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic waves in hypersonic phononic crystals,” Nano Lett. 11, 4126–4133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Park, H.

Parmigiani, F.

C. Giannetti, B. Revaz, F. Banfi, M. Montagnese, G. Ferrini, F. Cilento, S. Maccalli, P. Vavassori, G. Oliviero, E. Bontempi, L. E. Depero, V. Metlushko, and F. Parmigiani, “Thermomechanical behavior of surface acoustic waves in ordered arrays of nanodisks studied by near-infrared pump-probe diffraction experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125413 (2007).
[Crossref]

Paschke, B.

B. Paschke, A. Wixforth, D. Denysenko, and D. Volkmer, “Fast surface acoustic wave-based sensors to investigate the kinetics of gas uptake in ultra-microporous frameworks,” ACS Sens. 2, 740–747 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pastor, D.

Pavesi, L.

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics III, Vol. 119 in Topics in Applied Physics (Springer, 2016).

Peng, B.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, S. Hu, B. Peng, M. Rakowski, S. Rauch, J. C. Rosenberg, A. Sahin, I. Sobert, and A. Stricker, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 8200611 (2019).
[Crossref]

Peters, J. D.

Poulton, C. G.

Priel, M.

D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Hen, M. Priel, M. Feldberg, T. Sharabani, S. Levy, A. Bergman, and A. Zadok, “Surface acoustic wave photonic devices in silicon on insulator,” Nat. Commun. 10, 4214 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Hen, M. Priel, and A. Zadok, “Surface-acoustic-wave modulation of a silicon-on-insulator defect Bragg grating,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper SM2J.5.

M. Katzman, D. Munk, M. Priel, E. Grunwald, M. Hen, and A. Zadok, “Integrated discrete-time surface acoustic wave photonic radio-frequency filters with arbitrary tap weights,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (to be published).

M. Hen, D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Priel, S. Taragin, and A. Zadok, “Surface-acoustic-wave characterization of thin layer deposition on a standard silicon-photonic circuit,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA technical digest (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper STh1R.3.

Radic, S.

G. P. Agrawal and S. Radic, “Phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings and their application for wavelength demultiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 995–997 (1994).
[Crossref]

Rakich, P. T.

S. Gertler, E. A. Kittlaus, N. T. Otterstrom, P. Kharel, and P. T. Rakich, “Microwave filtering using forward Brillouin scattering in photonic-phononic emit-receive devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 38, 5248–5261 (2020).
[Crossref]

S. Gertler, E. A. Kittlaus, N. T. Otterstrom, and P. T. Rakich, “Tunable microwave-photonic filtering with high out-of-band rejection in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 096103 (2020).
[Crossref]

B. J. Eggleton, C. G. Poulton, P. T. Rakich, M. J. Steel, and G. Bahl, “Brillouin integrated photonics,” Nat. Photonics 13, 664–677 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. A. Kittlaus, P. Kharel, N. T. Otterstrom, Z. Wang, and P. T. Rakich, “RF photonic filters via on-chip photonic–phononic emit–receive operations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 2803–2809 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rakowski, M.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, S. Hu, B. Peng, M. Rakowski, S. Rauch, J. C. Rosenberg, A. Sahin, I. Sobert, and A. Stricker, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 8200611 (2019).
[Crossref]

Rauch, S.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, S. Hu, B. Peng, M. Rakowski, S. Rauch, J. C. Rosenberg, A. Sahin, I. Sobert, and A. Stricker, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 8200611 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ren, G.

Revaz, B.

C. Giannetti, B. Revaz, F. Banfi, M. Montagnese, G. Ferrini, F. Cilento, S. Maccalli, P. Vavassori, G. Oliviero, E. Bontempi, L. E. Depero, V. Metlushko, and F. Parmigiani, “Thermomechanical behavior of surface acoustic waves in ordered arrays of nanodisks studied by near-infrared pump-probe diffraction experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125413 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ristow, O.

M. Schubert, M. Grossman, O. Ristow, M. Hettich, A. Bruchhausen, E. S. C. Barretto, E. Scheer, V. Gusev, and T. Dekorsy, “Spatial-temporally resolved high-frequency surface acoustic waves on silicon investigated by femtosecond spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Roeloffzen, C.

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 506–538 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rosenberg, J. C.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, S. Hu, B. Peng, M. Rakowski, S. Rauch, J. C. Rosenberg, A. Sahin, I. Sobert, and A. Stricker, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 8200611 (2019).
[Crossref]

Safavi-Naeini, A. H.

Sahin, A.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, S. Hu, B. Peng, M. Rakowski, S. Rauch, J. C. Rosenberg, A. Sahin, I. Sobert, and A. Stricker, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 8200611 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sales, S.

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 506–538 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, and S. Sales, “Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 702–723 (2005).
[Crossref]

Santos, P. V.

M. M. de Lima, M. Beck, Y. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121104 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. M. de Lima, W. Seidel, H. Kostial, and P. V. Santos, “Embedded interdigital transducers of high-frequency surface acoustic waves on GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3494–3500 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. M. de Lima, F. Alsina, W. Seidel, and P. V. Santos, “Focusing of surface acoustic-wave fields on (100) GaAs surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7848 (2003).
[Crossref]

Scheer, E.

M. Schubert, M. Grossman, O. Ristow, M. Hettich, A. Bruchhausen, E. S. C. Barretto, E. Scheer, V. Gusev, and T. Dekorsy, “Spatial-temporally resolved high-frequency surface acoustic waves on silicon investigated by femtosecond spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schmid, J. H.

Schubert, M.

M. Schubert, M. Grossman, O. Ristow, M. Hettich, A. Bruchhausen, E. S. C. Barretto, E. Scheer, V. Gusev, and T. Dekorsy, “Spatial-temporally resolved high-frequency surface acoustic waves on silicon investigated by femtosecond spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Seeds, A.

A. Seeds, “Microwave photonics,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 877–887 (2002).
[Crossref]

Seidel, W.

M. M. de Lima, W. Seidel, H. Kostial, and P. V. Santos, “Embedded interdigital transducers of high-frequency surface acoustic waves on GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3494–3500 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. M. de Lima, F. Alsina, W. Seidel, and P. V. Santos, “Focusing of surface acoustic-wave fields on (100) GaAs surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7848 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shahnia, S.

Shams-Ansari, A.

Shao, L.

Shappir, J.

Sharabani, T.

D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Hen, M. Priel, M. Feldberg, T. Sharabani, S. Levy, A. Bergman, and A. Zadok, “Surface acoustic wave photonic devices in silicon on insulator,” Nat. Commun. 10, 4214 (2019).
[Crossref]

Shi, J. X.

L. W. Moore, K. N. Sprjnger, J. X. Shi, X. Yang, B. I. Swanson, and D. Li, “Surface acoustic wave chemical microsensors based on covalently bound self-assembled host monolayers,” Adv. Mater. 7, 729–731 (1995).
[Crossref]

Siemens, M. E.

D. Nardi, M. Travagliati, M. E. Siemens, Q. Li, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, G. Ferrini, F. Parimgiani, and F. Banfi, “Probing thermomechanics at the nanoscale: impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic waves in hypersonic phononic crystals,” Nano Lett. 11, 4126–4133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sinclair, N.

Sobert, I.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, S. Hu, B. Peng, M. Rakowski, S. Rauch, J. C. Rosenberg, A. Sahin, I. Sobert, and A. Stricker, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 8200611 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sohn, D. B.

D. B. Sohn, S. Kim, and G. Bahl, “Time-reversal symmetry breaking with acoustic pumping of nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Photonics 12, 91–97 (2018).
[Crossref]

Song, K. Y.

Sprjnger, K. N.

L. W. Moore, K. N. Sprjnger, J. X. Shi, X. Yang, B. I. Swanson, and D. Li, “Surface acoustic wave chemical microsensors based on covalently bound self-assembled host monolayers,” Adv. Mater. 7, 729–731 (1995).
[Crossref]

Steel, M. J.

B. J. Eggleton, C. G. Poulton, P. T. Rakich, M. J. Steel, and G. Bahl, “Brillouin integrated photonics,” Nat. Photonics 13, 664–677 (2019).
[Crossref]

Stern, L.

Stricker, A.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, S. Hu, B. Peng, M. Rakowski, S. Rauch, J. C. Rosenberg, A. Sahin, I. Sobert, and A. Stricker, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 8200611 (2019).
[Crossref]

Swanson, B. I.

L. W. Moore, K. N. Sprjnger, J. X. Shi, X. Yang, B. I. Swanson, and D. Li, “Surface acoustic wave chemical microsensors based on covalently bound self-assembled host monolayers,” Adv. Mater. 7, 729–731 (1995).
[Crossref]

Tadesse, S.

S. Tadesse, “Nano-optomechanical system based on microwave frequency surface acoustic waves,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Minnesota, 2016).

Tadesse, S. A.

Takahashi, H.

Taragin, S.

M. Hen, D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Priel, S. Taragin, and A. Zadok, “Surface-acoustic-wave characterization of thin layer deposition on a standard silicon-photonic circuit,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA technical digest (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper STh1R.3.

Thevenaz, L.

Thévenaz, L.

Travagliati, M.

D. Nardi, M. Travagliati, M. E. Siemens, Q. Li, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, G. Ferrini, F. Parimgiani, and F. Banfi, “Probing thermomechanics at the nanoscale: impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic waves in hypersonic phononic crystals,” Nano Lett. 11, 4126–4133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K. J.

J. Li, H. Lee, and K. J. Vahala, “Microwave synthesizer using an on-chip Brillouin oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2097 (2013).
[Crossref]

Van Laer, R.

Van Thourhout, D.

Vavassori, P.

C. Giannetti, B. Revaz, F. Banfi, M. Montagnese, G. Ferrini, F. Cilento, S. Maccalli, P. Vavassori, G. Oliviero, E. Bontempi, L. E. Depero, V. Metlushko, and F. Parmigiani, “Thermomechanical behavior of surface acoustic waves in ordered arrays of nanodisks studied by near-infrared pump-probe diffraction experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125413 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vivien, L.

Volkmer, D.

B. Paschke, A. Wixforth, D. Denysenko, and D. Volkmer, “Fast surface acoustic wave-based sensors to investigate the kinetics of gas uptake in ultra-microporous frameworks,” ACS Sens. 2, 740–747 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vu, K.

Wake, D.

Wang, C.

Wang, Z.

Waterhouse, R.

R. Waterhouse and D. Novack, “Realizing 5G: microwave photonics for 5G mobile wireless systems,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 16(8), 84–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wiederhecker, G. S.

G. S. Wiederhecker, P. Dainese, and T. P. Mayer Alegre, “Brillouin optomechanics in nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 071101 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wixforth, A.

B. Paschke, A. Wixforth, D. Denysenko, and D. Volkmer, “Fast surface acoustic wave-based sensors to investigate the kinetics of gas uptake in ultra-microporous frameworks,” ACS Sens. 2, 740–747 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wohltjen, H.

H. Wohltjen, “Mechanism of operation and design considerations for surface acoustic wave device vapour sensors,” Sens. Actuators 5, 307–325 (1984).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.-X.

Yamaguchi, R.

Yan, K.

Yang, X.

L. W. Moore, K. N. Sprjnger, J. X. Shi, X. Yang, B. I. Swanson, and D. Li, “Surface acoustic wave chemical microsensors based on covalently bound self-assembled host monolayers,” Adv. Mater. 7, 729–731 (1995).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

D. Marpaung, J. Yao, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Nat. Photonics 13, 80–90 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 314–335 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yao, X. S.

X. S. Yao, “Brillouin selective sideband amplification of microwave photonic signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 138–140 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, “Wave propagation in periodic media,” in Photonics, 6th ed. (Oxford, 2007), chap. 12.

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, “Wave propagation in periodic media,” in Photonics, 6th ed. (Oxford, 2007), chap. 12.

Yi, X.

Yu, M.

Zadok, A.

D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Hen, M. Priel, M. Feldberg, T. Sharabani, S. Levy, A. Bergman, and A. Zadok, “Surface acoustic wave photonic devices in silicon on insulator,” Nat. Commun. 10, 4214 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Katzman, D. Munk, M. Priel, E. Grunwald, M. Hen, and A. Zadok, “Integrated discrete-time surface acoustic wave photonic radio-frequency filters with arbitrary tap weights,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (to be published).

D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Hen, M. Priel, and A. Zadok, “Surface-acoustic-wave modulation of a silicon-on-insulator defect Bragg grating,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper SM2J.5.

M. Hen, D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Priel, S. Taragin, and A. Zadok, “Surface-acoustic-wave characterization of thin layer deposition on a standard silicon-photonic circuit,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA technical digest (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper STh1R.3.

Zarifi, A.

Zhang, C.

Zhang, M.

Zhang, S.

Zhao, J. H.

C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach (Wiley, 1999).

Zheng, L.

ACS Sens. (1)

B. Paschke, A. Wixforth, D. Denysenko, and D. Volkmer, “Fast surface acoustic wave-based sensors to investigate the kinetics of gas uptake in ultra-microporous frameworks,” ACS Sens. 2, 740–747 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

L. W. Moore, K. N. Sprjnger, J. X. Shi, X. Yang, B. I. Swanson, and D. Li, “Surface acoustic wave chemical microsensors based on covalently bound self-assembled host monolayers,” Adv. Mater. 7, 729–731 (1995).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. Gertler, E. A. Kittlaus, N. T. Otterstrom, and P. T. Rakich, “Tunable microwave-photonic filtering with high out-of-band rejection in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 096103 (2020).
[Crossref]

M. Schubert, M. Grossman, O. Ristow, M. Hettich, A. Bruchhausen, E. S. C. Barretto, E. Scheer, V. Gusev, and T. Dekorsy, “Spatial-temporally resolved high-frequency surface acoustic waves on silicon investigated by femtosecond spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013108 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. S. Wiederhecker, P. Dainese, and T. P. Mayer Alegre, “Brillouin optomechanics in nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 071101 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. M. de Lima, M. Beck, Y. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121104 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Y. Liu and J. E. Bowers, “Photonic integration with epitaxial III–V on silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 6000412 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, S. Hu, B. Peng, M. Rakowski, S. Rauch, J. C. Rosenberg, A. Sahin, I. Sobert, and A. Stricker, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 8200611 (2019).
[Crossref]

IEEE Microw. Mag. (1)

R. Waterhouse and D. Novack, “Realizing 5G: microwave photonics for 5G mobile wireless systems,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 16(8), 84–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

X. S. Yao, “Brillouin selective sideband amplification of microwave photonic signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 138–140 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Loayssa and F. J. Lahoz, “Broad-band RF photonic phase shifter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and single-sideband modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 208–210 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. P. Agrawal and S. Radic, “Phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings and their application for wavelength demultiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 995–997 (1994).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

A. Seeds, “Microwave photonics,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 877–887 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. M. de Lima, W. Seidel, H. Kostial, and P. V. Santos, “Embedded interdigital transducers of high-frequency surface acoustic waves on GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3494–3500 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. M. de Lima, F. Alsina, W. Seidel, and P. V. Santos, “Focusing of surface acoustic-wave fields on (100) GaAs surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7848 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (9)

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 314–335 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Wake, A. Nkansah, and N. J. Gomes, “Radio over fiber link design for next generation wireless systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2456–2464 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Hirata, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, T. Kosugi, K. Murata, T. Nagatsuma, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Transmission characteristics of 120 GHz-band wireless link using radio-on-fiber technologies,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 2338–2344 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, “A tutorial on microwave photonic filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 201–229 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Choudhary, B. Morrison, I. Aryanfar, S. Shahnia, M. Pagani, Y. Liu, K. Vu, S. J. Madden, D. Marpaung, and B. J. Eggleton, “Advanced integrated microwave signal processing with giant on-chip Brillouin gain,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 846–854 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, and S. Sales, “Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 702–723 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. A. Kittlaus, P. Kharel, N. T. Otterstrom, Z. Wang, and P. T. Rakich, “RF photonic filters via on-chip photonic–phononic emit–receive operations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 2803–2809 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Gertler, E. A. Kittlaus, N. T. Otterstrom, P. Kharel, and P. T. Rakich, “Microwave filtering using forward Brillouin scattering in photonic-phononic emit-receive devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 38, 5248–5261 (2020).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 506–538 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

D. Nardi, M. Travagliati, M. E. Siemens, Q. Li, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, G. Ferrini, F. Parimgiani, and F. Banfi, “Probing thermomechanics at the nanoscale: impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic waves in hypersonic phononic crystals,” Nano Lett. 11, 4126–4133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (3)

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Hen, M. Priel, M. Feldberg, T. Sharabani, S. Levy, A. Bergman, and A. Zadok, “Surface acoustic wave photonic devices in silicon on insulator,” Nat. Commun. 10, 4214 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Li, H. Lee, and K. J. Vahala, “Microwave synthesizer using an on-chip Brillouin oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2097 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (4)

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1, 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Marpaung, J. Yao, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Nat. Photonics 13, 80–90 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. J. Eggleton, C. G. Poulton, P. T. Rakich, M. J. Steel, and G. Bahl, “Brillouin integrated photonics,” Nat. Photonics 13, 664–677 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. B. Sohn, S. Kim, and G. Bahl, “Time-reversal symmetry breaking with acoustic pumping of nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Photonics 12, 91–97 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optica (5)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. Giannetti, B. Revaz, F. Banfi, M. Montagnese, G. Ferrini, F. Cilento, S. Maccalli, P. Vavassori, G. Oliviero, E. Bontempi, L. E. Depero, V. Metlushko, and F. Parmigiani, “Thermomechanical behavior of surface acoustic waves in ordered arrays of nanodisks studied by near-infrared pump-probe diffraction experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125413 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators (1)

H. Wohltjen, “Mechanism of operation and design considerations for surface acoustic wave device vapour sensors,” Sens. Actuators 5, 307–325 (1984).
[Crossref]

Other (10)

C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach (Wiley, 1999).

M. Hen, D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Priel, S. Taragin, and A. Zadok, “Surface-acoustic-wave characterization of thin layer deposition on a standard silicon-photonic circuit,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA technical digest (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper STh1R.3.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, “Wave propagation in periodic media,” in Photonics, 6th ed. (Oxford, 2007), chap. 12.

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics III, Vol. 119 in Topics in Applied Physics (Springer, 2016).

J. A. Nanzer, T. P. McKenna, and T. R. Clark, “A W-band photonic array,” in Proc. Antennas Propagation Society Int. Symp. (2014), pp. 239–243.

A. A. Oliner, “Acoustic Surface Waves,” Vol. 24 in Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1978).

C. Campbell, Surface Acoustic Wave Devices for Mobile and Wireless Communications (Academic, 1998).

D. Munk, M. Katzman, M. Hen, M. Priel, and A. Zadok, “Surface-acoustic-wave modulation of a silicon-on-insulator defect Bragg grating,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper SM2J.5.

M. Katzman, D. Munk, M. Priel, E. Grunwald, M. Hen, and A. Zadok, “Integrated discrete-time surface acoustic wave photonic radio-frequency filters with arbitrary tap weights,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (to be published).

S. Tadesse, “Nano-optomechanical system based on microwave frequency surface acoustic waves,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Minnesota, 2016).

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       Supplementary discussion

Data Availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) SAW-photonic devices. An incident optical pump wave is intensity modulated at RF $f$ and illuminates a metallic grating of spatial period ${\Lambda}$ . Absorption of light results in periodic heating and cooling of the thin metallic stripes, leading to thermal expansion and contraction. The strain pattern is transferred to the underlying silicon device layer. If the frequency and period match those of a surface acoustic mode of the SOI layer stack, a SAW is launched away from the grating. Information is recovered in the optical domain through photoelastic modulation of a probe light in a resonator waveguide. The resonator consists of multiple waveguide sections that run parallel to the grating elements. The SAW front induces multiple modulation events, separated by long acoustic propagation delays. The transfer function of a device comprising $N$ parallel waveguide sections is that of an $N$ -tap, discrete-time MWP filter. (b) Modifying the magnitude of a specific tap weight through changing the width of the corresponding waveguide section. When the width $W$ exceeds half the SAW period ${\Lambda}/2$ , photoelastic perturbations are partially canceled out (see inset). (c) Modifying the RF phase of a specific tap weight through a small-scale offset in the position of the corresponding waveguide section. (d) Schematic illustration of a SAW-photonic device in which the probe resonator waveguide is replaced by a Bragg grating waveguide with a defect region.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Top-view optical microscope image of a 12-tap SAW-photonic filter device. The metallic grating is patterned to the right of the resonator waveguide. (b) Measured normalized transfer function of the probe optical power through the resonator waveguide of an eight-tap SAW-photonic filter device.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Schematic illustration of the experimental setup. EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; DUT, device under test; PC, polarization controller; MZM, electro-optic Mach–Zehnder intensity modulator; PD, photodiode; BPF, optical bandpass filter; VNA, RF vector network analyzer; (b) measured (solid) and calculated (dashed) normalized transfer functions of RF power through a 12-tap, integrated SAW-photonic filter device. Agreement between design and experiment is very good. The basic unit delay of the filter is 16 ns. The FSR is 65 MHz, and the FWHM of the periodic passbands is 5 MHz. (c) Experimental absolute value of the impulse response of the same device. The decaying series of impulses corresponds to SAW propagation losses of ${12}\;{{\rm dB}\times{\rm mm}^{- 1}}$ .
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Top-view microscope image of a two-tap integrated SAW-photonic filter device; (b) experimental absolute values of the impulse responses of eight different two-tap integrated SAW-photonic filter devices. In all devices, the width of the waveguide section corresponding to the first filter tap was 700 nm, leading to maximal photoelastic phase modulation. The width of the waveguide section corresponding to the second filter tap was varied among the devices (see legend). The magnitude of the tap weight decreases with waveguide width, due to partial cancellation of the photo-elastic modulation across the waveguide’s lateral extent. (c) Measured relative tap magnitude as a function of waveguide width. Red markers, experimental data; blue trace, third-order polynomial fit.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Measured (solid) and calculated (dashed) normalized transfer functions of RF power through an eight-tap, integrated SAW-photonic filter device. The basic unit delay of the filter is 16 ns. Agreement between design and experiment is very good. The FSR is 65 MHz, and the FWHM of the periodic passbands is 8 MHz. (b) Experimental absolute value of the impulse response of the device of panel (a). The weights of individual taps are adjusted through waveguides width variations to compensate for SAWs propagation losses (see Fig. 3 for comparison). (c) Measured (solid red) and calculated (dashed red) normalized transfer functions of RF power through a second eight-tap, integrated SAW-photonic filter device. The measurement of the device of panel (a) is shown again (blue). Compared with the device of panel (a), the waveguide sections corresponding to taps $m = 1$ , 3, 5, and 7 are offset by half the SAW wavelength to implement a phase shift of $ \pi \; {\rm rad}$ . The transfer function is shifted by half the FSR, as expected. (d) Experimental absolute value of the impulse response of the device of panel (c). The tap weights remain equalized.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Top-view optical microscope image of a SAW-photonic filter device in which the probe wave propagates in a Bragg grating waveguide with a defect region instead of a race-track resonator. The inset shows a scanning electron microscope image of part of the grating waveguide. (b) Measured and calculated transfer functions of optical power through the defect grating waveguide. A narrow transmission feature is introduced within the grating stop band. The measured response is in good agreement with calculations. (c) Measured transfer function of RF power through a SAW-photonic filter device comprising a defect grating waveguide.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) RF power spectrum of the output voltage of an eight-tap SAW-photonic filter device as a function of RF detuning from the peak frequency ${f_{{\max }}}$ . The measurement bandwidth was 30 Hz. The input waveform was a sine wave of frequency ${f_{{\max }}} = 2.366625\;{\rm GHz}$ , within the maximum transmission passband of the device. The average optical power of the input pump wave was 150 mW. The input RF power was ${+}20\;{\rm dBm} $ , and the corresponding output power at ${f_{{\max }}}$ was ${-}{84}\;{\rm dBm}$ . The output signal-to-noise ratio per unit bandwidth was ${58}\;{\rm dB} \times {{\rm Hz}^{- 1}}$ . (b) RF power spectrum of the output voltage of a two-tap SAW-photonic filter device as a function of frequency detuning from the peak frequency ${f_{{\max }}}$ . The measurement bandwidth was 30 Hz. The input waveform was a sine wave of frequency ${f_{{\max }}} = 2.399875\;{\rm GHz}$ , within the maximum transmission passband of the device. The $Q$ factor of the probe wave resonator waveguide in this device was 150,000. The average optical power of the pump wave was 300 mW. The input RF power was ${+}20\;{\rm dBm} $ . The corresponding output power at ${f_{{\max }}}$ was ${-}{53}\;{\rm dBm}$ . The output signal-to-noise ratio per unit bandwidth was ${55}\;{\rm dB} \times {{\rm Hz}^{- 1}}$ .

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ n m ( t ) exp ( α 2 y m ) Q m P E C [ π V m i d ( t y m v ) / ( V π ) ] P ¯ p = exp ( α 2 y m ) Q m P E Δ n max ( t y m v ) .
Δ φ m ( t ) = k 0 l Δ n m ( t ) = k 0 l exp ( α 2 y m ) Q m P E Δ n max ( t y m v ) .
V o u t ( t ) π P ¯ p C V π l L Q n 2 P ¯ s R exp ( α 2 y 0 ) × m = 0 N 1 [ Q m P E exp ( α 2 m v τ ) × V m i d ( t m τ y 0 v ) ] .
h R ( t ) = m = 0 N 1 h m δ ( t m τ ) ,
h m = π P ¯ p C V π l L Q n 2 P ¯ s R exp ( α 2 y 0 ) Q m P E exp ( α 2 m v τ ) = K Q m P E exp ( α 2 m v τ ) .
H T o t ( f ) = H R ( f ) H G ( f ) .
Δ ν S A W ( t ) = Δ φ ( t ) 2 π c n L = ν 0 l L Δ n m ( t ) n .
Δ P s ( t ) 2 Δ ν S A W ( t ) Δ ν F W H M P ¯ s = 2 ν 0 Δ ν F W H M l L Δ n m ( t ) n P ¯ s = 2 Q l L Δ n m ( t ) n P ¯ s .

Metrics