Abstract

A lattice-shifted photonic crystal waveguide (LSPCW) maintains slow light as a guided mode and works as an optical antenna when a kind of double periodicity is introduced. Selecting one LSPCW from its array and converting the fan beam to a spot beam using a collimator lens allows non-mechanical, two-dimensional beam steering. We employed a shallow-etched grating into the LSPCW as the double periodicity to increase the upward emission efficiency and designed a bespoke prism lens to convert the steering angle in a desired direction while maintaining the collimation condition for the steered beam. As a result, a sharp spot beam with an average beam divergence of 0.15° was steered in the range of ${40}^\circ \; \times \;{4.4}^\circ $ without precise adjustment of the lens position. The number of resolution points obtained was 4256. This method did not require complicated and power-consuming optical phase control like that in optical phased arrays, so it is expected to be applied in complete solid-state light detection and ranging.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. INTRODUCTION

Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has been anticipated as a three-dimensional (3D) sensor for use in autonomous vehicles, robots, and drones; in security systems and capture; in mapping and surveying; and in certain areas of entertainment. Many LiDAR systems are composed of a laser source, a photodetector, and an optical beam steering device. For the beam steering, a mechanical system like a rotating mirror is usually used [1], which makes the system large, costly, and unstable. Recently, micro-electromechanical system mirrors have been employed for size and cost reduction [2], but there is a trade-off between the size, beam divergence (or resolution), and speed. Therefore, complete non-mechanical (solid-state) devices have been sought, and optical phased arrays (OPAs) fabricated by using a silicon (Si) photonics, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process have been developed extensively for this purpose [310]. However, there are still many challenges for OPAs in the large-scale integration of optical antennas, the complicated and power-consuming optical phase control, and the trade-off between the steering range, resolution, and efficiency. Therefore, a simpler configuration was studied using an OPA for one axis of the two-dimensional (2D) beam steering and a diffraction grating for the other axis [6,8,10] and combining a diffraction grating and collimator lens [11,12]; the preliminary LiDAR operation has been reported [13,14]. Since Si waveguide diffraction grating has a small angular dispersion of typically 0.14°/nm, a broadband wavelength-swept laser source of $\Delta \lambda \; \gt \;{140}\;{\rm nm}$ and/or an impractically large refractive index change of $\Delta n\; \gt \;{0.5}$ in the waveguide material are necessary for producing the steering range of $\Delta \theta \; \gt \;{20}^\circ $.

Previously, we proposed and demonstrated a solid-state beam steering device using a Si lattice-shifted photonic crystal waveguide (LSPCW) with a double periodicity [15,16]. The LSPCW maintains a slow-light mode, which is emitted to the free space and forms a beam when a kind of double periodicity is introduced into the LSPCW. The slow-light mode exhibits a large angular dispersion for the $\theta $ direction along the LSPCW (the direction normal to the substrate is defined as $\theta ={0}^\circ $) of $d\theta /d\lambda \; \ge \;{1}^\circ {\rm /nm}$ and allows the wide steering range of $\Delta \theta \; \approx \;{30}^\circ $ for a reasonably small $\Delta \lambda ={20}\;{\rm nm}$. This also allows a similar steering range for $\Delta n\; \lt \;{0.1}$, which can be achieved by using the thermo-optic (TO) effect. The beam divergence of $\delta \theta \; \lt \;{0.03}^\circ $ (full width at half-maximum, FWHM) is expected theoretically by lengthening the emission aperture with a moderately low emission rate. These values result in a large number of resolution points, $N=\Delta \theta /\delta \theta \; \gt 1000$, when the beam is steered in one dimension (1D). The beam is widely diverged in the direction across the LSPCW ($\phi $ direction), and therefore we call it a fan beam. It is converted to a spot beam by inserting a collimator lens. By arranging the lens above an LSPCW array and inserting light into one LSPCW, the $\phi $-directional beam steering is possible [16].

In this method there are some crucial problems. First, a simple diffraction structure causes some downward light emission loss and a large beam divergence $\delta \phi $, which lead to a severe internal reflection loss and collimation loss at the lens. Second, the collimation condition is not maintained by a simple cylindrical lens for different $\theta $, so manual adjustment of the lens position is necessary at each beam angle. Third, the emission at $\theta \; \approx \;{0}^\circ $, corresponding to the band edge of the double periodicity, is not obtained due to the destructive interference and a large slow-light loss. These severely restrict the device’s applications.

The solutions for these problems and how to achieve the wide-range 2D beam steering are summarized as (I)–(III) in Fig. 1. We introduced (I) a particularly shallow-etched diffraction grating and (II) a bespoke prism lens. The shallow-etched grating on the Si layer reduces the downward emission loss and moreover reduces the internal reflection loss and collimation loss by narrowing $\delta \varphi $. The prism lens suppresses the $\theta $ dependence of the collimation condition and converts angle $\theta $ to $\theta ^{\prime}$, which includes 0°. We also introduced (III) the switching of the direction of light incidence on the LSPCW to extend the steering range. In this paper, Section 2 explains these concepts in detail, and Section 3 describes the fabricated device and the beam steering characteristics.

2. CONCEPT AND DESIGN

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Schematics of a slow-light beam steering device and 2D beam steering, where (I)–(III) are the solutions for problems in the previous study [16] and for wider 2D beam steering. (a) LSPCW with shallow grating, which improves the upper emission intensity. (b) 2D beam steering by LSPCW array and prism lens that maintains the collimation condition for the wide range of $\theta $. (c) Beam steering in the $\phi $ direction by selecting one LSPCW from its array, which is the same concept as in Ref. [16]. (d) Continuous beam steering in the ${\pm }\theta^{\prime}$ direction including $\theta^{\prime}={0}^\circ $ by converting $\theta $ into $\theta^{\prime}$ using the prism lens and switching the direction of light incidence on the LSPCW.

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Figure 1(a) shows an overview of a single device. Corresponding to the experimental condition shown later, we assume a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) consisting of a 210 nm thick Si layer, a 2 µm ${{\rm SiO}_2}$ BOX layer, and an upper cladding layer. In the LSPCW, a single line defect waveguide in between triangular-lattice hole arrays is formed in the Si layer and completely buried by ${{\rm SiO}_2}$. For operation at wavelengths $\lambda \approx \;{1.55}\;\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$, we set the lattice constant at $a={394}\;{\rm nm}$, the hole diameter at ${2}r={192}\;{\rm nm}$, and the third-row lattice shift at ${s_3} = \;{95}\;{\rm nm}$. The slow-light mode has a group index ${n_g}$, whose value can be controlled by the photonic band engineering. A typical value of ${n_g}$ is 15–25, which is 4–6 times that of Si wire waveguides. The lattice shift ${s}_3$ is effective for flattening the ${n_g}$ spectrum in the range of $\Delta \lambda ={15}–{20}\;{\rm nm}$. In general, ${n_g}$ is given by $( 1/c )( dk/d\omega)=-( {{\lambda }^{2}}/2\pi c)( dk/d\lambda )$ for the vacuum light velocity $c$, the wavenumber $k$, and the frequency $\omega $. Therefore, a large ${n_g}$ is equivalent to the large first-order dispersion in the LSPCW and also equivalent to the large angular dispersion when the mode is converted to a free-space beam. Previously, we used a hole diameter modulation as the double periodicity [16]. According to a finite-difference time-domain simulation, this type of structure only shows 33%−41% of the whole emission power as the upward power in $\theta ={7}^\circ {\rm - 30}^\circ $, the steering range predicted from the photonic band calculation. Moreover, the divergence $\delta \phi $ of the fan beam is as large as 60°–100°, resulting in a severe total internal reflection and Fresnel reflection at the ${{\rm SiO}_2}$–air interface and a light extraction efficiency lower than 10%, particularly at larger $\theta $. The collimation loss at the lens also becomes low for such large $\delta \phi $. In this study, the shallow diffraction grating was formed directly on the Si layer, where the etched pattern was not overlapped with the line defect but with holes on the even-numbered rows of the photonic crystal claddings. In the experiment, the length of the LSPCW was set at $L={1.2}\;{\rm mm}$, and the depth and width of the grating at 10 nm and 200 nm, respectively, in order to obtain a radiation coefficient $\alpha \; \approx \;{100}\;{\rm dB/cm}$, which is much smaller than a typical propagation loss of slow light of 10–30 dB/cm for a moderately long emission aperture of 430 µm. For such a structure, we also simulated the improved upward emission ratio of 41%–60% and much narrower $\delta \phi $ of 18°–44°, which suppressed the reflection and collimation losses.

Figure 1(b) explains the 2D beam steering operation. Light is launched on one LSPCW from the array. Since the relative position against the collimator lens is changed, the beam is steered in the $\varphi $ direction after passing through the lens. We designed a prism lens for this collimation [17], in which a convex lens shape is formed on two surfaces of a prism. Tilt angles of the two surfaces against the LSPCW plane are determined so that the minimum $\theta $ is converted to $\theta^{\prime}={0}^\circ $ and the median value of $\theta $ in the steering range satisfies the minimum deviation condition. For such a structure, we can find a prism thickness and lens curvature that eliminate the $\theta $ dependence of the collimation condition. We assume $\theta ={10}^\circ {- 30}^\circ $ to be the effective steering range that is not affected by the band edge, and we consider that it is converted to $\theta^{\prime}={0}^\circ { - 20}^\circ $. Taking account of the above $\delta \phi $ and the emission aperture length, we designed the prism lens with aspherical lens shapes by ray tracing. It was calculated that $\delta \theta^{\prime}$ and $\delta \phi $ were less than 0.1° after passing through the lens for almost of all $\theta $ and $|\phi |\; \le \;{6}^\circ $, except for $\delta \theta ={0.12}^\circ $ only at $\theta^{\prime}\; \approx \;{0}^\circ $ and $|\phi |\; \approx \;{6}^\circ $.

Figure 1(b) also illustrates the switching of $\theta^{\prime}$ from positive to negative by switching the direction of light incidence. The shape of the prism lens is designed to be symmetrical so that it achieves continuous collimation and steering in the double-width range.

3. EXPERIMENT

A. Fabrication

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Fabricated device and 1D beam steering. (a) Top view of fabricated chip. (b) SEM image of LSPCW. Magnified view shows the third-row lattice shifts and shallow grating. (c) Prism lens loaded above the device. (d) 1D steering of fan beam without lens for wavelength sweeping. The FFPs are overlapped with 0.1° spacing. (e) Wavelength dependence of $\theta $. Attached FFPs show a fan beam and a spot beam at $\lambda ={1.53}\;\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$. (f), (g) Beam divergence $\delta \theta $ and $\delta \phi $. Red and black show with and without the lens, respectively.

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For fabrication, we used a 200 mm diameter SOI and a Si photonics CMOS process that achieved a minimum feature size of $ {\lt}130\;{\rm nm}$ by employing KrF excimer laser exposure and a phase-shift mask. Figure 2(a) shows a fabricated device chip of ${5.5}\; \times \;{4.0}\;{{\rm mm}^2}$ size. At the center, 32 LSPCWs of $L={1.2}\;{\rm mm}$ are integrated with an 80 µm pitch. This pitch was determined by the LSPCW of $ {\lt}10\;\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$ width and a heater with Al electrodes integrated at each LSPCW, which was not used in this study. If we neglect the heater, the pitch can be reduced to 10 µm. Figure 2(b) shows the scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the LSPCW. Its magnified view shows the formation of the shallow grating and uniform holes perforated after the shallow etching. This LSPCW was connected with a six-stage TO Mach–Zehnder (MZ) Si wire optical switch for the selection of one LSPCW and the incident direction. For the junction between the LSPCW and the Si wire, a tapered structure with a theoretical coupling loss of 0.3 dB [18] was used. Figure 2(c) shows a prism lens of 24.0 mm width and 18.7 mm height, formed by acrylic cutting. The focal length was 15.3 mm on the minimum deviation condition.

B. 1D Beam Steering

In the experiment, transverse-electric-polarized continuous-wave light from a swept laser was coupled into a Si wire waveguide via a spot size converter at a chip facet. Here, we used a bench-top laser (Santec TSL-550), but a compact swept laser module [19] will be usable when the device is applied to a LiDAR system. The far-field pattern (FFP) of the emitted beam was observed by a far-field microscope and InGaAs camera with a resolution of 0.0288°. Figure 2(d) shows the 1D steering of a fan beam for the wavelength sweep. In the magnified view, 0.1° step steering was observed. Figure 2(e) shows $\theta $ with and without the lens as well as the FFPs of one fan beam and spot beam. Figures 2(f) and 2(g) show the beam divergence $\delta \theta $ and $\delta \phi $ with and without the lens. In the fabricated device, ${2}r$ was slightly larger than the target value, so the center operating wavelength shifted to $\lambda \; \approx \;{1.53}\;\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$. The steering range $\Delta \theta ={22}^\circ $ for $\Delta \lambda ={23}\;{\rm nm}$. Without the lens, the light emission at $|\theta^{\prime}|\; \lt \;{8}^\circ $ was not obtained, due to the band edge condition. The steering range was shifted by 10° to $|\theta^{\prime}|\; \lt \;{20}^\circ $, and seamless steering from positive to negative angles was obtained. $\delta \theta $ was 0.08°–0.15° and almost unchanged by the lens. It was close to the diffraction limit estimated from the radiation coefficient $\alpha =50{-}100\;{\rm dB/cm}$, which was evaluated from the near-field pattern (NFP) of the exponentially decaying slow-light mode. The divergence $\delta \phi ={23}^\circ {- 40}^\circ $ and $ \approx {0.1}^\circ $ without and with the lens, respectively, which almost agrees with the calculation. Moreover, the upward emission power increased to 2–8 times that for the previous hole diameter modulation, thanks to the enhanced upward emission ratio as well as the reduced reflection and collimation losses by the beam narrowing. In a single LSPCW device, the total insertion loss of light from the input fiber to the beam observed from above the lens was measured to be 9 dB at minimum, including a 3 dB coupling loss at the spot size converter.

C. LSPCW Switching

Figure 3(a) shows one optical switch composed of a symmetric MZ interferometer, branched and merged by ${2}\; \times \;{2}$ multimode interference couplers. The theoretical on-chip insertion loss of the switch is less than 0.2 dB. A TiN heater was formed above one waveguide arm with heat isolation trenches. The bar and cross ports were switched by a heating power of $P={13}\;{\rm mW}$, and the total power consumption was 78 mW, even when the six stages were controlled simultaneously. Figure 3(b) shows the temperature distribution at $P={51}\;{\rm mW}$ (phase change of ${4}\pi $) observed by a thermal microscope (ViewOhre Imaging, XMCR32-SA0350-3XHT). The heating was well localized within an area of ${130}\;{ \unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}}\; \times \;{50}\;{ \unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}}$, and no thermal interaction between adjacent switches was observed. The minimum spacing between switches was set to be larger than this spread. Figure 3(c) (bottom) shows the NFP of emitted light when the six stage switches were operated. The light launched from the spot size converter was guided through a path indicated by a dotted line and emitted from the LSPCW when left or right incidence was selected. The same switching was confirmed for all other LSPCWs.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Switching of light. (a) Top view of MZ switch. (b) Temperature distribution at the switch, which was observed by thermal microscope at $P={51}\;{\rm mW}$. (c) Emission from LSPCW. Light is coupled via a spot size converter on the left (shown by arrow) and emitted from the first LSPCW after passing through the switch tree along the dotted line. Similar switching is confirmed for other LSPCWs.

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D. 2D Beam Steering

Figures 4(a) and 4(b) show the results of the 2D beam steering when one of 16 LSPCWs was selected sequentially and the wavelength was swept in the range of $\Delta \lambda ={23}\;{\rm nm}$. Using the prism lens, we confirmed the continuous beam steering of $\Delta \theta ={ \pm 20}^\circ \; = \;{40}^\circ $ centered at $\theta ={0}^\circ $ and the collimation with no need of lens position adjustment. When the light incidence direction was switched, the operating wavelength was shifted by $ \approx {2}{\rm nm}$, which might be due to the tilt error of the lens and could be eliminated by fine adjustment. As observed in Fig. 4(c), $\delta \theta $ slightly fluctuated by the profile irregularity of the lens, and the average was 0.15°, which almost corresponded to that expected from the NFP’s exponential decay. It will be reduced to $ {\lt}0.1^\circ $ by lengthening the LSPCW and minutely reducing the grating depth to extend the emission aperture. The number of resolution points in the $\theta $ direction was estimated to be 266. In the $\phi $ direction, the LSPCW pitch and the focal length of the lens determined the discrete angular step of 0.30° and the steering range $\Delta \phi ={4.4}^\circ $ for the 16 LSPCWs. Therefore, the total number of resolution points in the 2D steering was 4256. In this experiment, only 16 LSPCWs were used, due to the limitation of the electrical control circuit, and the wavelength sweeping was limited to the range in which the profile irregularity of the prism lens did not affect the beam profile. If the 32 integrated LSPCWs are all operated, the beam steering range in the $\theta $ direction will be doubled. Furthermore, if $\delta \theta $ are reduced as mentioned above, more than 17,000 resolution points will be obtained.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Observed 2D beam steering characteristics. (a) Overlapped FFP image of steered spots. (b) Steering angle $\theta $. (c) Beam divergence $\delta \theta $ (black) and $\delta \phi $ (red).

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 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. Flexible 2D beam steering: (a) 256 spot beams projected onto the screen. The distance from the device to the screen is approximately 2.3 m. (b)–(d) Various types of scanning: (b) zigzag, (c) spiral, (d) figure eight. The spots arranged in a trapezoidal area were due to the beam irradiating obliquely on the paper.

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Figure 5(a) shows ${16}\; \times \;{16}\; = \;{256}$ collimated beam spots in the range of $|\theta^{\prime}|\; \le \;{4}^\circ $ projected onto a distant graph paper, and Figs. 5(b)5(d) demonstrate some flexible scanning of the beam. (Also see Visualization 1Visualization 2, and Visualization 3. A weak beam moving the direction opposite to the main beam might be due to the internal reflection of light in the LSPCW). By controlling the wavelength and switching the LSPCWs simultaneously, the irradiation position could be selected arbitrarily. Conventional mechanical beam scans, such as a raster scan by a polygon mirror or a zigzag scan by a Galvano scanner, were realized by this device. Since it is completely non-mechanical and not affected by inertia from the movement, the scanning speed does not fluctuate between the center and the edge. Furthermore, flexible scans, such as spirals and figure eights, which are difficult to obtain by conventional mechanical systems, are possible, and they extend the application fields to, for example, optical beam tracking. Compared with OPAs that achieve a similar operation, the advantage of this device is that its control does not increase the complexity, even though its scale is increased. In LiDAR applications, high-speed steering is required. In this study, $\theta $-directional steering was carried out by wavelength sweeping, but each LSPCW was equipped with a TO heater, as mentioned above, which enables the same steering range with a 100 kHz–order response [20].

4. DISCUSSION

Let us consider the scaling of the device’s performance. In the $\theta $ direction, a narrower beam divergence and a larger number of resolution points will be obtained by a longer waveguide having a lower propagation loss and by a shallower and more uniform grating for a longer emission aperture and Rayleigh range. We have already obtained $\delta \theta ={0.06}^\circ $ at minimum in a discrete device. Regarding the steering range, we have observed $\Delta \theta ={27}^\circ $ for positive $\theta $, and $\Delta \theta ={54}^\circ $ is expected for ${ \pm }\theta $. It is a technical challenge to obtain these values simultaneously and uniformly, but this will be realized by using a more advanced CMOS process. As another solution, we have proposed an LSPCW serial array [21]. Here, a long LSPCW is divided into multiple LSPCWs, and light is input and output via a low-loss Si tree circuit. Then the emission aperture is extended effectively without suffering from a large loss, even though the emission rate is unchanged. When an LSPCW was divided into four, $\delta \theta ={0.04}^\circ $ was observed experimentally. If this value is obtained with the above $\Delta \theta $, the number of resolution points in this direction will become 1350.

In the $\phi $ direction, the number of resolution points is simply determined by the number of LSPCWs. It can be increased from the current 32 to 256 in the same footprint, if the heater is neglected and we integrate the LSPCWs as densely as possible. Therefore, the total number of resolution points of ${1350}\; \times \;{256}\; = \;345{,}600$ is achievable by promoting these improvements.

Regarding the prism lens, a smaller one enhances the steering range $\Delta \phi $, but the aberration increases at large angles. Therefore, more sophisticated aspherical design and precise fabrication will be required, which is another technical issue. A larger lens is space consuming and may be considered a disadvantage, compared with OPAs. However, it can be an advantage when the device is applied to LiDAR. In LiDAR systems, a large aperture that receives the returned light is crucial for high sensitivity. It is only done by enlarging the chip size in OPAs, but is done by enlarging the lens in our device, which results in a high cost and cost savings, respectively.

5. SUMMARY

We have proposed a solid-state 2D beam steering device based on an LSPCW, which is the key to realizing a Si photonics non-mechanical LiDAR system. In this study, the Si shallow-etched grating improved the upward light emission efficiency by 2–8 times, and the prism lens maintained the collimation condition for the targeted steering range and converted the beam angle so that the continuous steering range was doubled by switching the light incidence direction. The 2D beam steering range of $\Delta \theta ={40}^\circ $ (continuous) $ \times \;\Delta \phi ={4.4}^\circ $ (discrete) and the number of resolution points $N={266}\; \times \;{16}\; = \;{4256}$ were evaluated. By extending the aperture length, increasing LSPCWs, and reducing fabrication errors in the prism lens, this device has the potential to achieve $N=345{,}600$ with the same strategy for improvement. We also demonstrated flexible 2D steering that is difficult using conventional mechanical systems, indicating that the application fields of this device are not limited to LiDAR but will be expanded to security systems, free-space communications, and so on.

Funding

Accelerated Innovation Research Initiative Turning Top Science and Ideas into High-Impact Values (JPMJAC1603).

Disclosures

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest related to this paper.

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References

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  1. I. Puente, H. Gonzalez-Jorge, J. Martinez-Sanchez, and P. Arias, “Review of mobile mapping and surveying technologies,” Measurement 46, 2127–2145 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. Wang, G. Zhou, X. Zhang, K. Kwon, P. Blanche, N. Triesault, K. Yu, and M. C. Wu, “2D broadband beamsteering with large-scale MEMS optical phased array,” Optica 6, 557–562 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  3. K. V. Acoleyen, W. Bogaerts, J. Jágerská, N. L. Thomas, R. Houdré, and R. Baets, “Off-chip beam steering with a one-dimensional optical phased array on silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1477–1479 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid III/V silicon photonic source with integrated 1D free-space beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4257–4259 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493, 195–199 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, J. Covey, Y. Zhang, X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “On-chip silicon optical phased array for two-dimensional beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 39, 941–944 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. Abediasl and H. Hashemi, “Monolithic optical phased-array transceiver in a standard SOI CMOS process,” Opt. Express 23, 6509–6519 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. N. Hutchison, J. Sun, J. K. Doylend, R. Kumar, J. Heck, W. Kim, C. T. Phare, A. Feshali, and H. Rong, “High-resolution aliasing-free optical beam steering,” Optica 3, 887–890 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Zadka, Y. Chang, A. Mohanty, C. T. Phare, S. P. Roberts, and M. Lipson, “On-chip platform for a phased array with minimal beam divergence and wide field-of-view,” Opt. Express 26, 2528–2534 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. V. Poulton, P. Russo, B. Moss, M. Khandaker, M. J. Byrd, J. Tran, E. Timurdogan, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Small-form-factor optical phased array module for technology adoption in custom applications,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTh5B.6.
  11. J. J. López, S. A. Skirlo, D. Kharas, J. Sloan, J. Herd, P. Juodawlkis, M. Soljačić, and C. Sorace-Agaskar, “Planar-lens enabled beam steering for chip-scale LIDAR,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper SM3I.1.
  12. D. Inoue, T. Ichikawa, A. Kawasaki, and T. Yamashita, “Demonstration of a new optical scanner using silicon photonics integrated circuit,” Opt. Express 27, 2499–2508 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. V. Poulton, A. Yaacobi, D. B. Cole, M. J. Byrd, M. Raval, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Coherent solid-state LIDAR with silicon photonic optical phased arrays,” Opt. Lett. 42, 4091–4094 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, P. Russo, E. Timurdogan, M. Khandaker, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Long-range LiDAR and free-space data communication with high-performance optical phased arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 25, 7700108 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  15. K. Kondo, T. Tatebe, S. Hachuda, H. Abe, F. Koyama, and T. Baba, “Fan beam steering device using a photonic crystal slow-light waveguide with surface diffraction grating,” Opt. Lett. 42, 4990–4993 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  16. H. Abe, M. Takeuchi, G. Takeuchi, H. Ito, T. Yokokawa, K. Kondo, Y. Furukado, and T. Baba, “Two-dimensional beam-steering device using a doubly periodic Si photonic-crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 26, 9389–9397 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. Maeda, D. Akiyama, H. Ito, H. Abe, and T. Baba, “Prism lens for beam collimation in silicon photonic crystal beam-steering device,” Opt. Lett. 44, 5780–5783 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. Terada, K. Miyasaka, K. Kondo, N. Ishikura, T. Tamura, and T. Baba, “Optimized optical coupling to silica-clad photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 42, 4695–4698 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  19. T. DiLazaro and G. Nehmetallah, “Multi-terahertz frequency sweeps for high-resolution, frequency-modulated continuous wave ladar using a distributed feedback laser array,” Opt. Express 25, 2327–2340 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  20. G. Takeuchi, Y. Terada, M. Takeuchi, H. Abe, H. Ito, and T. Baba, “Thermally controlled Si photonic crystal slow light waveguide beam steering device,” Opt. Express 26, 11529–11537 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  21. R. Tetsuya, H. Abe, H. Ito, and T. Baba, “Efficient light transmission, reception and beam forming in photonic crystal beam steering device in a phased array configuration,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 58, 082002 (2019).
    [Crossref]

2019 (5)

Y. Wang, G. Zhou, X. Zhang, K. Kwon, P. Blanche, N. Triesault, K. Yu, and M. C. Wu, “2D broadband beamsteering with large-scale MEMS optical phased array,” Optica 6, 557–562 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Inoue, T. Ichikawa, A. Kawasaki, and T. Yamashita, “Demonstration of a new optical scanner using silicon photonics integrated circuit,” Opt. Express 27, 2499–2508 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, P. Russo, E. Timurdogan, M. Khandaker, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Long-range LiDAR and free-space data communication with high-performance optical phased arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 25, 7700108 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Maeda, D. Akiyama, H. Ito, H. Abe, and T. Baba, “Prism lens for beam collimation in silicon photonic crystal beam-steering device,” Opt. Lett. 44, 5780–5783 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Tetsuya, H. Abe, H. Ito, and T. Baba, “Efficient light transmission, reception and beam forming in photonic crystal beam steering device in a phased array configuration,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 58, 082002 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

2017 (4)

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493, 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Puente, H. Gonzalez-Jorge, J. Martinez-Sanchez, and P. Arias, “Review of mobile mapping and surveying technologies,” Measurement 46, 2127–2145 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2009 (1)

Abe, H.

Abediasl, H.

Acoleyen, K. V.

Akiyama, D.

Arias, P.

I. Puente, H. Gonzalez-Jorge, J. Martinez-Sanchez, and P. Arias, “Review of mobile mapping and surveying technologies,” Measurement 46, 2127–2145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baba, T.

Baets, R.

Blanche, P.

Bogaerts, W.

Bovington, J. T.

Bowers, J. E.

Byrd, M. J.

C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, P. Russo, E. Timurdogan, M. Khandaker, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Long-range LiDAR and free-space data communication with high-performance optical phased arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 25, 7700108 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. V. Poulton, A. Yaacobi, D. B. Cole, M. J. Byrd, M. Raval, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Coherent solid-state LIDAR with silicon photonic optical phased arrays,” Opt. Lett. 42, 4091–4094 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. V. Poulton, P. Russo, B. Moss, M. Khandaker, M. J. Byrd, J. Tran, E. Timurdogan, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Small-form-factor optical phased array module for technology adoption in custom applications,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTh5B.6.

Chang, Y.

Chen, R. T.

Coldren, L. A.

Cole, D. B.

Covey, J.

Davenport, M. L.

DiLazaro, T.

Doylend, J. K.

Feshali, A.

Furukado, Y.

Gonzalez-Jorge, H.

I. Puente, H. Gonzalez-Jorge, J. Martinez-Sanchez, and P. Arias, “Review of mobile mapping and surveying technologies,” Measurement 46, 2127–2145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hachuda, S.

Hashemi, H.

Heck, J.

Heck, M. J. R.

Herd, J.

J. J. López, S. A. Skirlo, D. Kharas, J. Sloan, J. Herd, P. Juodawlkis, M. Soljačić, and C. Sorace-Agaskar, “Planar-lens enabled beam steering for chip-scale LIDAR,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper SM3I.1.

Hosseini, A.

Hosseini, E. S.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493, 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref]

Houdré, R.

Hutchison, D. N.

Ichikawa, T.

Inoue, D.

Ishikura, N.

Ito, H.

Jágerská, J.

Juodawlkis, P.

J. J. López, S. A. Skirlo, D. Kharas, J. Sloan, J. Herd, P. Juodawlkis, M. Soljačić, and C. Sorace-Agaskar, “Planar-lens enabled beam steering for chip-scale LIDAR,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper SM3I.1.

Kawasaki, A.

Khandaker, M.

C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, P. Russo, E. Timurdogan, M. Khandaker, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Long-range LiDAR and free-space data communication with high-performance optical phased arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 25, 7700108 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. V. Poulton, P. Russo, B. Moss, M. Khandaker, M. J. Byrd, J. Tran, E. Timurdogan, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Small-form-factor optical phased array module for technology adoption in custom applications,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTh5B.6.

Kharas, D.

J. J. López, S. A. Skirlo, D. Kharas, J. Sloan, J. Herd, P. Juodawlkis, M. Soljačić, and C. Sorace-Agaskar, “Planar-lens enabled beam steering for chip-scale LIDAR,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper SM3I.1.

Kim, W.

Kondo, K.

Koyama, F.

Kumar, R.

Kwon, K.

Kwong, D.

Lipson, M.

López, J. J.

J. J. López, S. A. Skirlo, D. Kharas, J. Sloan, J. Herd, P. Juodawlkis, M. Soljačić, and C. Sorace-Agaskar, “Planar-lens enabled beam steering for chip-scale LIDAR,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper SM3I.1.

Maeda, J.

Martinez-Sanchez, J.

I. Puente, H. Gonzalez-Jorge, J. Martinez-Sanchez, and P. Arias, “Review of mobile mapping and surveying technologies,” Measurement 46, 2127–2145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Miyasaka, K.

Mohanty, A.

Moss, B.

C. V. Poulton, P. Russo, B. Moss, M. Khandaker, M. J. Byrd, J. Tran, E. Timurdogan, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Small-form-factor optical phased array module for technology adoption in custom applications,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTh5B.6.

Nehmetallah, G.

Peters, J. D.

Phare, C. T.

Poulton, C. V.

C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, P. Russo, E. Timurdogan, M. Khandaker, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Long-range LiDAR and free-space data communication with high-performance optical phased arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 25, 7700108 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. V. Poulton, A. Yaacobi, D. B. Cole, M. J. Byrd, M. Raval, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Coherent solid-state LIDAR with silicon photonic optical phased arrays,” Opt. Lett. 42, 4091–4094 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. V. Poulton, P. Russo, B. Moss, M. Khandaker, M. J. Byrd, J. Tran, E. Timurdogan, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Small-form-factor optical phased array module for technology adoption in custom applications,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTh5B.6.

Puente, I.

I. Puente, H. Gonzalez-Jorge, J. Martinez-Sanchez, and P. Arias, “Review of mobile mapping and surveying technologies,” Measurement 46, 2127–2145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Raval, M.

Roberts, S. P.

Rong, H.

Russo, P.

C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, P. Russo, E. Timurdogan, M. Khandaker, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Long-range LiDAR and free-space data communication with high-performance optical phased arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 25, 7700108 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. V. Poulton, P. Russo, B. Moss, M. Khandaker, M. J. Byrd, J. Tran, E. Timurdogan, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Small-form-factor optical phased array module for technology adoption in custom applications,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTh5B.6.

Skirlo, S. A.

J. J. López, S. A. Skirlo, D. Kharas, J. Sloan, J. Herd, P. Juodawlkis, M. Soljačić, and C. Sorace-Agaskar, “Planar-lens enabled beam steering for chip-scale LIDAR,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper SM3I.1.

Sloan, J.

J. J. López, S. A. Skirlo, D. Kharas, J. Sloan, J. Herd, P. Juodawlkis, M. Soljačić, and C. Sorace-Agaskar, “Planar-lens enabled beam steering for chip-scale LIDAR,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper SM3I.1.

Soljacic, M.

J. J. López, S. A. Skirlo, D. Kharas, J. Sloan, J. Herd, P. Juodawlkis, M. Soljačić, and C. Sorace-Agaskar, “Planar-lens enabled beam steering for chip-scale LIDAR,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper SM3I.1.

Sorace-Agaskar, C.

J. J. López, S. A. Skirlo, D. Kharas, J. Sloan, J. Herd, P. Juodawlkis, M. Soljačić, and C. Sorace-Agaskar, “Planar-lens enabled beam steering for chip-scale LIDAR,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper SM3I.1.

Subbaraman, H.

Sun, J.

D. N. Hutchison, J. Sun, J. K. Doylend, R. Kumar, J. Heck, W. Kim, C. T. Phare, A. Feshali, and H. Rong, “High-resolution aliasing-free optical beam steering,” Optica 3, 887–890 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493, 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, G.

Takeuchi, M.

Tamura, T.

Tatebe, T.

Terada, Y.

Tetsuya, R.

R. Tetsuya, H. Abe, H. Ito, and T. Baba, “Efficient light transmission, reception and beam forming in photonic crystal beam steering device in a phased array configuration,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 58, 082002 (2019).
[Crossref]

Thomas, N. L.

Timurdogan, E.

C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, P. Russo, E. Timurdogan, M. Khandaker, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Long-range LiDAR and free-space data communication with high-performance optical phased arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 25, 7700108 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493, 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. V. Poulton, P. Russo, B. Moss, M. Khandaker, M. J. Byrd, J. Tran, E. Timurdogan, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Small-form-factor optical phased array module for technology adoption in custom applications,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTh5B.6.

Tran, J.

C. V. Poulton, P. Russo, B. Moss, M. Khandaker, M. J. Byrd, J. Tran, E. Timurdogan, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Small-form-factor optical phased array module for technology adoption in custom applications,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTh5B.6.

Triesault, N.

Vermeulen, D.

C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, P. Russo, E. Timurdogan, M. Khandaker, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Long-range LiDAR and free-space data communication with high-performance optical phased arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 25, 7700108 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. V. Poulton, A. Yaacobi, D. B. Cole, M. J. Byrd, M. Raval, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Coherent solid-state LIDAR with silicon photonic optical phased arrays,” Opt. Lett. 42, 4091–4094 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. V. Poulton, P. Russo, B. Moss, M. Khandaker, M. J. Byrd, J. Tran, E. Timurdogan, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Small-form-factor optical phased array module for technology adoption in custom applications,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTh5B.6.

Wang, Y.

Watts, M. R.

C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, P. Russo, E. Timurdogan, M. Khandaker, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Long-range LiDAR and free-space data communication with high-performance optical phased arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 25, 7700108 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. V. Poulton, A. Yaacobi, D. B. Cole, M. J. Byrd, M. Raval, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Coherent solid-state LIDAR with silicon photonic optical phased arrays,” Opt. Lett. 42, 4091–4094 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493, 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. V. Poulton, P. Russo, B. Moss, M. Khandaker, M. J. Byrd, J. Tran, E. Timurdogan, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Small-form-factor optical phased array module for technology adoption in custom applications,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTh5B.6.

Wu, M. C.

Xu, X.

Yaacobi, A.

Yamashita, T.

Yokokawa, T.

Yu, K.

Zadka, M.

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

Zhou, G.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron (1)

C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, P. Russo, E. Timurdogan, M. Khandaker, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Long-range LiDAR and free-space data communication with high-performance optical phased arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 25, 7700108 (2019).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Tetsuya, H. Abe, H. Ito, and T. Baba, “Efficient light transmission, reception and beam forming in photonic crystal beam steering device in a phased array configuration,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 58, 082002 (2019).
[Crossref]

Measurement (1)

I. Puente, H. Gonzalez-Jorge, J. Martinez-Sanchez, and P. Arias, “Review of mobile mapping and surveying technologies,” Measurement 46, 2127–2145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493, 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Optica (2)

Other (2)

C. V. Poulton, P. Russo, B. Moss, M. Khandaker, M. J. Byrd, J. Tran, E. Timurdogan, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Small-form-factor optical phased array module for technology adoption in custom applications,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTh5B.6.

J. J. López, S. A. Skirlo, D. Kharas, J. Sloan, J. Herd, P. Juodawlkis, M. Soljačić, and C. Sorace-Agaskar, “Planar-lens enabled beam steering for chip-scale LIDAR,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper SM3I.1.

Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Raster scanning of an emitted optical beam on graph paper
» Visualization 2       Zigzag scanning of an emitted optical beam on graph paper
» Visualization 3       Figure eight scanning of an emitted optical beam on graph paper

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematics of a slow-light beam steering device and 2D beam steering, where (I)–(III) are the solutions for problems in the previous study [16] and for wider 2D beam steering. (a) LSPCW with shallow grating, which improves the upper emission intensity. (b) 2D beam steering by LSPCW array and prism lens that maintains the collimation condition for the wide range of $\theta $. (c) Beam steering in the $\phi $ direction by selecting one LSPCW from its array, which is the same concept as in Ref. [16]. (d) Continuous beam steering in the ${\pm }\theta^{\prime}$ direction including $\theta^{\prime}={0}^\circ $ by converting $\theta $ into $\theta^{\prime}$ using the prism lens and switching the direction of light incidence on the LSPCW.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Fabricated device and 1D beam steering. (a) Top view of fabricated chip. (b) SEM image of LSPCW. Magnified view shows the third-row lattice shifts and shallow grating. (c) Prism lens loaded above the device. (d) 1D steering of fan beam without lens for wavelength sweeping. The FFPs are overlapped with 0.1° spacing. (e) Wavelength dependence of $\theta $. Attached FFPs show a fan beam and a spot beam at $\lambda ={1.53}\;\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$. (f), (g) Beam divergence $\delta \theta $ and $\delta \phi $. Red and black show with and without the lens, respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Switching of light. (a) Top view of MZ switch. (b) Temperature distribution at the switch, which was observed by thermal microscope at $P={51}\;{\rm mW}$. (c) Emission from LSPCW. Light is coupled via a spot size converter on the left (shown by arrow) and emitted from the first LSPCW after passing through the switch tree along the dotted line. Similar switching is confirmed for other LSPCWs.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Observed 2D beam steering characteristics. (a) Overlapped FFP image of steered spots. (b) Steering angle $\theta $. (c) Beam divergence $\delta \theta $ (black) and $\delta \phi $ (red).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Flexible 2D beam steering: (a) 256 spot beams projected onto the screen. The distance from the device to the screen is approximately 2.3 m. (b)–(d) Various types of scanning: (b) zigzag, (c) spiral, (d) figure eight. The spots arranged in a trapezoidal area were due to the beam irradiating obliquely on the paper.

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