Abstract

High power mid-infrared supercontinuum (SC) laser sources are important for a wide range of applications in sensing, spectroscopy, imaging, defense, and security. Despite recent advances on high power mid-infrared SC laser sources using fluoride fibers, the lack of mid-infrared fibers with good chemical and thermal stability remains a significant technological challenge. Here we show that all solid fluorotellurite fibers we developed can be used as the nonlinear media for constructing 10-W-level mid-infrared SC laser sources. All solid fluorotellurite fibers are fabricated by using a rod-in-tube method. The core and cladding materials are TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3 and TeO2 modified fluoroaluminate glasses with good water resistance and high transition temperature (424°C). By using a 60 cm long fluorotellurite fiber with a core diameter of 6.8 μm as the nonlinear medium and a high power 1980 nm femtosecond fiber laser as the pump source, we obtain 10.4 W SC generation from 947 to 3934 nm in the fiber for a pump power of 15.9W, and the corresponding optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is about 65%. The spectral broadening is caused by self-phase modulation, soliton fission, soliton self-frequency shift, and dispersive wave generation. Our results show that all solid fluorotellurite fiber can be used for constructing high power mid-infrared SC laser sources for real applications.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. INTRODUCTION

Mid-infrared supercontinuum (SC) laser sources have attracted much attention for their applications in numerous fields such as frequency metrology, molecular spectroscopy, biomedicine, hyper-spectral microscopy, defense, and security [18]. Especially, in the past decade, many efforts have been made to improve the output power of mid-infrared SC laser sources for meeting the requirement of some applications, such as the directional infrared counter measures, long-distance remote sensing, and hyper-spectral imaging [9,10]. Up to now, mid-infrared SC laser sources with an average output power of >10W have only been obtained by using ZBLAN (53ZrF4-20BaF2-4LaF3-3AlF3-20NaF) fibers as the nonlinear medium. In 2009, Xia et al. demonstrated 10.5 W SC generation from 0.8 to 4 μm in a 7 m long ZBLAN fiber [11]. In 2014, Yang et al. reported 13 W mid-infrared SC generation from 1.9 to 4.3 μm in a single mode ZBLAN fiber pumped by using a 2 μm master oscillator power amplifier system [12]. Liu et al. demonstrated 21.8 W SC generation from 1.9 to beyond 3.8 μm in a single-mode ZBLAN fiber pumped by amplified picosecond pulses from a single-mode thulium doped fiber master oscillator power amplifier [13]. In 2017, Yin et al. reported an all-fiber mid-infrared laser source with an average output power of 15.2 W by using a single mode ZBLAN fiber as the nonlinear medium [14]. Very recently, Aydin et al. investigated the long term stability of high power ZBLAN fiber based mid-infrared lasers [15]. As the protective endcap was an undoped ZBLAN endcap and the output power of the mid-infrared laser was about 20 W, the photo-degradation or the damage of the ZBLAN endcap was observed after 10 min of continuous operation due to the OH diffusion in the fiber tip. Interestingly, as the protective endcap was replaced with an AlF3 based glass endcap, this duration was extended to 7 h since AlF3 based glasses are at least ten times more resistant to the photo-degradation process than ZBLAN glasses [16]. Those results show that, since ZBLAN glasses have poor chemical and thermal stability [17,18], the long term stability of high power ZBLAN fiber based mid-infrared laser sources needs to be improved for real applications. Therefore, despite recent progress in this field, it is necessary to explore novel fiber materials with good chemical and thermal stabilities for realizing high power mid-infrared SC laser sources.

Recently, tellurite fiber is the promising candidate for constructing high power mid-infrared SC laser sources owing to their wide transmission window (0.4–5 μm), good chemical stability, and high nonlinearity. In 2013, Thapa et al. reported 1.2W SC generation covering 1 to beyond 4.5 μm in an ultra-low loss, dispersion-zero shifted tellurite fiber [19]. In 2016, Shi et al. obtained 2.1 W mid-infrared SC generation from 1.92 to 3.08 μm in a dehydrated large core tellurite glass fiber [20]. At present, the output power of tellurite fiber based mid-infrared laser sources is limited to watt-level due to its relatively low glass transition temperature (330°C) [20]. Very recently, to further improve the performances of tellurite fiber based mid-infrared laser sources, fluorotellurite fibers based on TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3 glasses with a broadband transmission window of 0.35–6 μm and stable chemical and thermal properties compared to fluoride and chalcogenide fibers have been developed by us [21]. Here, the addition of Y2O3 was used to improve the transition temperature of fluorotellurite glass by taking advantage of its high melting temperature, and the introduction of BaF2 was used to reduce the content of the hydroxyl groups [22,23]. Our previous results showed that fluorotellurite fibers might be a promising nonlinear medium for generating mid-infrared SC laser sources [24,25]. Especially, the transition temperature of the TBY glass was about 424°C, and such a value was much higher than that of previously reported tellurite, ZBLAN, and chalcogenide glasses, which indicated that fluorotellurite fibers based on TBY glasses had a potential for constructing high power mid-infrared SC laser sources. However, until now, 10-W-level mid-infrared SC laser sources have not yet been demonstrated in fluorotellurite fibers based on TBY glasses.

In this paper, we reported 10.4 W SC generation from 947 to 3934 nm in a homemade all solid fluorotellurite fiber pumped by a 1980 nm femtosecond fiber laser. Compared to previous works on tellurite fiber based mid-infrared SC laser sources, the power level was improved by one order of magnitude.

2. EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS

In our experiments, the core and cladding materials for all solid fluorotellurite fibers we selected were 70TeO2-20BaF2-10Y2O3 (TBY) and 33AlF3-9BaF2-17CaF2-12YF3-8SrF2-11MgF2-10TeO2 (ABCYSMT) glasses, respectively. Figure 1 shows the measured differential thermal analysis (DTA) curves for TBY and ABCYSMT glasses. Both glasses had similar transition (Tg) and onset crystallization temperatures (Tx). The Tg and Tx values of TBY glass were 424°C and 527°C, respectively. For ABCYSMT glass, the Tg and Tx values were 440°C and 560°C, respectively. The values of the parameter ΔT=TxTg, which was normally used to evaluate the glass stability, were 103°C and 120°C for TBY and ABCYSMT glasses, respectively. This indicated that those two glasses could be used for fiber drawing. In addition, a comparison of the transition temperature of several types of mid-infrared fiber materials was given in Table 1. The transition temperature of TBY or ABCYSMT glasses was much larger than that of the others [20,2629].

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Measured differential thermal analysis (DTA) curves of TBY and ABCYSMT glasses at a heating rate of 10°C/min in the range of 30°C–800°C.

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Tables Icon

Table 1. Transition Temperature Tg of Several ZBLAN, Indium Fluoride, Tellurite, Chalcogenide, Selenide and TBY Glasses

Another parameter to characterize the thermal mechanical properties of a laser material is the figure-of-merit parameter expressed as follows [30,31]:

Rs=k(1ν)αEσF,
where k is the thermal conductivity, v is the Poisson’s ratio, α is the coefficient of thermal expansion, E is the elastic modulus, and σF is the fracture toughness. Based on these measured parameters, we calculated the figures of merit (Rs) of TBY, ABCYSMT and ZBLAN glasses and the calculated results were shown in Table 2. The Rs of TBY and ABCYSMT glasses were larger than that of ZBLAN glass, which indicated that the TBY and ABCYSMT glass fibers might bear stronger thermal shock than the ZBLAN glass fiber. The above results showed that the fluorotellurite fibers based on TBY and ABCYSMT glasses had a potential for constructing high power mid-infrared SC laser sources.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Thermal and Mechanical Properties of ZBLAN, TBY and ABCYSMT Glasses

Figure 2(a) shows the refractive indices of TBY and ABCYSMT glasses measured by a XLS-100 spectroscopic ellipsometer (J. A. Woollam Co., Inc.). The refractive index of TBY glass was much larger than that of ACBSMYT glass and ultra-high numerical aperture (NA) all-solid fluorotellurite fibers could be fabricated, which allowed us to easily tune the zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW) of all-solid fluorotellurite fibers. Figure 2(b) shows the dependence of the calculated NA of all-solid fluorotellurite fibers on the wavelength. The NA at 3200 nm was about 1.11. Such a high value was close to that of air-clad fluorotellurite microstructured fibers and beneficial for reducing the confinement loss in mid-infrared spectral range of all-solid fluorotellurite fibers.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. (a) Refractive indices of TBY and ABCYSMT glasses. (b) The dependence of the calculated NA of all-solid fluorotellurite fibers on the wavelength.

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In previous works, there was serious hydrolysis reaction for ZBLAN glass during its corrosion tests in deionized water, which was harmful for long time operation of high power mid-infrared SC laser sources [15,34]. The water resistance of ZBLAN glass was measured by us, and the measured results showed that ZBLAN glass had poor water resistance, as with previous works (see Supplement 1 for more details). To verify the water resistance of TBY and ABCYSMT glasses, we measured the transmission spectra of 2 mm thick TBY and ABCYSMT glasses after putting the glasses in deionized water for 0, 12 days, respectively, as shown in Fig. 3. There was no obvious change in transmission spectra. No hydrated layer was formed in the end face of the TBY or ABCYSMT glass. The above results showed that fluorotellurite fibers based on TBY and ABCYSMT glasses had good water resistance.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Transmittance spectra of 2 mm thick TBY and ABCYSMT glasses after putting the glasses in deionized water for 0, 12 days, respectively.

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Based on TBY and ABCYSMT glasses, we fabricated all-solid fluorotellurite fibers by using a rod-in-tube method. The SEM image of the cross-section of the fabricated fiber was shown in the inset of Fig. 4(a). The fiber had a step-index structure and the core diameter was about 6.8 μm. The group velocity dispersion (GVD) profiles of the fiber were calculated by using commercial software MODE solutions (Lumerical Solutions, Inc.) with the full vectorial finite difference method. Figure 4(a) shows the calculated GVD profile of the fundamental propagation mode LP01 in the fiber. The fiber had a zero-dispersion wavelength (ZDW) of 1810nm. The loss spectrum of the fluorotellurite fiber was measured by using a cutback method, as shown in Fig. 4(b). The loss was lower than 2.3 dB/m in the wavelength range of 1.1–4.5 μm. The transmission loss at 1980 nm of the above fiber was about 1.7 dB/m. The nonlinear coefficient at 1980 nm for the above fiber was calculated to be about 156.7km1W1 by using a nonlinear refractive index of 1.4×1018m2W1 for fluorotellurite glasses.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. (a) Calculated dispersion of propagating LP01 mode in the all-solid fluorotellurite fiber. Inset: Scanning electron micrograph of the fluorotellurite fiber. (b) Loss spectrum of the TBY glass fiber.

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To clarify the potential of the fluorotellurite fiber for constructing high power mid-infrared SC laser sources, we performed the experiments on SC generation and the experimental setup was shown in Fig. 5. The pump source was the 1980 nm femtosecond (fs) fiber laser with a pulse width of 200fs, a repetition rate of 50 MHz, and an average output power of 19.6W (see Supplement 1 for more details). A 60 cm long fluorotellurite fiber was used as the nonlinear medium. An isolator (ISO) was used to protect from any harmful feedbacks. The pump light was launched into the fluorotellurite fiber through a couple of aspheric lens, which were made of silicate glasses. The NA of the two lens were 0.15 and 0.45, respectively. The launched efficiency, defined as the launched power divided by the power incident on the lens, was estimated to be 80% by testing a several centimeters long fiber. The output end of the fluorotellurite fiber was mechanically connected to a 1m long ZBLAN fiber cable with a core diameter of 400 μm and an operating wavelength of 0.285–5 μm. The output end of the fluoride fiber cable was connected directly to an optical spectrum analyzer with a measurement range of 600–1700 or 1200–2400 nm (Yokogawa, AQ6375B, AQ6370D). The spectra at a longer wavelength (>2400nm) were measured by using a grating spectrometer with an InSb detector. The SC light output from the fluorotellurite fiber was collimated and focused by using two aspheric CaF2 lenses. The output power of the SC laser was measured by using a power meter after two aspheric CaF2 lenses.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. Experiment setup for 10.4 W mid-infrared SC generation from ultra-high NA fluorotellurite fiber.

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Figure 6(a) shows the dependence of the measured SC spectra generated from the 60 cm long all solid fluorotellurite fiber on the average power of the 1980 nm femtosecond fiber laser. With increasing the average pump power to 1.1 W, large spectral broadening occurred and an emission peak at 1379 nm appeared. Since the operating wavelength (1980nm) of the pump laser was located in the anomalous dispersion region of the fluorotellurite fiber, the spectral broadening for a pump power of 1.1W was caused by self-phase modulation (SPM), the formation of higher-order soliton, soliton fission, soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS), and the generation of blue-shifted dispersive waves. The emission peak at 1379 nm was attributed to the blue-shifted dispersive wave and generated when soliton fission occurred in the fluorotellurite fiber. SSFS contributed to the spectral broadening on the red side (long wavelength region). When the average pump power was increased to 15.9 W, the emission peak of the blue-shifted dispersive wave was shifted to 1081 nm, the short wavelength edge of SC spectrum was expanded to 947 nm, and the long wavelength edge was expanded to 3934 nm. As a result, broadband SC generation from 947 to 3934 nm was obtained from the above fiber. The 20 dB bandwidth of the generated SC light was about 1540 nm excluding the pump light and the corresponding spectral range was from 1864 to 3404 nm. Figure 6(b) shows the dependence of the average output power of the generated SC on the average power of the 1980 nm femtosecond fiber laser. As the average pump power was increased to 15.9 W, the average output power of the SC laser source was increased lineally to 10.4 W. The corresponding optical-to-optical conversion efficiency was about 65%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to report 10-W-level mid-infrared SC laser source using fluorotellurite fiber. The above results showed that all solid fluorotellurite fibers we developed could be used as the nonlinear media for constructing 10-W-level mid-infrared SC laser sources.

 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. (a) Dependence of the measured SC spectra generated from 60 cm long fluorotellurite fiber on the average power of the 1980 nm femtosecond fiber laser. (b) The dependence of the SC average power output from 60 cm long fluorotellurite fiber on the launched pump power of the 1980 nm femtosecond fiber laser. Inset: The power meter photograph during the mid-infrared SC laser source operating at the output power of 10.4 W.

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3. NUMERICAL MODELING AND DISCUSSION

To verify the spectral broadening mechanism of the above SC light, we performed numerical simulations by solving the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equations. In our numerical simulations, we took the parameters of the above all-solid fluorotellurite fiber; the transmission loss of the fluorotellurite fiber, the calculated nonlinear coefficients; the calculated the calculated GVD profile [shown in Fig. 2(b)] of the fundamental propagation mode (LP01) in the fiber; the pump laser with an operating wavelength of 1980nm, a pulse width of 200fs, and a repetition rate of 50MHz; the Raman response function derived from the Raman gain spectrum of fluorotellurite glass. Figure 7(a) shows a comparison of the simulated (the black solid curve) and measured (the red dashed curve) SC spectra output from the above all-solid fluorotellurite fiber for a same launched average pump power of 15.9W. The simulated results agreed with the measured one for the above all-solid fluorotellurite fiber, which indicated that the parameters used in the simulations were appropriate. Furthermore, we simulated the spectral and temporal evolution of SC generation in the above all-solid fluorotellurite fiber for a launched average pump power of 15.9W, as shown in Figs. 7(b) and 7(c). For the pump pulse propagation inside the fiber segment from 0 to 2 cm, the spectral broadening was caused by SPM. For the pump pulse propagation inside the segment from 2 to 60 cm, large spectral broadening occurred due to the formation of higher-order soliton, soliton fission, SSFS, and the generation of blue-shifted dispersive waves. SSFS contributed to the spectral broadening on the red side, and the spectral broadening on the blue side was mainly caused by the generation of blue-shifted dispersive waves. The corresponding temporal evolution of SC generation was shown in Fig. 7(c), which confirmed the above interpretation.

 figure: Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. (a) Comparison of the simulated (the black solid curve) and measured (the red dashed curve) SC spectra output from the above all-solid fluorotellurite fiber for a same launched average pump power of 15.9W. (b), (c) The spectral and temporal evolution of SC generation in the above all-solid fluorotellurite fiber for a launched average pump power of 15.9W.

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Although the simulated SC spectrum by using the GVD profile of the fundamental propagation mode (LP01) in the fiber agreed with the measured results [shown in Fig. 7(a)], high-order propagation modes in the fiber might contribute to broadband SC generation since the above all-solid fluorotellurite fiber with a high NA was a multi-mode optical fiber. To clarify the effects of high-order propagation modes on SC generation, we performed the following numerical simulations. The intensity distribution profiles, confinement losses, and GVD profiles of high-order propagation modes in the fiber were calculated by using commercial software MODE solutions (Lumerical Solutions, Inc.) with the full vectorial finite difference method. Figure 8(a) shows the calculated intensity distribution profiles of LP01, LP11, LP21, LP02, LP31, LP12, LP41, and LP22 modes in the fiber. Figure 8(b) shows the calculated confinement losses of those propagation modes. The confinement loss of the LP01 mode was very low in the wavelength range of 400–6000 nm. The confinement loss of LP31, LP12, LP41, and LP22 modes became large in the wavelength range of >3000nm, which was detrimental for generating mid-infrared SC light (>3000nm). Figure 8(c) shows the calculated GVD profiles of those propagation modes. With an increase of the order number, the first zero-dispersion wavelength shifted to short wavelength region and the second zero-dispersion wavelength appeared.

 figure: Fig. 8.

Fig. 8. (a) Calculated intensity distribution profiles of LP01, LP11, LP21, LP02, LP31, LP12, LP41, and LP22 modes in the fiber. (b) The calculated confinement losses of those propagation modes. (c) The calculated GVD profiles of those propagation modes.

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By using the aforementioned parameters except for the GVD profiles and the nonlinear coefficients, we performed numerical simulations on SC generation for those high-order propagation modes by solving the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Figures 9(a)9(h) show the simulated SC spectra for LP01, LP11, LP21, LP02, LP31, LP12, LP41, and LP22 modes in the above all-solid fluorotellurite fiber when the launched average pump power was fixed at 15.9 W, respectively. The dashed curve in Figs. 9(a)9(h) show the measured SC spectrum for a launched average pump power of 15.9W. For LP01 mode, the simulated SC spectrum agreed with the measured one. For LP11 and LP21 modes, since the operating wavelength (1980nm) of the pump light was located in the anomalous dispersion region, the spectral broadening was also caused by SPM, the formation of higher-order soliton, soliton fission, SSFS, and the generation of blue-shifted dispersive waves. However, the simulated spectra for LP11 and LP21 modes did not agree with the measure one, both the long and short wavelength edges of the simulated spectra were shorter than those of the measured one, and the intensity in the wavelength range of <2000nm of the simulated SC spectra was weaker than that of the measured one. For LP02, LP31, LP12, LP41, and LP22 modes, the simulated SC spectra was quite different from the measured one, the short wavelength edge of the simulated SC spectrum was limited to 1600nm, and the long wavelength edge of the former was much shorter than that of the measured one. The above results indicated that the simulated SC spectrum for LP01 mode was broader than those for the other modes and the measured SC light [shown in Fig. 6(a)] was mainly generated by the excitation of the fundamental propagation mode (LP01) in the fiber.

 figure: Fig. 9.

Fig. 9. (a–h) Simulated SC spectra for LP01, LP11, LP21, LP02, LP31, LP12, LP41, and LP22 modes in the above all-solid fluorotellurite fiber when the launched average pump power was fixed at 15.9 W, respectively. The red dashed curve shows the measured SC spectrum output from the all-solid fluorotellurite fiber with the launched average pump power of 15.9 W.

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Note that, in the above experiments, no obvious damage was observed on the end surface of the fluorotellurite fiber with a pump power of 15.9 W for more than 10 h. The maximum output power and the spectral bandwidth of mid-infrared SC laser sources obtained in the above experiments was mainly limited by the average pump power that could be realized by us currently. To demonstrate the potential for further extending the spectral bandwidth of the generated mid-infrared SC light, we calculated the dependence of the generated SC spectra for LP01 mode in the fiber on the launched average power of the pump light, as shown in Fig. S4. The calculated results showed that, with further increasing the launched average pump power, broader SC spectrum could be obtained from the above fiber owing to the enhancement of Raman soliton self-frequency shift and the corresponding blue-shifted dispersive waves. However, the long wavelength edge of the generated SC spectrum was limited by the transmission loss of the above fiber.

In addition, we performed the following experiments on 2 μm laser delivery by using the above fluorotellurite fiber and a 60 cm long single-mode ZBLAN fiber with a core diameter of 9μm (ZSF-9/125-N-0.2, FiberLabs, Japan). Since the average output power of the above 1980 nm femtosecond fiber laser was limited to 19.6 W, such an output power was not enough for the experiments on 2 μm laser delivery, we used a 40 W 2 μm continuous wave (CW) laser as the pump light. The pump light was launched into the fluorotellurite or ZBLAN fiber through a couple of aspheric lens, as shown in Fig. S5. For the above fluorotellurite fiber, the measured output power was about 21.1 W for a launched power of 32.9W, no obvious damage was observed on the end surface of the fluorotellurite fiber for more than 10 h. For the 60 cm long ZBLAN fiber, as the launched power of the 2 μm laser was increased to 13.1 W and the corresponding output power was about 12.72 W, the input end of the ZBLAN fiber was damaged after several minutes, as shown in Fig. S6. By replacing the damaged ZBLAN fibers with new ones, the above experiments on 2 μm laser delivery were repeated several times and the measured results were similar. The damage of the ZBLAN fiber for a large launched power might be caused by the photo-degradation of the ZBLAN fiber via the OH diffusion in the fiber tip, as with previous work [15,35]. As a result, the long term stability of high power ZBLAN fiber based laser sources needs to be improved for real applications. The above results also indicated that the above fluorotellurite fiber could be used to construct high power mid-infrared SC laser sources for real applications.

4. CONCLUSION

In summary, we demonstrated 10.4 W SC generation from 947 to 3934 nm in a homemade all solid fluorotellurite fiber pumped by a 1980 nm femtosecond fiber laser. All solid fluorotellurite fibers had good water resistance and high transition temperature (424°C), which made them become the promising nonlinear medium for constructing high power mid-infrared SC laser sources and further paved the way to apply high power mid-infrared SC laser sources for real applications.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (11474132, 11774132, 61378004, 61527823, 61605058); Open Fund of the State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics; Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology Cross-discipline Foundation; Key Technology Research and Development Project of Jilin Province (20180201120GX); Major Science and Technology Tendering Project of Jilin Province (20170203012GX); Joint Foundation from Equipment Pre-research and Ministry of Education (6141A02022413); Outstanding Young Talent Fund Project of Jilin Province (20180520188JH); Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT).

Acknowledgment

Yasutake Ohishi was supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) through the Support Program for Forming Strategic Research Infrastructure (2011–2015).

 

See Supplement 1 for supporting content.

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23. S. Wang, C. Li, C. Yao, S. Jia, Z. Jia, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3 glasses for ∼1.2 μm laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 64, 421–426 (2017). [CrossRef]  

24. F. Wang, K. K. Wang, C. F. Yao, Z. X. Jia, S. B. Wang, C. F. Wu, G. S. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. P. Qin, “Tapered fluorotellurite microstructured fibers for broadband supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Lett. 41, 634–637 (2016). [CrossRef]  

25. N. Li, F. Wang, C. Yao, Z. Jia, L. Zhang, Y. Feng, M. Hu, G. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. Qin, “Coherent supercontinuum generation from 1.4 to 4 μm in a tapered fluorotellurite microstructured fiber pumped by a 1980 nm femtosecond fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 061102 (2017). [CrossRef]  

26. S. V. Adichtchev, V. K. Malinovsky, L. N. Ignatieva, E. B. Merkulov, and N. V. Surovtsev, “Low-frequency inelastic light scattering in a ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF) glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 140, 184508 (2014). [CrossRef]  

27. A. Boutarfaia and M. Poulain, “New stable fluoroindate glasses,” Solid State Ionics 144, 117 (2001). [CrossRef]  

28. V. Shiryaev and M. Churbanov, “Trends and prospects for development of chalcogenide fibers for mid-infrared transmission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 377, 225–230 (2013). [CrossRef]  

29. A. Tverjanovich and E. Vagizova, “Thermal expansion of glasses in the As2Se3-AsI3 system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 243, 277–280 (1999). [CrossRef]  

30. J. H. Campbell and T. I. Suratwala, “Nd-doped phosphate glasses for highenergy/high-peak-power lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 318–341 (2000). [CrossRef]  

31. E. H. Penilla, L. F. Devia-Cruz, M. A. Duarte, C. L. Hardin, Y. Kodera, and J. E. Garay, “Gain in polycrystalline Nd-doped alumina: leveraging length scales to create a new class of high-energy, short pulse, tunable laser materials,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 33 (2018). [CrossRef]  

32. X. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, “High-power ZBLAN glass fiber lasers:review and prospect,” Adv. OptoElectron. 2010, 501956 (2010). [CrossRef]  

33. https://www.fiberlabs-inc.com/fiber_index/.

34. J. Bei, H. T. C. Foo, G. Qian, T. M. Monro, A. Hemming, and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Experimental study of chemical durability of fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses in deionized water,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 1213–1226 (2014). [CrossRef]  

35. N. Caron, M. Bernier, D. Faucher, and R. Vallée, “Understanding the fiber tip thermal runaway present in 3 μm fluoride glass fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 20, 22188–22194 (2012). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. J. M. Dudley and J. R. Taylor, Supercontinuum Generation in Optical Fibers (Cambridge University, 2010).
  2. F. Borondics, M. Jossent, C. Sandt, L. Lavoute, D. Gaponov, A. Hideur, P. Dumas, and S. Fevrier, “Supercontinuum-based Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy,” Optica 5, 378–381 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Labruyere, A. Tonello, V. Couderc, G. Huss, and P. Leproux, “Compact supercontinuum sources and their biomedical applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 375–378 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Dupont, C. Petersen, J. Thogersen, C. Agger, O. Bang, and S. R. Keiding, “IR microscopy utilizing intense supercontinuum light source,” Opt. Express 20, 4887–4892 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Sinobad, C. Monat, B. Luther-Davies, P. Ma, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, A. Mitchell, D. Allioux, R. Orobtchouk, S. Boutami, J. M. Hartmann, J. M. Fedeli, and C. Grillet, “Mid-infrared octave spanning supercontinuum generation to 8.5 μm in silicon-germanium waveguides,” Optica 5, 360–366 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  6. L. Orsila, J. Sand, M. Narhi, G. Genty, and G. Steinmeyer, “Supercontinuum generation as a signal amplifier,” Optica 2, 757–764 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. M. Brown, A. M. Brown, P. S. Edwards, Z. Liu, and C. R. Philbrick, “Measurement of atmospheric oxygen using long-path supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 8, 083557 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. Q. Nguyen, M. Matsuura, and N. Kishi, “WDM-to-OTDM conversion using supercontinuum generation in a highly nonlinear fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1882–1885 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. N. Islam, C. Xia, M. J. Freeman, J. Mauricio, A. Zakel, K. Ke, Z. Xu, and F. L. Terry, “Mid-IR super-continuum generation,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71950W (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y. Li, X. Xiao, L. Kong, and C. Yang, “Fiber supercontinuum source for broadband-CARS microspectroscopy based on a dissipative soliton laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 3900807 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  11. C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5  W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4  μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  12. W. Yang, B. Zhang, G. Xue, K. Yin, and J. Hou, “Thirteen watt all-fiber midinfrared supercontinuum generation in a single mode ZBLAN fiber pumped by a 2  μm MOPA system,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1849–1852 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. Liu, J. Liu, H. Shi, F. Tan, and P. Wang, “High power mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a single-mode ZBLAN fiber with up to 21.8  W average output power,” Opt. Express 22, 24384–24391 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. K. Yin, B. Zhang, L. Yang, and J. Hou, “15.2  W spectrally flat all-fiber supercontinuum laser source with >1  W power beyond 3.8  μm,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2334–2337 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  15. Y. O. Aydin, V. Fortin, R. Vallée, and M. Bernier, “Towards power scaling of 2.8 microns fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 43, 4542–4545 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  16. G. Frischat, B. Hueber, and B. Ramdohr, “Chemical stability of ZrF4- and AlF3-based heavy metal fluoride glasses in water,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 284, 105–109 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Le Toullec, C. J. Simmons, and J. H. Simmons, “Infrared spectroscopic studies of the hydrolysis reaction during leaching of heavy-metal fluoride glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 71, 219–224 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  18. C. G. Pantano and R. K. Brow, “Hydrolysis reactions at the surface of fluorozirconate glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 71, 577–581 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  19. R. Thapa, D. Rhonehouse, D. Nguyen, K. Wiersma, C. Smith, J. Zong, and A. Chavez-Pirson, “Mid-IR supercontinuum generation in ultra-low loss, dispersion-zero shifted tellurite glass fiber with extended coverage beyond 4.5  μm,” Proc. SPIE 8898, 889808 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  20. H. Shi, X. Feng, F. Tan, P. Wang, and P. Wang, “Multi-watt mid-infrared supercontinuum generated from a dehydrated large-core tellurite glass fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express 6, 3967–3976 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  21. C. Yao, C. He, Z. Jia, S. Wang, G. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. Qin, “Holmiumdoped fluorotellurite microstructured fibers for 2.1  μm lasing,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4695–4698 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  22. X. Feng, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped germano tellurite glasses for broadband fiber amplifiers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84, 165–171 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  23. S. Wang, C. Li, C. Yao, S. Jia, Z. Jia, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3 glasses for ∼1.2  μm laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 64, 421–426 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  24. F. Wang, K. K. Wang, C. F. Yao, Z. X. Jia, S. B. Wang, C. F. Wu, G. S. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. P. Qin, “Tapered fluorotellurite microstructured fibers for broadband supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Lett. 41, 634–637 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  25. N. Li, F. Wang, C. Yao, Z. Jia, L. Zhang, Y. Feng, M. Hu, G. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. Qin, “Coherent supercontinuum generation from 1.4 to 4  μm in a tapered fluorotellurite microstructured fiber pumped by a 1980  nm femtosecond fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 061102 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  26. S. V. Adichtchev, V. K. Malinovsky, L. N. Ignatieva, E. B. Merkulov, and N. V. Surovtsev, “Low-frequency inelastic light scattering in a ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF) glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 140, 184508 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. Boutarfaia and M. Poulain, “New stable fluoroindate glasses,” Solid State Ionics 144, 117 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  28. V. Shiryaev and M. Churbanov, “Trends and prospects for development of chalcogenide fibers for mid-infrared transmission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 377, 225–230 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  29. A. Tverjanovich and E. Vagizova, “Thermal expansion of glasses in the As2Se3-AsI3 system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 243, 277–280 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  30. J. H. Campbell and T. I. Suratwala, “Nd-doped phosphate glasses for highenergy/high-peak-power lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 318–341 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  31. E. H. Penilla, L. F. Devia-Cruz, M. A. Duarte, C. L. Hardin, Y. Kodera, and J. E. Garay, “Gain in polycrystalline Nd-doped alumina: leveraging length scales to create a new class of high-energy, short pulse, tunable laser materials,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 33 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  32. X. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, “High-power ZBLAN glass fiber lasers:review and prospect,” Adv. OptoElectron. 2010, 501956 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  33. https://www.fiberlabs-inc.com/fiber_index/ .
  34. J. Bei, H. T. C. Foo, G. Qian, T. M. Monro, A. Hemming, and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Experimental study of chemical durability of fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses in deionized water,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 1213–1226 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  35. N. Caron, M. Bernier, D. Faucher, and R. Vallée, “Understanding the fiber tip thermal runaway present in 3  μm fluoride glass fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 20, 22188–22194 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2018 (4)

2017 (4)

S. Wang, C. Li, C. Yao, S. Jia, Z. Jia, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3 glasses for ∼1.2  μm laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 64, 421–426 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Li, F. Wang, C. Yao, Z. Jia, L. Zhang, Y. Feng, M. Hu, G. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. Qin, “Coherent supercontinuum generation from 1.4 to 4  μm in a tapered fluorotellurite microstructured fiber pumped by a 1980  nm femtosecond fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 061102 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Yin, B. Zhang, L. Yang, and J. Hou, “15.2  W spectrally flat all-fiber supercontinuum laser source with >1  W power beyond 3.8  μm,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2334–2337 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, X. Xiao, L. Kong, and C. Yang, “Fiber supercontinuum source for broadband-CARS microspectroscopy based on a dissipative soliton laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 3900807 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (2)

2014 (6)

D. M. Brown, A. M. Brown, P. S. Edwards, Z. Liu, and C. R. Philbrick, “Measurement of atmospheric oxygen using long-path supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 8, 083557 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Nguyen, M. Matsuura, and N. Kishi, “WDM-to-OTDM conversion using supercontinuum generation in a highly nonlinear fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1882–1885 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, B. Zhang, G. Xue, K. Yin, and J. Hou, “Thirteen watt all-fiber midinfrared supercontinuum generation in a single mode ZBLAN fiber pumped by a 2  μm MOPA system,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1849–1852 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, J. Liu, H. Shi, F. Tan, and P. Wang, “High power mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a single-mode ZBLAN fiber with up to 21.8  W average output power,” Opt. Express 22, 24384–24391 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. V. Adichtchev, V. K. Malinovsky, L. N. Ignatieva, E. B. Merkulov, and N. V. Surovtsev, “Low-frequency inelastic light scattering in a ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF) glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 140, 184508 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Bei, H. T. C. Foo, G. Qian, T. M. Monro, A. Hemming, and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Experimental study of chemical durability of fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses in deionized water,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 1213–1226 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

V. Shiryaev and M. Churbanov, “Trends and prospects for development of chalcogenide fibers for mid-infrared transmission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 377, 225–230 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Thapa, D. Rhonehouse, D. Nguyen, K. Wiersma, C. Smith, J. Zong, and A. Chavez-Pirson, “Mid-IR supercontinuum generation in ultra-low loss, dispersion-zero shifted tellurite glass fiber with extended coverage beyond 4.5  μm,” Proc. SPIE 8898, 889808 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2010 (1)

X. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, “High-power ZBLAN glass fiber lasers:review and prospect,” Adv. OptoElectron. 2010, 501956 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5  W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4  μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. N. Islam, C. Xia, M. J. Freeman, J. Mauricio, A. Zakel, K. Ke, Z. Xu, and F. L. Terry, “Mid-IR super-continuum generation,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71950W (2009).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

G. Frischat, B. Hueber, and B. Ramdohr, “Chemical stability of ZrF4- and AlF3-based heavy metal fluoride glasses in water,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 284, 105–109 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Boutarfaia and M. Poulain, “New stable fluoroindate glasses,” Solid State Ionics 144, 117 (2001).
[Crossref]

X. Feng, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped germano tellurite glasses for broadband fiber amplifiers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84, 165–171 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. H. Campbell and T. I. Suratwala, “Nd-doped phosphate glasses for highenergy/high-peak-power lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 318–341 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

A. Tverjanovich and E. Vagizova, “Thermal expansion of glasses in the As2Se3-AsI3 system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 243, 277–280 (1999).
[Crossref]

1988 (2)

M. Le Toullec, C. J. Simmons, and J. H. Simmons, “Infrared spectroscopic studies of the hydrolysis reaction during leaching of heavy-metal fluoride glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 71, 219–224 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. G. Pantano and R. K. Brow, “Hydrolysis reactions at the surface of fluorozirconate glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 71, 577–581 (1988).
[Crossref]

Adichtchev, S. V.

S. V. Adichtchev, V. K. Malinovsky, L. N. Ignatieva, E. B. Merkulov, and N. V. Surovtsev, “Low-frequency inelastic light scattering in a ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF) glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 140, 184508 (2014).
[Crossref]

Agger, C.

Allioux, D.

Aydin, Y. O.

Bang, O.

Bei, J.

Bernier, M.

Borondics, F.

Boutami, S.

Boutarfaia, A.

A. Boutarfaia and M. Poulain, “New stable fluoroindate glasses,” Solid State Ionics 144, 117 (2001).
[Crossref]

Brow, R. K.

C. G. Pantano and R. K. Brow, “Hydrolysis reactions at the surface of fluorozirconate glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 71, 577–581 (1988).
[Crossref]

Brown, A. M.

D. M. Brown, A. M. Brown, P. S. Edwards, Z. Liu, and C. R. Philbrick, “Measurement of atmospheric oxygen using long-path supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 8, 083557 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brown, D. M.

D. M. Brown, A. M. Brown, P. S. Edwards, Z. Liu, and C. R. Philbrick, “Measurement of atmospheric oxygen using long-path supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 8, 083557 (2014).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. H.

J. H. Campbell and T. I. Suratwala, “Nd-doped phosphate glasses for highenergy/high-peak-power lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 318–341 (2000).
[Crossref]

Caron, N.

Chavez-Pirson, A.

R. Thapa, D. Rhonehouse, D. Nguyen, K. Wiersma, C. Smith, J. Zong, and A. Chavez-Pirson, “Mid-IR supercontinuum generation in ultra-low loss, dispersion-zero shifted tellurite glass fiber with extended coverage beyond 4.5  μm,” Proc. SPIE 8898, 889808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Churbanov, M.

V. Shiryaev and M. Churbanov, “Trends and prospects for development of chalcogenide fibers for mid-infrared transmission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 377, 225–230 (2013).
[Crossref]

Couderc, V.

A. Labruyere, A. Tonello, V. Couderc, G. Huss, and P. Leproux, “Compact supercontinuum sources and their biomedical applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 375–378 (2012).
[Crossref]

Devia-Cruz, L. F.

E. H. Penilla, L. F. Devia-Cruz, M. A. Duarte, C. L. Hardin, Y. Kodera, and J. E. Garay, “Gain in polycrystalline Nd-doped alumina: leveraging length scales to create a new class of high-energy, short pulse, tunable laser materials,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 33 (2018).
[Crossref]

Duarte, M. A.

E. H. Penilla, L. F. Devia-Cruz, M. A. Duarte, C. L. Hardin, Y. Kodera, and J. E. Garay, “Gain in polycrystalline Nd-doped alumina: leveraging length scales to create a new class of high-energy, short pulse, tunable laser materials,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 33 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley and J. R. Taylor, Supercontinuum Generation in Optical Fibers (Cambridge University, 2010).

Dumas, P.

Dupont, S.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Edwards, P. S.

D. M. Brown, A. M. Brown, P. S. Edwards, Z. Liu, and C. R. Philbrick, “Measurement of atmospheric oxygen using long-path supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 8, 083557 (2014).
[Crossref]

Faucher, D.

Fedeli, J. M.

Feng, X.

H. Shi, X. Feng, F. Tan, P. Wang, and P. Wang, “Multi-watt mid-infrared supercontinuum generated from a dehydrated large-core tellurite glass fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express 6, 3967–3976 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Feng, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped germano tellurite glasses for broadband fiber amplifiers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84, 165–171 (2001).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

N. Li, F. Wang, C. Yao, Z. Jia, L. Zhang, Y. Feng, M. Hu, G. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. Qin, “Coherent supercontinuum generation from 1.4 to 4  μm in a tapered fluorotellurite microstructured fiber pumped by a 1980  nm femtosecond fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 061102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fevrier, S.

Foo, H. T. C.

Fortin, V.

Freeman, M. J.

M. N. Islam, C. Xia, M. J. Freeman, J. Mauricio, A. Zakel, K. Ke, Z. Xu, and F. L. Terry, “Mid-IR super-continuum generation,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71950W (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5  W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4  μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Frischat, G.

G. Frischat, B. Hueber, and B. Ramdohr, “Chemical stability of ZrF4- and AlF3-based heavy metal fluoride glasses in water,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 284, 105–109 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gaponov, D.

Garay, J. E.

E. H. Penilla, L. F. Devia-Cruz, M. A. Duarte, C. L. Hardin, Y. Kodera, and J. E. Garay, “Gain in polycrystalline Nd-doped alumina: leveraging length scales to create a new class of high-energy, short pulse, tunable laser materials,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 33 (2018).
[Crossref]

Genty, G.

Grillet, C.

Hanada, T.

X. Feng, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped germano tellurite glasses for broadband fiber amplifiers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84, 165–171 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hardin, C. L.

E. H. Penilla, L. F. Devia-Cruz, M. A. Duarte, C. L. Hardin, Y. Kodera, and J. E. Garay, “Gain in polycrystalline Nd-doped alumina: leveraging length scales to create a new class of high-energy, short pulse, tunable laser materials,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 33 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J. M.

He, C.

Hemming, A.

Hideur, A.

Hou, J.

Hu, M.

N. Li, F. Wang, C. Yao, Z. Jia, L. Zhang, Y. Feng, M. Hu, G. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. Qin, “Coherent supercontinuum generation from 1.4 to 4  μm in a tapered fluorotellurite microstructured fiber pumped by a 1980  nm femtosecond fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 061102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hueber, B.

G. Frischat, B. Hueber, and B. Ramdohr, “Chemical stability of ZrF4- and AlF3-based heavy metal fluoride glasses in water,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 284, 105–109 (2001).
[Crossref]

Huss, G.

A. Labruyere, A. Tonello, V. Couderc, G. Huss, and P. Leproux, “Compact supercontinuum sources and their biomedical applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 375–378 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ignatieva, L. N.

S. V. Adichtchev, V. K. Malinovsky, L. N. Ignatieva, E. B. Merkulov, and N. V. Surovtsev, “Low-frequency inelastic light scattering in a ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF) glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 140, 184508 (2014).
[Crossref]

Islam, M. N.

M. N. Islam, C. Xia, M. J. Freeman, J. Mauricio, A. Zakel, K. Ke, Z. Xu, and F. L. Terry, “Mid-IR super-continuum generation,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71950W (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5  W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4  μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jia, S.

S. Wang, C. Li, C. Yao, S. Jia, Z. Jia, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3 glasses for ∼1.2  μm laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 64, 421–426 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jia, Z.

S. Wang, C. Li, C. Yao, S. Jia, Z. Jia, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3 glasses for ∼1.2  μm laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 64, 421–426 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Li, F. Wang, C. Yao, Z. Jia, L. Zhang, Y. Feng, M. Hu, G. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. Qin, “Coherent supercontinuum generation from 1.4 to 4  μm in a tapered fluorotellurite microstructured fiber pumped by a 1980  nm femtosecond fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 061102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Yao, C. He, Z. Jia, S. Wang, G. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. Qin, “Holmiumdoped fluorotellurite microstructured fibers for 2.1  μm lasing,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4695–4698 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jia, Z. X.

Jossent, M.

Ke, K.

M. N. Islam, C. Xia, M. J. Freeman, J. Mauricio, A. Zakel, K. Ke, Z. Xu, and F. L. Terry, “Mid-IR super-continuum generation,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71950W (2009).
[Crossref]

Keiding, S. R.

Kishi, N.

Q. Nguyen, M. Matsuura, and N. Kishi, “WDM-to-OTDM conversion using supercontinuum generation in a highly nonlinear fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1882–1885 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kodera, Y.

E. H. Penilla, L. F. Devia-Cruz, M. A. Duarte, C. L. Hardin, Y. Kodera, and J. E. Garay, “Gain in polycrystalline Nd-doped alumina: leveraging length scales to create a new class of high-energy, short pulse, tunable laser materials,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 33 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kong, L.

Y. Li, X. Xiao, L. Kong, and C. Yang, “Fiber supercontinuum source for broadband-CARS microspectroscopy based on a dissipative soliton laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 3900807 (2017).
[Crossref]

Labruyere, A.

A. Labruyere, A. Tonello, V. Couderc, G. Huss, and P. Leproux, “Compact supercontinuum sources and their biomedical applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 375–378 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lavoute, L.

Le Toullec, M.

M. Le Toullec, C. J. Simmons, and J. H. Simmons, “Infrared spectroscopic studies of the hydrolysis reaction during leaching of heavy-metal fluoride glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 71, 219–224 (1988).
[Crossref]

Leproux, P.

A. Labruyere, A. Tonello, V. Couderc, G. Huss, and P. Leproux, “Compact supercontinuum sources and their biomedical applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 375–378 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

S. Wang, C. Li, C. Yao, S. Jia, Z. Jia, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3 glasses for ∼1.2  μm laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 64, 421–426 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, N.

N. Li, F. Wang, C. Yao, Z. Jia, L. Zhang, Y. Feng, M. Hu, G. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. Qin, “Coherent supercontinuum generation from 1.4 to 4  μm in a tapered fluorotellurite microstructured fiber pumped by a 1980  nm femtosecond fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 061102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, X. Xiao, L. Kong, and C. Yang, “Fiber supercontinuum source for broadband-CARS microspectroscopy based on a dissipative soliton laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 3900807 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Liu, K.

Liu, Z.

D. M. Brown, A. M. Brown, P. S. Edwards, Z. Liu, and C. R. Philbrick, “Measurement of atmospheric oxygen using long-path supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 8, 083557 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luther-Davies, B.

Ma, P.

Madden, S.

Malinovsky, V. K.

S. V. Adichtchev, V. K. Malinovsky, L. N. Ignatieva, E. B. Merkulov, and N. V. Surovtsev, “Low-frequency inelastic light scattering in a ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF) glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 140, 184508 (2014).
[Crossref]

Matsuura, M.

Q. Nguyen, M. Matsuura, and N. Kishi, “WDM-to-OTDM conversion using supercontinuum generation in a highly nonlinear fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1882–1885 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mauricio, J.

M. N. Islam, C. Xia, M. J. Freeman, J. Mauricio, A. Zakel, K. Ke, Z. Xu, and F. L. Terry, “Mid-IR super-continuum generation,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71950W (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5  W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4  μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Merkulov, E. B.

S. V. Adichtchev, V. K. Malinovsky, L. N. Ignatieva, E. B. Merkulov, and N. V. Surovtsev, “Low-frequency inelastic light scattering in a ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF) glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 140, 184508 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mitchell, A.

Monat, C.

Monro, T. M.

Moss, D. J.

Narhi, M.

Nguyen, D.

R. Thapa, D. Rhonehouse, D. Nguyen, K. Wiersma, C. Smith, J. Zong, and A. Chavez-Pirson, “Mid-IR supercontinuum generation in ultra-low loss, dispersion-zero shifted tellurite glass fiber with extended coverage beyond 4.5  μm,” Proc. SPIE 8898, 889808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, Q.

Q. Nguyen, M. Matsuura, and N. Kishi, “WDM-to-OTDM conversion using supercontinuum generation in a highly nonlinear fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1882–1885 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ohishi, Y.

N. Li, F. Wang, C. Yao, Z. Jia, L. Zhang, Y. Feng, M. Hu, G. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. Qin, “Coherent supercontinuum generation from 1.4 to 4  μm in a tapered fluorotellurite microstructured fiber pumped by a 1980  nm femtosecond fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 061102 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, K. K. Wang, C. F. Yao, Z. X. Jia, S. B. Wang, C. F. Wu, G. S. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. P. Qin, “Tapered fluorotellurite microstructured fibers for broadband supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Lett. 41, 634–637 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Yao, C. He, Z. Jia, S. Wang, G. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. Qin, “Holmiumdoped fluorotellurite microstructured fibers for 2.1  μm lasing,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4695–4698 (2015).
[Crossref]

Orobtchouk, R.

Orsila, L.

Pantano, C. G.

C. G. Pantano and R. K. Brow, “Hydrolysis reactions at the surface of fluorozirconate glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 71, 577–581 (1988).
[Crossref]

Penilla, E. H.

E. H. Penilla, L. F. Devia-Cruz, M. A. Duarte, C. L. Hardin, Y. Kodera, and J. E. Garay, “Gain in polycrystalline Nd-doped alumina: leveraging length scales to create a new class of high-energy, short pulse, tunable laser materials,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 33 (2018).
[Crossref]

Petersen, C.

Peyghambarian, N.

X. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, “High-power ZBLAN glass fiber lasers:review and prospect,” Adv. OptoElectron. 2010, 501956 (2010).
[Crossref]

Philbrick, C. R.

D. M. Brown, A. M. Brown, P. S. Edwards, Z. Liu, and C. R. Philbrick, “Measurement of atmospheric oxygen using long-path supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 8, 083557 (2014).
[Crossref]

Poulain, M.

A. Boutarfaia and M. Poulain, “New stable fluoroindate glasses,” Solid State Ionics 144, 117 (2001).
[Crossref]

Qian, G.

Qin, G.

N. Li, F. Wang, C. Yao, Z. Jia, L. Zhang, Y. Feng, M. Hu, G. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. Qin, “Coherent supercontinuum generation from 1.4 to 4  μm in a tapered fluorotellurite microstructured fiber pumped by a 1980  nm femtosecond fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 061102 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, C. Li, C. Yao, S. Jia, Z. Jia, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3 glasses for ∼1.2  μm laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 64, 421–426 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Yao, C. He, Z. Jia, S. Wang, G. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. Qin, “Holmiumdoped fluorotellurite microstructured fibers for 2.1  μm lasing,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4695–4698 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qin, G. S.

Qin, W.

S. Wang, C. Li, C. Yao, S. Jia, Z. Jia, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3 glasses for ∼1.2  μm laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 64, 421–426 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Li, F. Wang, C. Yao, Z. Jia, L. Zhang, Y. Feng, M. Hu, G. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. Qin, “Coherent supercontinuum generation from 1.4 to 4  μm in a tapered fluorotellurite microstructured fiber pumped by a 1980  nm femtosecond fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 061102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Yao, C. He, Z. Jia, S. Wang, G. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. Qin, “Holmiumdoped fluorotellurite microstructured fibers for 2.1  μm lasing,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4695–4698 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qin, W. P.

Ramdohr, B.

G. Frischat, B. Hueber, and B. Ramdohr, “Chemical stability of ZrF4- and AlF3-based heavy metal fluoride glasses in water,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 284, 105–109 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rhonehouse, D.

R. Thapa, D. Rhonehouse, D. Nguyen, K. Wiersma, C. Smith, J. Zong, and A. Chavez-Pirson, “Mid-IR supercontinuum generation in ultra-low loss, dispersion-zero shifted tellurite glass fiber with extended coverage beyond 4.5  μm,” Proc. SPIE 8898, 889808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sand, J.

Sandt, C.

Shi, H.

Shiryaev, V.

V. Shiryaev and M. Churbanov, “Trends and prospects for development of chalcogenide fibers for mid-infrared transmission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 377, 225–230 (2013).
[Crossref]

Simmons, C. J.

M. Le Toullec, C. J. Simmons, and J. H. Simmons, “Infrared spectroscopic studies of the hydrolysis reaction during leaching of heavy-metal fluoride glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 71, 219–224 (1988).
[Crossref]

Simmons, J. H.

M. Le Toullec, C. J. Simmons, and J. H. Simmons, “Infrared spectroscopic studies of the hydrolysis reaction during leaching of heavy-metal fluoride glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 71, 219–224 (1988).
[Crossref]

Sinobad, M.

Smith, C.

R. Thapa, D. Rhonehouse, D. Nguyen, K. Wiersma, C. Smith, J. Zong, and A. Chavez-Pirson, “Mid-IR supercontinuum generation in ultra-low loss, dispersion-zero shifted tellurite glass fiber with extended coverage beyond 4.5  μm,” Proc. SPIE 8898, 889808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Steinmeyer, G.

Suratwala, T. I.

J. H. Campbell and T. I. Suratwala, “Nd-doped phosphate glasses for highenergy/high-peak-power lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 318–341 (2000).
[Crossref]

Surovtsev, N. V.

S. V. Adichtchev, V. K. Malinovsky, L. N. Ignatieva, E. B. Merkulov, and N. V. Surovtsev, “Low-frequency inelastic light scattering in a ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF) glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 140, 184508 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tan, F.

Tanabe, S.

X. Feng, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped germano tellurite glasses for broadband fiber amplifiers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84, 165–171 (2001).
[Crossref]

Taylor, J. R.

J. M. Dudley and J. R. Taylor, Supercontinuum Generation in Optical Fibers (Cambridge University, 2010).

Terry, F. L.

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5  W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4  μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. N. Islam, C. Xia, M. J. Freeman, J. Mauricio, A. Zakel, K. Ke, Z. Xu, and F. L. Terry, “Mid-IR super-continuum generation,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71950W (2009).
[Crossref]

Thapa, R.

R. Thapa, D. Rhonehouse, D. Nguyen, K. Wiersma, C. Smith, J. Zong, and A. Chavez-Pirson, “Mid-IR supercontinuum generation in ultra-low loss, dispersion-zero shifted tellurite glass fiber with extended coverage beyond 4.5  μm,” Proc. SPIE 8898, 889808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thogersen, J.

Tonello, A.

A. Labruyere, A. Tonello, V. Couderc, G. Huss, and P. Leproux, “Compact supercontinuum sources and their biomedical applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 375–378 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tverjanovich, A.

A. Tverjanovich and E. Vagizova, “Thermal expansion of glasses in the As2Se3-AsI3 system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 243, 277–280 (1999).
[Crossref]

Vagizova, E.

A. Tverjanovich and E. Vagizova, “Thermal expansion of glasses in the As2Se3-AsI3 system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 243, 277–280 (1999).
[Crossref]

Vallée, R.

Wang, F.

N. Li, F. Wang, C. Yao, Z. Jia, L. Zhang, Y. Feng, M. Hu, G. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. Qin, “Coherent supercontinuum generation from 1.4 to 4  μm in a tapered fluorotellurite microstructured fiber pumped by a 1980  nm femtosecond fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 061102 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, K. K. Wang, C. F. Yao, Z. X. Jia, S. B. Wang, C. F. Wu, G. S. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. P. Qin, “Tapered fluorotellurite microstructured fibers for broadband supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Lett. 41, 634–637 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, K. K.

Wang, P.

Wang, S.

S. Wang, C. Li, C. Yao, S. Jia, Z. Jia, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3 glasses for ∼1.2  μm laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 64, 421–426 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Yao, C. He, Z. Jia, S. Wang, G. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. Qin, “Holmiumdoped fluorotellurite microstructured fibers for 2.1  μm lasing,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4695–4698 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. B.

Wiersma, K.

R. Thapa, D. Rhonehouse, D. Nguyen, K. Wiersma, C. Smith, J. Zong, and A. Chavez-Pirson, “Mid-IR supercontinuum generation in ultra-low loss, dispersion-zero shifted tellurite glass fiber with extended coverage beyond 4.5  μm,” Proc. SPIE 8898, 889808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. F.

Xia, C.

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5  W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4  μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. N. Islam, C. Xia, M. J. Freeman, J. Mauricio, A. Zakel, K. Ke, Z. Xu, and F. L. Terry, “Mid-IR super-continuum generation,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71950W (2009).
[Crossref]

Xiao, X.

Y. Li, X. Xiao, L. Kong, and C. Yang, “Fiber supercontinuum source for broadband-CARS microspectroscopy based on a dissipative soliton laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 3900807 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

M. N. Islam, C. Xia, M. J. Freeman, J. Mauricio, A. Zakel, K. Ke, Z. Xu, and F. L. Terry, “Mid-IR super-continuum generation,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71950W (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5  W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4  μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xue, G.

Yang, C.

Y. Li, X. Xiao, L. Kong, and C. Yang, “Fiber supercontinuum source for broadband-CARS microspectroscopy based on a dissipative soliton laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 3900807 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

Yang, W.

Yao, C.

S. Wang, C. Li, C. Yao, S. Jia, Z. Jia, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3 glasses for ∼1.2  μm laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 64, 421–426 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Li, F. Wang, C. Yao, Z. Jia, L. Zhang, Y. Feng, M. Hu, G. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. Qin, “Coherent supercontinuum generation from 1.4 to 4  μm in a tapered fluorotellurite microstructured fiber pumped by a 1980  nm femtosecond fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 061102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Yao, C. He, Z. Jia, S. Wang, G. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. Qin, “Holmiumdoped fluorotellurite microstructured fibers for 2.1  μm lasing,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4695–4698 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yao, C. F.

Yin, K.

Zakel, A.

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5  W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4  μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. N. Islam, C. Xia, M. J. Freeman, J. Mauricio, A. Zakel, K. Ke, Z. Xu, and F. L. Terry, “Mid-IR super-continuum generation,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71950W (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

Zhang, L.

N. Li, F. Wang, C. Yao, Z. Jia, L. Zhang, Y. Feng, M. Hu, G. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. Qin, “Coherent supercontinuum generation from 1.4 to 4  μm in a tapered fluorotellurite microstructured fiber pumped by a 1980  nm femtosecond fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 061102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

X. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, “High-power ZBLAN glass fiber lasers:review and prospect,” Adv. OptoElectron. 2010, 501956 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zong, J.

R. Thapa, D. Rhonehouse, D. Nguyen, K. Wiersma, C. Smith, J. Zong, and A. Chavez-Pirson, “Mid-IR supercontinuum generation in ultra-low loss, dispersion-zero shifted tellurite glass fiber with extended coverage beyond 4.5  μm,” Proc. SPIE 8898, 889808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. OptoElectron. (1)

X. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, “High-power ZBLAN glass fiber lasers:review and prospect,” Adv. OptoElectron. 2010, 501956 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Li, F. Wang, C. Yao, Z. Jia, L. Zhang, Y. Feng, M. Hu, G. Qin, Y. Ohishi, and W. Qin, “Coherent supercontinuum generation from 1.4 to 4  μm in a tapered fluorotellurite microstructured fiber pumped by a 1980  nm femtosecond fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 061102 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5  W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4  μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

Y. Li, X. Xiao, L. Kong, and C. Yang, “Fiber supercontinuum source for broadband-CARS microspectroscopy based on a dissipative soliton laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 3900807 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Q. Nguyen, M. Matsuura, and N. Kishi, “WDM-to-OTDM conversion using supercontinuum generation in a highly nonlinear fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1882–1885 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (3)

M. Le Toullec, C. J. Simmons, and J. H. Simmons, “Infrared spectroscopic studies of the hydrolysis reaction during leaching of heavy-metal fluoride glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 71, 219–224 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. G. Pantano and R. K. Brow, “Hydrolysis reactions at the surface of fluorozirconate glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 71, 577–581 (1988).
[Crossref]

X. Feng, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped germano tellurite glasses for broadband fiber amplifiers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84, 165–171 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Remote Sens. (1)

D. M. Brown, A. M. Brown, P. S. Edwards, Z. Liu, and C. R. Philbrick, “Measurement of atmospheric oxygen using long-path supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 8, 083557 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. V. Adichtchev, V. K. Malinovsky, L. N. Ignatieva, E. B. Merkulov, and N. V. Surovtsev, “Low-frequency inelastic light scattering in a ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF) glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 140, 184508 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (3)

V. Shiryaev and M. Churbanov, “Trends and prospects for development of chalcogenide fibers for mid-infrared transmission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 377, 225–230 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Tverjanovich and E. Vagizova, “Thermal expansion of glasses in the As2Se3-AsI3 system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 243, 277–280 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. H. Campbell and T. I. Suratwala, “Nd-doped phosphate glasses for highenergy/high-peak-power lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 318–341 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Crystalline Solids (1)

G. Frischat, B. Hueber, and B. Ramdohr, “Chemical stability of ZrF4- and AlF3-based heavy metal fluoride glasses in water,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 284, 105–109 (2001).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

E. H. Penilla, L. F. Devia-Cruz, M. A. Duarte, C. L. Hardin, Y. Kodera, and J. E. Garay, “Gain in polycrystalline Nd-doped alumina: leveraging length scales to create a new class of high-energy, short pulse, tunable laser materials,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 33 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

A. Labruyere, A. Tonello, V. Couderc, G. Huss, and P. Leproux, “Compact supercontinuum sources and their biomedical applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 375–378 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. (1)

S. Wang, C. Li, C. Yao, S. Jia, Z. Jia, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3 glasses for ∼1.2  μm laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 64, 421–426 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Optica (3)

Proc. SPIE (2)

M. N. Islam, C. Xia, M. J. Freeman, J. Mauricio, A. Zakel, K. Ke, Z. Xu, and F. L. Terry, “Mid-IR super-continuum generation,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71950W (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Thapa, D. Rhonehouse, D. Nguyen, K. Wiersma, C. Smith, J. Zong, and A. Chavez-Pirson, “Mid-IR supercontinuum generation in ultra-low loss, dispersion-zero shifted tellurite glass fiber with extended coverage beyond 4.5  μm,” Proc. SPIE 8898, 889808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Solid State Ionics (1)

A. Boutarfaia and M. Poulain, “New stable fluoroindate glasses,” Solid State Ionics 144, 117 (2001).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

https://www.fiberlabs-inc.com/fiber_index/ .

J. M. Dudley and J. R. Taylor, Supercontinuum Generation in Optical Fibers (Cambridge University, 2010).

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Measured differential thermal analysis (DTA) curves of TBY and ABCYSMT glasses at a heating rate of 10°C/min in the range of 30°C–800°C.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Refractive indices of TBY and ABCYSMT glasses. (b) The dependence of the calculated NA of all-solid fluorotellurite fibers on the wavelength.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Transmittance spectra of 2 mm thick TBY and ABCYSMT glasses after putting the glasses in deionized water for 0, 12 days, respectively.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Calculated dispersion of propagating LP01 mode in the all-solid fluorotellurite fiber. Inset: Scanning electron micrograph of the fluorotellurite fiber. (b) Loss spectrum of the TBY glass fiber.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Experiment setup for 10.4 W mid-infrared SC generation from ultra-high NA fluorotellurite fiber.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Dependence of the measured SC spectra generated from 60 cm long fluorotellurite fiber on the average power of the 1980 nm femtosecond fiber laser. (b) The dependence of the SC average power output from 60 cm long fluorotellurite fiber on the launched pump power of the 1980 nm femtosecond fiber laser. Inset: The power meter photograph during the mid-infrared SC laser source operating at the output power of 10.4 W.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Comparison of the simulated (the black solid curve) and measured (the red dashed curve) SC spectra output from the above all-solid fluorotellurite fiber for a same launched average pump power of 15.9 W . (b), (c) The spectral and temporal evolution of SC generation in the above all-solid fluorotellurite fiber for a launched average pump power of 15.9 W .
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Calculated intensity distribution profiles of LP01, LP11, LP21, LP02, LP31, LP12, LP41, and LP22 modes in the fiber. (b) The calculated confinement losses of those propagation modes. (c) The calculated GVD profiles of those propagation modes.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a–h) Simulated SC spectra for LP01, LP11, LP21, LP02, LP31, LP12, LP41, and LP22 modes in the above all-solid fluorotellurite fiber when the launched average pump power was fixed at 15.9 W, respectively. The red dashed curve shows the measured SC spectrum output from the all-solid fluorotellurite fiber with the launched average pump power of 15.9 W.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Transition Temperature T g of Several ZBLAN, Indium Fluoride, Tellurite, Chalcogenide, Selenide and TBY Glasses

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Table 2. Thermal and Mechanical Properties of ZBLAN, TBY and ABCYSMT Glasses

Equations (1)

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R s = k ( 1 ν ) α E σ F ,

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