Abstract

The development of a thresholdless laser operating above room temperature (RT) is key for the future replacement of electronics with photonic integrated circuits, enabling an increase of several orders of magnitude in computing speeds. Recently, thresholdless lasing characteristics at low temperature (4 K) have been demonstrated. However, for practical applications, RT laser emission becomes necessary. Here we report experimental evidence that is compatible with a laser based on InAsSb quantum dots embedded in a photonic-crystal microcavity that exhibits an ultralow-power threshold (860 nW) and high efficiency (β=0.85), thus operating in the near-thresholdless regime at RT in the 1.3 μm spectral window. The results open up a wide range of opportunities for RT applications of ultralow threshold lasers, such as integrated photonic circuitry or high sensitivity biosensors.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

1. INTRODUCTION

The early demonstration of lasing emission in a photonic-crystal microcavity (PCM) [1] opened new avenues toward very low threshold and highly efficient solid-state lasers [2,3] by taking advantage of two aspects. On one hand, PCMs allow a strong confinement of light through high quality factors (Q) and small mode volumes (Veff). On the other hand, zero-dimensional nanostructures or quantum dots (QDs) were proposed as an optimal active region to reach low threshold and highly efficient laser sources [4,5]. Even though it has been argued that a truly thresholdless laser is not possible in practice [6], the term thresholdless is used in the literature [3] to identify lasers presenting two main features: a spontaneous emission coupling factor (β) close to 1 and low nonradiative losses. Nonradiative losses are reduced by several orders of magnitude at cryogenic temperatures, although they can never be completely suppressed. An ultimate thresholdless laser [3,7,8] operating at room temperature (RT) may have a strong impact in optical integrated circuits [9], which may require performance at temperatures as high as 85 °C and, for instance, in bio-organic sensing, where the 1.3 μm spectral window has been used for single-cell photonic nanocavity probes [10]. Ultralow threshold lasing was achieved using an ever-decreasing number of QDs within photonic-crystal cavities [1116]. That strategy was adopted by Strauf et al. [12] to demonstrate near-thresholdless lasing at low temperature (4.5 K) using a few QDs (two to four) as active emitters. The authors reported power threshold values as low as 124 nW (corresponding to an absorbed power of 4 nW) and a high β=0.85. Khajavikhan et al. recently demonstrated thresholdless lasing at low temperature (4 K) [17]. The authors also reported RT lasing, although without thresholdless characteristics. In this work we report a RT continuous wave (cw) laser with emission characteristics close to those of an ideal thresholdless laser.

2. DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LASERS

A. Design

We have designed a PCM that consists of a hexagonal lattice of air holes with nine missing holes along the ΓK direction (L9-PCM) fabricated on a GaAs suspended slab [18]. For that PCM, the best Q/Veff ratio is obtained for the fundamental mode. Therefore, the design of the L9-PCM was optimized to achieve spectral matching of the fundamental mode with the emission of the QDs. Figure 1(a) shows the mode profile of the L9-PCM fundamental mode, calculated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method (see Supplement 1). The calculated values for Q and Veff are 4.4×105 and 1.43×(λ/neff)3 respectively, where λ represents the spectral position and neff is the effective refractive index of the fundamental mode.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. (a) Calculation of the electric field distribution |E|2 of the L9-PCM fundamental mode. (b) Scanning electron microscopy image of a L9-PCM. (c) PL of the ensemble of the QDs outside of the PCM (black line) and PL of a L9-PCM (filled gray) showing the mode structure. The inset shows a schematic diagram of the epitaxial material.

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B. Fabrication

The fabrication of the L9-PCM involved a BCl3/N2-based plasma etching procedure, optimized for the enhancement of the Q of the fundamental mode [19]. Figure 1(b) shows a scanning electron microscope image of the resulting L9-PCM.

The epitaxial material was grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on a semi-insulating GaAs substrate. The inset in Fig. 1(c) shows the epitaxial structure of the wafer, which consisted of the active region embedded in a 190 nm thick GaAs layer and a 1 μm thick Al0.75Ga0.25As sacrificial layer underneath. The active region includes a single layer of InAsSb QDs with luminescence at 1.3 μm. The microcavities were patterned by electron beam lithography on a 365 nm thick ZEP-520A resist homogeneously spun onto a 90 nm thick SiOx hard mask deposited by plasma enhanced vapor deposition (PECVD). Reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) was performed to drill the SiOx layer previously deposited on the epitaxial material and inductively coupled plasma-reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) was used to transfer the pattern to the active GaAs slab. The final step consisted of the removal of the sacrificial layer underneath the L9-PCMs by means of HF:H2O wet etching. Four large rectangular holes surrounding every structure were fabricated to facilitate the renewal of the HF solution and the removal of the remaining material underneath every structure during the wet etching [19].

C. Optical Characterization

A 785 nm laser diode (LD) operating in cw mode was used for the optical pumping of the photonic structures. The excitation beam was focused down to a 1.5 μm diameter spot by means of a microscope objective (20×, NA=0.4). The same objective was used to direct the light emitted from the sample to a 0.85 m long double spectrometer through an optical fiber. An InGaAs-cooled photodiode array was used as a detector.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Figure 1(c) shows the photoluminescence (PL) spectra at RT of the QD ensemble (black) and the L9-PCM (filled gray). The spectrum of the QD ensemble shows the fundamental transition that corresponds to the excitonic emission centered at 1280 nm with an inhomogeneous broadening of 23 meV. The incorporation of Sb in the InAs QDs induces an upward shift of the conduction and valence band edges; it results in a deeper hole confinement and more efficient emission at RT [2024], thus overcoming the thermal ambipolar escape of carriers that reduces the RT efficiency of conventional InAs QDs [25,26]. At low temperature, the performance of the InAsSb QDs is similar to that of regular InAs QDs. However, the emission of the InAsSb QDs clearly outperforms that of regular InAs QDs at RT [21,22]. Therefore, we take advantage of the good optical properties of our InAsSb QDs at RT: the integrated emission of InAsSb QDs at 28 K is 1.8 times that of InAs QDs, but at RT it is 10.2 times larger [24]. The study of the emission of the devices as a function of the temperature is not straightforward due to the thermal drift of the QD emission, which is much larger than that of the cavity mode. Therefore, the cavity mode will be highly detuned as the temperature is changed. The only way to make this study is to use a different cavity for each temperature, but that will not be conclusive because the devices cannot be made completely identical. The observed resonances from the PL spectrum of the L9-PCM correspond to the cavity mode structure, with the fundamental mode emitting at 1286 nm.

Figure 2(a) presents the integrated intensity of light emitted by the fundamental mode of the L9-PCM laser as a function of cw optical pump power (i.e., Lin versus Lout or LL-curve) at RT. We have estimated an effective power lasing threshold of 860 nW (see Supplement 1). To determine β, we used a coupled rate equation model where β=0.85 optimizes the fit to the experimental data (see Supplement 1). Figure 2(a) also shows the calculated LL-curves for different β values (gray curves), including the fit for β=0.85 (red curve). This value is comparable to those reported in state-of-the-art lasers designed for their operation at temperatures few degrees above absolute zero [12,17]. The assertion that the device indeed reaches lasing is further substantiated by the linewidth dependence on pump power [Fig. 2(b)]. Three regions corresponding to different emission regimes are identified [17] from the linewidth behavior: the PL region, below threshold, where the light is predominantly spontaneously emitted [27]; the lasing region, above threshold, where light is mostly influenced by the stimulated emission; and the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) region around the threshold [gray region in Fig. 2(a)] as a transition between the two regimes. In the ASE region, a small plateau in the evolution of the linewidth (Δλ) with the power is observed [12,13,17,28], whereas a linewidth-narrowing behavior can be measured both within the PL and the lasing regions [17]. Such behavior is observed in our device at RT.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. (a) Light-in versus light-out (LL-curve) characteristics of the L9-PCM laser for different β values (gray lines) in logarithmic scale; the best fit (red line) is for β=0.85. (b) Evolution of the linewidth of the L9-PCM resonant mode with the excitation power. (c) Analysis of the differential efficiency calculated from the LL data (dots) and from the fit for β=0.85 (line). Error bars in (b) are referred to the statistical deviation analysis. Gray region in (a) and (b) marks the ASE region.

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The Q-factor, given by λ/Δλ at the lowest excitation power (Pexc=370nW), is Q=7400 [27]. As the excitation power increases, the optical mode becomes narrower due to gain mechanisms in lasing systems [29]. At high excitation power above threshold (Pexc=10.14μW), λ/Δλ=12100 (see Supplement 1). Spontaneous emission enhancement [i.e., Purcell enhancement (PE)] has been widely measured in nonlasing microcavities containing self-assembled QDs [30]. Nevertheless, in a laser microcavity one has to be especially careful because the contribution of stimulated emission begins at very small excitation powers below the threshold. We have shown previously that the PE in a lasing L7-InP microcavity embedding InAs self-assembled quantum wires and exhibiting a high-β value of 0.1 can only be determined from an extrapolation of the experimental data to zero pump power [27,31]. Reducing the excitation power to such small values makes impossible the measurement of the PE in the present devices. Using the approach of [32] and assuming no cavity–emitter detuning, an homogeneous broadening of 1 meV results in a PE 20. As we are operating at RT, the homogeneous linewidth increase (up to around 10 meV [33]) results in a maximum PE of 2. This is, however, compatible with a high-β value, since the main parameter determining β is the spontaneous rate into nonlasing modes [34]. This point has been also reported for nanobeams [14] and subwavelength lasers [35].

The evolution of the linewidth of the fundamental mode with the excitation power at RT follows a trend similar to that observed in near-thresholdless lasers at 4.5 K [3,12]. Finally, an important feature of a laser system is the differential efficiency (DE) given by the derivative dLout/dLin [28]. For a lasing device, the DE increases with the power, tending to a constant value. The DE at RT is represented in Fig. 2(c) (dots) with the calculated DE curve (line) for β=0.85. The calculated DE follows the experimental data and deviates at excitation powers well above the threshold. This effect is due to the saturation of the QDs, which was not considered in the model.

A further confirmation of lasing could be provided from the analysis of the second-order correlation function, g(2) [36]. We have measured before the g(2) function of single QDs emitting at 980 nm in a Hanbury–Brown and Twiss interferometer [37]. Nevertheless, measurements at the emission wavelength of the InAsSb QDs (around 1300 nm at RT) are too noisy to extract reliable information. The use of pulsed excitation can enhance the signal-to-noise ratio [38,39], but in that case the induced excitonic dynamics are difficult to be transferred from a pulsed regime to cw operation.

In summary, the present experimental results are consistent with near-thresholdless laser operation in the 1.3 μm telecom window at RT for a system combining a single layer of InAsSb QDs with a PCM. We showed that thermally activated processes, such as nonradiative recombination, are not an insurmountable obstacle to the realization of laser sources with characteristics similar to those observed in near-thresholdless lasers at temperatures a few degrees above absolute zero. Such highly efficient systems are very promising candidates for applications in optical integrated circuits, potentially enabling low consumption electrically injected devices based on PCMs [40] at RT.

FUNDING INFORMATION

Comunidad de Madrid (S2009ESP-1503); Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (TEC2011-29120-C05-01, TEC2011-29120-C05-04).

 

See Supplement 1 for supporting content.

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18. S. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, S. K. Kim, H. G. Park, Y. H. Lee, and S. B. Kim, “Characteristics of a stick waveguide resonator in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 411–416 (2004). [CrossRef]  

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References

  • View by:

  1. O. Painter, J. Vučković, A. Scherer, “Defect modes of a two–dimensional photonic crystal in an optically thin dielectric slab,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 275–285 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, T. Kakitsuka, K. Nozaki, S. Toru, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, M. Notomi, “High-speed ultracompact buried heterostructure photonic-crystal laser with 13  fJ of energy consumed per bit transmitted,” Nat. Photonics 4, 648–654 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Noda, “Seeking the ultimate nanolaser,” Science 314, 260–261 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Asada, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Suematsu, “Gain and the threshold of three-dimensional quantum-box lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1915–1921 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Arakawa, H. Sakaki, “Multidimensional quantum well laser and temperature dependence of its threshold current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 939–941 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. Björk, A. Karlsson, Y. Yamamoto, “Definition of a laser threshold,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 1675–1680 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  7. F. D. Martini, G. R. Jacobovitz, “Anomalous spontaneous stimulated decay phase transition and zero-threshold laser action in a microscopic cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1711–1714 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  8. I. Protsenko, P. Domokos, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, L. Davidovich, “Quantum theory of a thresholdless laser,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1667–1682 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. A. B. Miller, “Are optical transistors the logical next step?” Nat. Photonics 4, 3–5 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  10. G. Shambat, S. R. Kothapalli, J. Provine, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, S. S. Gambhir, J. Vučković, “Single-cell photonic nanocavity probes,” Nano Lett. 13, 4999–5005 (2013).
  11. T. Yoshie, O. B. Shchekin, H. Chen, D. G. Deppe, A. Scherer, “Quantum dot photonic crystal lasers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 967–968 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y. S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, S. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature continuous-wave lasing in photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 14, 6308–6315 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Gong, B. Ellis, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. S. Harris, J. Vučković, “Nanobeam photonic crystal cavity quantum dot laser,” Opt. Express 18, 8781–8789 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Nomura, Y. Ota, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, “Zero-cell photonic crystal nanocavity laser with quantum dot gain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 191108 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Nomura, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Ota, Y. Arakawa, “Laser oscillation in a strongly coupled single–quantum–dot–nanocavity system,” Nat. Phys. 6, 279–283 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature 482, 204–207 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  18. S. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, S. K. Kim, H. G. Park, Y. H. Lee, S. B. Kim, “Characteristics of a stick waveguide resonator in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 411–416 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  19. I. Prieto, L. E. Muñoz-Camúñez, A. G. Taboada, C. Robles, J. M. Ripalda, P. A. Postigo, “Fabrication of high quality factor GaAs/InAsSb photonic crystal microcavities by inductively coupled plasma etching and fast wet etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32, 011204 (2013).
  20. M. Geller, A. Marent, T. Nowozin, D. Bimberg, N. Akçay, N. Öncan, “A write time of 6  ns for quantum dot based memory structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 092108 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. G. Taboada, A. M. Sánchez, A. M. Beltrán, M. Bozkurt, D. Alonso-Álvarez, B. Alén, A. Rivera, J. M. Ripalda, J. M. Llorens, J. Martín-Sánchez, Y. González, J. M. Ulloa, J. M. García, S. I. Molina, P. M. Koenraad, “Structural and optical changes induced by incorporation of antimony into InAs/GaAs(001) quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 235316 (2010).
  22. J. M. Ripalda, D. Alonso-Álvarez, B. Alén, A. G. Taboada, J. M. García, Y. González, L. González, “Enhancement of the room temperature luminescence of InAs quantum dots by GaSb capping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 012111 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  23. W. Lei, M. Offer, A. Lorke, C. Notthoff, C. Meier, O. Wibbelhoff, A. D. Wieck, “Probing the band structure of InAs–GaAs quantum dots by capacitance–voltage and photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193111 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. G. Taboada, J. M. Llorens, D. Alonso-Álvarez, B. Alén, A. Rivera, Y. González, J. M. Ripalda, “Effect of Sb incorporation on the electronic structure of InAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 085308 (2013).
  25. Y. T. Dai, J. C. Fan, Y. F. Chen, R. M. Lin, S. C. Lee, H. H. Lin, “Temperature dependence of photoluminescence spectra in InAs/GaAs quantum dot superlattices with large thicknesses,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4489–4492 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  26. S. Sanguinetti, M. Henini, M. G. Alessi, M. Capizzi, P. Frigeri, S. Franchi, “Carrier thermal escape and retrapping in self-assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8276–8283 (1999).
  27. J. Canet-Ferrer, I. Prieto, G. Muñoz-Matutano, L. J. Martínez, L. E. Muñoz-Camúñez, J. M. Llorens, D. Fuster, B. Alén, Y. González, L. González, P. A. Postigo, J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Excitation power dependence of the Purcell effect in photonic crystal microcavity lasers with quantum wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 201105 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  28. K. A. Atlasov, M. Calic, K. F. Karlsson, P. Gallo, A. Rudra, B. Dwir, E. Kapon, “Photonic-crystal microcavity laser with site–controlled quantum-wire active medium,” Opt. Express 17, 18178–18183 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  29. G. Björk, A. Karlsson, Y. Yamamoto, “On the linewidth of microcavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 304–306 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  30. J. M. Gérard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, V. Thierry-Mieg, “Enhanced spontaneous emission by quantum boxes in a monolithic optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1110–1113 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  31. J. Canet-Ferrer, L. J. Martínez, I. Prieto, B. Alén, G. Muñoz-Matutano, D. Fuster, Y. González, M. L. Dotor, L. González, P. A. Postigo, J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Purcell effect in photonic crystal microcavities embedding InAs/InP quantum wires,” Opt. Express 20, 7901–7914 (2012).
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  32. H. Y. Ryu, M. Notomi, “Enhancement of spontaneous emission from the resonant modes of a photonic crystal slab single–defect cavity,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2390–2392 (2003).
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  33. M. Bayer, A. Forchel, “Temperature dependence of the exciton homogeneous linewidth in In0.60Ga0.40As/GaAs self–assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 041308 (2002).
  34. W. W. Chow, F. Jahnke, C. Gies, “Emission properties of nanolasers during the transition to lasing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e201 (2014).
  35. J. S. T. Smalley, Y. Fainman, “Temperature dependence of the spontaneous emission factor in subwavelength semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50, 175–185 (2014).
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  36. J. Wiersig, C. Gies, F. Jahnke, M. Assmann, T. Berstermann, M. Bayer, C. Kistner, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, C. Kruse, J. Kalden, D. Hommel, “Direct observation of correlations between individual photon emission events of a microcavity laser,” Nature 460, 245–249 (2009).
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  37. D. Rivas, G. Muñoz-Matutano, J. Canet-Ferrer, R. García-Calzada, G. Trevisi, L. Seravalli, P. Frigeri, J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Two-color single-photon emission from InAs quantum dots: toward logic information management using quantum light,” Nano Lett. 14, 456–463 (2014).
  38. D. Elvira, X. Hachair, V. B. Verma, R. Braive, G. Beaudoin, I. Robert-Philip, I. Sagnes, B. Baek, S. W. Nam, E. A. Dauler, I. Abram, M. J. Stevens, A. Beveratos, “Higher–order photon correlations in pulsed photonic crystal nanolasers,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 061802 (2011).
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  39. R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics 3, 696–705 (2009).
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  40. B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, J. Vučković, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics 5, 297–300 (2011).
    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

W. W. Chow, F. Jahnke, C. Gies, “Emission properties of nanolasers during the transition to lasing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e201 (2014).

J. S. T. Smalley, Y. Fainman, “Temperature dependence of the spontaneous emission factor in subwavelength semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50, 175–185 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Rivas, G. Muñoz-Matutano, J. Canet-Ferrer, R. García-Calzada, G. Trevisi, L. Seravalli, P. Frigeri, J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Two-color single-photon emission from InAs quantum dots: toward logic information management using quantum light,” Nano Lett. 14, 456–463 (2014).

2013 (4)

J. Canet-Ferrer, I. Prieto, G. Muñoz-Matutano, L. J. Martínez, L. E. Muñoz-Camúñez, J. M. Llorens, D. Fuster, B. Alén, Y. González, L. González, P. A. Postigo, J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Excitation power dependence of the Purcell effect in photonic crystal microcavity lasers with quantum wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 201105 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Prieto, L. E. Muñoz-Camúñez, A. G. Taboada, C. Robles, J. M. Ripalda, P. A. Postigo, “Fabrication of high quality factor GaAs/InAsSb photonic crystal microcavities by inductively coupled plasma etching and fast wet etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32, 011204 (2013).

A. G. Taboada, J. M. Llorens, D. Alonso-Álvarez, B. Alén, A. Rivera, Y. González, J. M. Ripalda, “Effect of Sb incorporation on the electronic structure of InAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 085308 (2013).

G. Shambat, S. R. Kothapalli, J. Provine, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, S. S. Gambhir, J. Vučković, “Single-cell photonic nanocavity probes,” Nano Lett. 13, 4999–5005 (2013).

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

D. Elvira, X. Hachair, V. B. Verma, R. Braive, G. Beaudoin, I. Robert-Philip, I. Sagnes, B. Baek, S. W. Nam, E. A. Dauler, I. Abram, M. J. Stevens, A. Beveratos, “Higher–order photon correlations in pulsed photonic crystal nanolasers,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 061802 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, J. Vučković, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics 5, 297–300 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (6)

D. A. B. Miller, “Are optical transistors the logical next step?” Nat. Photonics 4, 3–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. G. Taboada, A. M. Sánchez, A. M. Beltrán, M. Bozkurt, D. Alonso-Álvarez, B. Alén, A. Rivera, J. M. Ripalda, J. M. Llorens, J. Martín-Sánchez, Y. González, J. M. Ulloa, J. M. García, S. I. Molina, P. M. Koenraad, “Structural and optical changes induced by incorporation of antimony into InAs/GaAs(001) quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 235316 (2010).

Y. Gong, B. Ellis, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. S. Harris, J. Vučković, “Nanobeam photonic crystal cavity quantum dot laser,” Opt. Express 18, 8781–8789 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Nomura, Y. Ota, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, “Zero-cell photonic crystal nanocavity laser with quantum dot gain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 191108 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Nomura, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Ota, Y. Arakawa, “Laser oscillation in a strongly coupled single–quantum–dot–nanocavity system,” Nat. Phys. 6, 279–283 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, T. Kakitsuka, K. Nozaki, S. Toru, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, M. Notomi, “High-speed ultracompact buried heterostructure photonic-crystal laser with 13  fJ of energy consumed per bit transmitted,” Nat. Photonics 4, 648–654 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

J. Wiersig, C. Gies, F. Jahnke, M. Assmann, T. Berstermann, M. Bayer, C. Kistner, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, C. Kruse, J. Kalden, D. Hommel, “Direct observation of correlations between individual photon emission events of a microcavity laser,” Nature 460, 245–249 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. A. Atlasov, M. Calic, K. F. Karlsson, P. Gallo, A. Rudra, B. Dwir, E. Kapon, “Photonic-crystal microcavity laser with site–controlled quantum-wire active medium,” Opt. Express 17, 18178–18183 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics 3, 696–705 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M. Geller, A. Marent, T. Nowozin, D. Bimberg, N. Akçay, N. Öncan, “A write time of 6  ns for quantum dot based memory structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 092108 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Lei, M. Offer, A. Lorke, C. Notthoff, C. Meier, O. Wibbelhoff, A. D. Wieck, “Probing the band structure of InAs–GaAs quantum dots by capacitance–voltage and photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193111 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. M. Ripalda, D. Alonso-Álvarez, B. Alén, A. G. Taboada, J. M. García, Y. González, L. González, “Enhancement of the room temperature luminescence of InAs quantum dots by GaSb capping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 012111 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

S. Noda, “Seeking the ultimate nanolaser,” Science 314, 260–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y. S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, S. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature continuous-wave lasing in photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 14, 6308–6315 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, S. K. Kim, H. G. Park, Y. H. Lee, S. B. Kim, “Characteristics of a stick waveguide resonator in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 411–416 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

M. Bayer, A. Forchel, “Temperature dependence of the exciton homogeneous linewidth in In0.60Ga0.40As/GaAs self–assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 041308 (2002).

T. Yoshie, O. B. Shchekin, H. Chen, D. G. Deppe, A. Scherer, “Quantum dot photonic crystal lasers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 967–968 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

O. Painter, J. Vučković, A. Scherer, “Defect modes of a two–dimensional photonic crystal in an optically thin dielectric slab,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 275–285 (1999).
[Crossref]

I. Protsenko, P. Domokos, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, L. Davidovich, “Quantum theory of a thresholdless laser,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1667–1682 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Sanguinetti, M. Henini, M. G. Alessi, M. Capizzi, P. Frigeri, S. Franchi, “Carrier thermal escape and retrapping in self-assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8276–8283 (1999).

1998 (1)

J. M. Gérard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, V. Thierry-Mieg, “Enhanced spontaneous emission by quantum boxes in a monolithic optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1110–1113 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

Y. T. Dai, J. C. Fan, Y. F. Chen, R. M. Lin, S. C. Lee, H. H. Lin, “Temperature dependence of photoluminescence spectra in InAs/GaAs quantum dot superlattices with large thicknesses,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4489–4492 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

G. Björk, A. Karlsson, Y. Yamamoto, “Definition of a laser threshold,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 1675–1680 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

G. Björk, A. Karlsson, Y. Yamamoto, “On the linewidth of microcavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 304–306 (1992).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

F. D. Martini, G. R. Jacobovitz, “Anomalous spontaneous stimulated decay phase transition and zero-threshold laser action in a microscopic cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1711–1714 (1988).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

M. Asada, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Suematsu, “Gain and the threshold of three-dimensional quantum-box lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1915–1921 (1986).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

Y. Arakawa, H. Sakaki, “Multidimensional quantum well laser and temperature dependence of its threshold current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 939–941 (1982).
[Crossref]

Abram, I.

D. Elvira, X. Hachair, V. B. Verma, R. Braive, G. Beaudoin, I. Robert-Philip, I. Sagnes, B. Baek, S. W. Nam, E. A. Dauler, I. Abram, M. J. Stevens, A. Beveratos, “Higher–order photon correlations in pulsed photonic crystal nanolasers,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 061802 (2011).
[Crossref]

Akçay, N.

M. Geller, A. Marent, T. Nowozin, D. Bimberg, N. Akçay, N. Öncan, “A write time of 6  ns for quantum dot based memory structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 092108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Alén, B.

A. G. Taboada, J. M. Llorens, D. Alonso-Álvarez, B. Alén, A. Rivera, Y. González, J. M. Ripalda, “Effect of Sb incorporation on the electronic structure of InAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 085308 (2013).

J. Canet-Ferrer, I. Prieto, G. Muñoz-Matutano, L. J. Martínez, L. E. Muñoz-Camúñez, J. M. Llorens, D. Fuster, B. Alén, Y. González, L. González, P. A. Postigo, J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Excitation power dependence of the Purcell effect in photonic crystal microcavity lasers with quantum wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 201105 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Canet-Ferrer, L. J. Martínez, I. Prieto, B. Alén, G. Muñoz-Matutano, D. Fuster, Y. González, M. L. Dotor, L. González, P. A. Postigo, J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Purcell effect in photonic crystal microcavities embedding InAs/InP quantum wires,” Opt. Express 20, 7901–7914 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. G. Taboada, A. M. Sánchez, A. M. Beltrán, M. Bozkurt, D. Alonso-Álvarez, B. Alén, A. Rivera, J. M. Ripalda, J. M. Llorens, J. Martín-Sánchez, Y. González, J. M. Ulloa, J. M. García, S. I. Molina, P. M. Koenraad, “Structural and optical changes induced by incorporation of antimony into InAs/GaAs(001) quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 235316 (2010).

J. M. Ripalda, D. Alonso-Álvarez, B. Alén, A. G. Taboada, J. M. García, Y. González, L. González, “Enhancement of the room temperature luminescence of InAs quantum dots by GaSb capping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 012111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Alessi, M. G.

S. Sanguinetti, M. Henini, M. G. Alessi, M. Capizzi, P. Frigeri, S. Franchi, “Carrier thermal escape and retrapping in self-assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8276–8283 (1999).

Alonso-Álvarez, D.

A. G. Taboada, J. M. Llorens, D. Alonso-Álvarez, B. Alén, A. Rivera, Y. González, J. M. Ripalda, “Effect of Sb incorporation on the electronic structure of InAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 085308 (2013).

A. G. Taboada, A. M. Sánchez, A. M. Beltrán, M. Bozkurt, D. Alonso-Álvarez, B. Alén, A. Rivera, J. M. Ripalda, J. M. Llorens, J. Martín-Sánchez, Y. González, J. M. Ulloa, J. M. García, S. I. Molina, P. M. Koenraad, “Structural and optical changes induced by incorporation of antimony into InAs/GaAs(001) quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 235316 (2010).

J. M. Ripalda, D. Alonso-Álvarez, B. Alén, A. G. Taboada, J. M. García, Y. González, L. González, “Enhancement of the room temperature luminescence of InAs quantum dots by GaSb capping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 012111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Andreani, L. C.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y. S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[Crossref]

Arakawa, Y.

M. Nomura, Y. Ota, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, “Zero-cell photonic crystal nanocavity laser with quantum dot gain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 191108 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Nomura, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Ota, Y. Arakawa, “Laser oscillation in a strongly coupled single–quantum–dot–nanocavity system,” Nat. Phys. 6, 279–283 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, S. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature continuous-wave lasing in photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 14, 6308–6315 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Arakawa, H. Sakaki, “Multidimensional quantum well laser and temperature dependence of its threshold current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 939–941 (1982).
[Crossref]

Asada, M.

M. Asada, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Suematsu, “Gain and the threshold of three-dimensional quantum-box lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1915–1921 (1986).
[Crossref]

Assmann, M.

J. Wiersig, C. Gies, F. Jahnke, M. Assmann, T. Berstermann, M. Bayer, C. Kistner, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, C. Kruse, J. Kalden, D. Hommel, “Direct observation of correlations between individual photon emission events of a microcavity laser,” Nature 460, 245–249 (2009).
[Crossref]

Atlasov, K. A.

Badolato, A.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y. S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baek, B.

D. Elvira, X. Hachair, V. B. Verma, R. Braive, G. Beaudoin, I. Robert-Philip, I. Sagnes, B. Baek, S. W. Nam, E. A. Dauler, I. Abram, M. J. Stevens, A. Beveratos, “Higher–order photon correlations in pulsed photonic crystal nanolasers,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 061802 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bayer, M.

J. Wiersig, C. Gies, F. Jahnke, M. Assmann, T. Berstermann, M. Bayer, C. Kistner, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, C. Kruse, J. Kalden, D. Hommel, “Direct observation of correlations between individual photon emission events of a microcavity laser,” Nature 460, 245–249 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Bayer, A. Forchel, “Temperature dependence of the exciton homogeneous linewidth in In0.60Ga0.40As/GaAs self–assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 041308 (2002).

Beaudoin, G.

D. Elvira, X. Hachair, V. B. Verma, R. Braive, G. Beaudoin, I. Robert-Philip, I. Sagnes, B. Baek, S. W. Nam, E. A. Dauler, I. Abram, M. J. Stevens, A. Beveratos, “Higher–order photon correlations in pulsed photonic crystal nanolasers,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 061802 (2011).
[Crossref]

Beltrán, A. M.

A. G. Taboada, A. M. Sánchez, A. M. Beltrán, M. Bozkurt, D. Alonso-Álvarez, B. Alén, A. Rivera, J. M. Ripalda, J. M. Llorens, J. Martín-Sánchez, Y. González, J. M. Ulloa, J. M. García, S. I. Molina, P. M. Koenraad, “Structural and optical changes induced by incorporation of antimony into InAs/GaAs(001) quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 235316 (2010).

Berstermann, T.

J. Wiersig, C. Gies, F. Jahnke, M. Assmann, T. Berstermann, M. Bayer, C. Kistner, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, C. Kruse, J. Kalden, D. Hommel, “Direct observation of correlations between individual photon emission events of a microcavity laser,” Nature 460, 245–249 (2009).
[Crossref]

Beveratos, A.

D. Elvira, X. Hachair, V. B. Verma, R. Braive, G. Beaudoin, I. Robert-Philip, I. Sagnes, B. Baek, S. W. Nam, E. A. Dauler, I. Abram, M. J. Stevens, A. Beveratos, “Higher–order photon correlations in pulsed photonic crystal nanolasers,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 061802 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bimberg, D.

M. Geller, A. Marent, T. Nowozin, D. Bimberg, N. Akçay, N. Öncan, “A write time of 6  ns for quantum dot based memory structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 092108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Björk, G.

G. Björk, A. Karlsson, Y. Yamamoto, “Definition of a laser threshold,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 1675–1680 (1994).
[Crossref]

G. Björk, A. Karlsson, Y. Yamamoto, “On the linewidth of microcavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 304–306 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bouwmeester, D.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y. S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bozkurt, M.

A. G. Taboada, A. M. Sánchez, A. M. Beltrán, M. Bozkurt, D. Alonso-Álvarez, B. Alén, A. Rivera, J. M. Ripalda, J. M. Llorens, J. Martín-Sánchez, Y. González, J. M. Ulloa, J. M. García, S. I. Molina, P. M. Koenraad, “Structural and optical changes induced by incorporation of antimony into InAs/GaAs(001) quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 235316 (2010).

Braive, R.

D. Elvira, X. Hachair, V. B. Verma, R. Braive, G. Beaudoin, I. Robert-Philip, I. Sagnes, B. Baek, S. W. Nam, E. A. Dauler, I. Abram, M. J. Stevens, A. Beveratos, “Higher–order photon correlations in pulsed photonic crystal nanolasers,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 061802 (2011).
[Crossref]

Calic, M.

Canet-Ferrer, J.

D. Rivas, G. Muñoz-Matutano, J. Canet-Ferrer, R. García-Calzada, G. Trevisi, L. Seravalli, P. Frigeri, J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Two-color single-photon emission from InAs quantum dots: toward logic information management using quantum light,” Nano Lett. 14, 456–463 (2014).

J. Canet-Ferrer, I. Prieto, G. Muñoz-Matutano, L. J. Martínez, L. E. Muñoz-Camúñez, J. M. Llorens, D. Fuster, B. Alén, Y. González, L. González, P. A. Postigo, J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Excitation power dependence of the Purcell effect in photonic crystal microcavity lasers with quantum wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 201105 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Canet-Ferrer, L. J. Martínez, I. Prieto, B. Alén, G. Muñoz-Matutano, D. Fuster, Y. González, M. L. Dotor, L. González, P. A. Postigo, J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Purcell effect in photonic crystal microcavities embedding InAs/InP quantum wires,” Opt. Express 20, 7901–7914 (2012).
[Crossref]

Capizzi, M.

S. Sanguinetti, M. Henini, M. G. Alessi, M. Capizzi, P. Frigeri, S. Franchi, “Carrier thermal escape and retrapping in self-assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8276–8283 (1999).

Chen, H.

T. Yoshie, O. B. Shchekin, H. Chen, D. G. Deppe, A. Scherer, “Quantum dot photonic crystal lasers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 967–968 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. F.

Y. T. Dai, J. C. Fan, Y. F. Chen, R. M. Lin, S. C. Lee, H. H. Lin, “Temperature dependence of photoluminescence spectra in InAs/GaAs quantum dot superlattices with large thicknesses,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4489–4492 (1997).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y. S.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y. S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chow, W. W.

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Y. T. Dai, J. C. Fan, Y. F. Chen, R. M. Lin, S. C. Lee, H. H. Lin, “Temperature dependence of photoluminescence spectra in InAs/GaAs quantum dot superlattices with large thicknesses,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4489–4492 (1997).
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J. M. Gérard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, V. Thierry-Mieg, “Enhanced spontaneous emission by quantum boxes in a monolithic optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1110–1113 (1998).
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A. G. Taboada, J. M. Llorens, D. Alonso-Álvarez, B. Alén, A. Rivera, Y. González, J. M. Ripalda, “Effect of Sb incorporation on the electronic structure of InAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 085308 (2013).

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Lomakin, V.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature 482, 204–207 (2012).
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W. Lei, M. Offer, A. Lorke, C. Notthoff, C. Meier, O. Wibbelhoff, A. D. Wieck, “Probing the band structure of InAs–GaAs quantum dots by capacitance–voltage and photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193111 (2008).
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M. Geller, A. Marent, T. Nowozin, D. Bimberg, N. Akçay, N. Öncan, “A write time of 6  ns for quantum dot based memory structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 092108 (2008).
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Supplementary Material (1)

Supplement 1: PDF (1212 KB)     

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Calculation of the electric field distribution | E | 2 of the L9-PCM fundamental mode. (b) Scanning electron microscopy image of a L9-PCM. (c) PL of the ensemble of the QDs outside of the PCM (black line) and PL of a L9-PCM (filled gray) showing the mode structure. The inset shows a schematic diagram of the epitaxial material.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Light-in versus light-out (LL-curve) characteristics of the L9-PCM laser for different β values (gray lines) in logarithmic scale; the best fit (red line) is for β = 0.85 . (b) Evolution of the linewidth of the L9-PCM resonant mode with the excitation power. (c) Analysis of the differential efficiency calculated from the LL data (dots) and from the fit for β = 0.85 (line). Error bars in (b) are referred to the statistical deviation analysis. Gray region in (a) and (b) marks the ASE region.

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