Abstract

Increasing our understanding of regional greenhouse gas transport, sources, and sinks requires accurate, precise, continuous measurements of small gas enhancements over long ranges. We demonstrate a coherent dual frequency-comb spectroscopy technique capable of achieving these goals. Spectra are acquired spanning 5990 to 6260cm1 (1600–1670 nm) covering 700 absorption features from CO2, CH4, H2O, HDO, and CO213, across a 2 km path. The spectra have sub-1-kHz frequency accuracy, no instrument lineshape, and a 0.0033cm1 point spacing. They are fit with different absorption models to yield dry-air mole fractions of greenhouse gases. These results are compared with a point sensor under well-mixed conditions to evaluate the accuracy of models critical to global satellite-based trace gas monitoring. Under heterogeneous conditions, time-resolved data demonstrate tracking of small variations in mole fractions, with a precision <1ppm for CO2 and <3ppb for CH4 in 5 min. Portable systems could enable regional monitoring.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. INTRODUCTION

Absorption spectroscopy over open paths provides a means of remotely sensing changes in greenhouse gas mole fractions—a critical need for greenhouse gas transport, source, and sink studies as well as future regulatory monitoring [13]. It is implemented in satellite instruments, upward-looking Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS), and ground-based FTS and laser spectrometers [411]. Ideally, these systems should detect the dry-air mole fractions (which correct for variable dilution by water vapor) of multiple gases over long paths with high precision and reproducibility to enable mapping of small gradients in both space and time. However, absorption spectroscopy faces two distinct challenges. First, spectral databases required to convert absorption to concentrations cannot support the desired reproducibility between instruments of 0.1 ppm CO2 and 2 ppb CH4 for background greenhouse gas monitoring [12], and less than 1 ppm CO2 for urban enhancement monitoring [1315]. Second, there is a lack of portable, long-path, multigas sensors with high reproducibility to support regional monitoring. Portable FTS is limited to subkilometer paths and 5%10% uncertainty because of divergent sources and broad instrument lineshapes [10,16]. Therefore, regional studies use flushed-cell point sensors calibrated via a reference gas [17,18]. In contrast, accurate open-air path systems could provide continuous path-averaged mole fractions that avoid representation errors associated with point sensors [3,19].

Dual frequency-comb spectroscopy (DCS) is a promising solution to both challenges. DCS [2031] has broadband spectral coverage for multispecies detection, a bright diffraction-limited source for high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over multikilometer ranges, a rapid update rate for immunity to turbulence-induced optical intensity fluctuations, and, importantly, can sample the transmission on a comb tooth-by-tooth basis for high-accuracy spectra. Here, we show that the full advantages of DCS can be applied to quantitative outdoor sensing of greenhouse gases. Our measured spectra span 80,000 comb teeth covering 5990 to 6260cm1 (1600 to 1670 nm) with absorbance noise below 5×104. Data are acquired at the comb-tooth separation of 0.0033cm1 (100 MHz), with negligible instrument lineshape since the comb teeth are essentially delta functions in frequency. We demonstrate simultaneous retrieval of dry-air mole fractions of CO2, CH4, H2O, HDO, and CO213 and air temperature over a 2 km turbulent air path. During well-mixed atmospheric conditions, these data enable high-resolution evaluation of spectral absorption models and, when combined with laboratory measurements, should lead to improved spectral absorption models critical for open long-path remote sensing [13,32].

Moreover, the advent of portable frequency combs [33] should enable field-deployable DCS to support verification and monitoring of emissions of distributed sources (e.g., carbon sequestration [11] and gas development sites [2,34]) and larger-scale monitoring networks. As an initial demonstration, time-resolved dry-air mole fractions were acquired continuously over three days. The DCS data compare well with a nearby point sensor for large-scale fluctuations with much lower sensitivity to local concentration spikes. One-sigma stabilities of <1ppm (μmol/mol) for CO2 and <3ppb (nmol/mol) for CH4 are reached at 5 min averaging. Absolute agreement is limited by the current spectral databases to 1%2% and by variability in sampled regions. Future optimized systems with higher power and extended spectral coverage [29,3540] could reach similar stabilities in seconds, over 10 km, while sensing additional species, isotopologues, and oxygen [28]. Finally, the absence of instrument lineshapes should enable direct cross comparison of retrievals between systems, times, and locations.

2. OPEN-AIR DUAL-COMB SPECTROMETER

Figure 1 shows the experimental setup. In dual-comb spectroscopy [2030], two frequency combs are arranged to have offset repetition rates (fr and fr+Δfr). When combined, the resulting heterodyne signal is an rf frequency comb, where each rf comb tooth is spaced by Δfr, and has a one-to-one relationship with a specific pair of optical comb teeth [see Fig. 1(a)]. Therefore, this rf spectrum is simply scaled to reproduce the optical spectrum.

 

Fig. 1. Open-air path greenhouse gas sensing through dual-comb spectroscopy. (a) DCS concept: two combs with slightly different tooth spacing interfere on a detector, giving a third rf comb with a one-to-one mapping to the optical comb teeth. (The actual experiment spans 105 comb teeth.) (b) Experimental setup: two combs are amplified, pulse-compressed in large mode area (LMA) fiber, spectrally broadened in highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF), and filtered to generate light covering the spectral bands of interest. Two fibers carry the comb light to the rooftop, where the light is combined and launched in a 40mm beam (1/e2 diameter), and reflected from a 50 cm diameter plane mirror located 1 km distant. The return light is coupled to a multimode fiber and detected. The transmitted light power was limited to 1.5 mW so that the maximum received power was always below a conservative detector nonlinearity threshold of 50 μW average power (500 fJ pulse energy). (c) Location of the 2 km interrogation path (red line, ground projection represented by black line), the tower with the point sensor intake (inset), and elevation of the beam path (bottom inset). (d) Example transmitted intensity showing the smoothly varying comb intensity and abrupt dips due to absorption. (e) Expanded view of absorption features. The typical gas absorption lines have 40 teeth across each 4GHz wide line (top, several transitions from the 2ν3 level of the CH4 tetradecad; bottom, R20 transition of the 3001300001 band of CO2).

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Here, we implement DCS with two mutually coherent erbium-doped fiber frequency combs (fr100MHz, Δfr=444Hz) with relative 1Hz comb linewidth and with each comb tooth’s frequency known to better than 1 kHz [23] (see Supplement 1). The comb spectra are centered within the atmospheric water-vapor window near 1.6 μm and further shaped to cover both a portion of the CH4 tetradecad and a CO2 combination band. The choice of Δfr=444Hz allows an alias-free optical bandwidth of fr2/(2Δfr)=375cm1, which covers both absorption bands simultaneously [22]. The comb outputs are combined and transmitted over a 2 km folded open-air path on the NIST Boulder campus [see Figs. 1(b) and 1(c)]. This 2 km path length exceeds previous laboratory-based DCS using either multipass cells or resonant cavities.

Figures 1(d) and 1(e) show the resulting high SNR transmission spectrum acquired over 170min under relatively constant temperature and pressure across the measurement path (see Supplement 1). The overall shape corresponds to the spectrally filtered comb light. The stronger CO2, H2O, and CH4 absorption lines appear as sharp dips of up to 15% with many weaker CH4, CO2, and H2O, HDO, and CO213 lines observed down to 103 absorbance. There are 80,000 comb-tooth pairs across the 267cm1 window. With the spectral shaping, about half of these, or 40,000 comb-tooth pairs, compose the measured spectrum. Each comb-tooth pair contributes a distinct data point in the transmitted spectrum with kilohertz-level frequency uncertainty (corresponding to a resolving power of 1011), spaced at fr=100MHz (0.0033cm1), and with SNR in the signal intensity exceeding 30001 for these long time-averaged data. Even higher SNR values would be possible except that we aggressively limited the transmitted power to avoid any lineshape distortions due to detector nonlinearity [23,29]. These data were acquired with coherent summing (see Supplement 1), but continuous time data confirmed Hz linewidth between the detected pairs of frequency-comb teeth. The quality of these data is consistent with previous ultrahigh-resolution laboratory DCS spectra and demonstrates that the fundamental properties of coherent DCS—namely high resolution, high accuracy, broad bandwidth, and high SNR—can be directly translated to field-based measurements.

Turbulence is a concern for high-resolution open-air path spectroscopy as it can easily cause strong (100%) and fast (>100Hz) optical intensity modulation, potentially leading to excess noise in the measured optical transmission spectrum. The power spectral density related to turbulence-induced intensity noise falls off strongly as f8/3 beyond the characteristic cutoff Fourier frequency, fcU/2πLλ, where U is the wind speed, λ is the optical wavelength, and L is the path length [41]. Here, fc is tens of hertz. In comparison, the DCS effectively acquires a single spectrum within 1/Δfr=1/444s. In other words, since fc<Δfr, the turbulence intensity noise is effectively frozen during a single spectrum. Rain, light fog, or clipping of the beam at the telescope will reduce the SNR if there is significant attenuation, but should not distort the spectrum for similar reasons. Of course, some turbulence-induced fluctuations do occur on the timescale of a single interferogram, but a more rigorous discussion (see Fig. 1 of Supplement 1) shows they appear as multiplicative noise that is below the overall noise floor. Turbulence can also cause optical wavefront distortions and phase noise on the comb lines [41,42]. However, since both combs are copropagating, these effects are common mode and ultimately negligible. This relative immunity of DCS to turbulence is in strong contrast to high-resolution FTS or conventional swept laser spectroscopy, which have longer acquisition periods. Finally, as a coherent system, DCS is unaffected by collected sunlight because of the narrow heterodyne detection bandwidth.

3. MEASUREMENTS UNDER WELL-MIXED ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS

The DCS spectra provide a direct means to validate current and future spectral databases and absorption models since the spectra are free from instrument distortions and the DCS horizontal path avoids the atmospheric modeling that is required with up-looking total column measurements [7,14]. The transmission spectrum shown in Fig. 1(d) is converted to absorbance by normalizing out the overall comb spectrum and applying Beer’s law. Initially, we acquired a reference spectrum without the air path, but this approach introduced additional baseline etalons. Therefore, we instead normalized out the smoothly varying comb spectrum through piecewise baseline fitting (see Supplement 1), as is done for FTIR spectra. The resulting absorbance spectrum, shown in Fig. 2, can then be fit using different absorption models to both assess those models and find the path-averaged dry-air mole fractions of various greenhouse gas species.

We separately fit the lower (6050 to 6120cm1) and upper (6180 to 6260cm1) spectral windows. Within a spectral window, we fit the entire absorption spectrum at once. The only inputs to the fits are the measured atmospheric pressure (from calibrated pressure gauges at each end of the path) and the absorption models. The fitted parameters are the overall gas concentrations of CO2, CO213, H2O, CH4, and HDO, and temperature. The fit to the upper spectral window includes a fit for temperature based on the band-wide CO2 absorption; in this way the path-averaged temperature is extracted directly instead of using colocated temperature sensors that can suffer from solar loading. The CO2 and CO213 mole fractions were extracted from the fit to the upper spectral region, while the CH4, H2O, and HDO mole fractions were extracted from the fit to the lower spectral region (although there are CO2 lines present as well). More than 300 spectral lines are included in the lower spectral window and 400 in the upper spectral window.

Absorption models for species in this region are evolving. The models consist of a set of spectral parameters that describe the temperature-, pressure-, and concentration-dependent strength, location, and width of each absorption feature, along with a lineshape profile model. Figure 2 shows the results of fits using the High-Resolution Transmission Molecular Absorption Database (HITRAN) 2012 [43] and 2008 [44]. The standard deviation of the residuals is 2×103 absorbance units for 5 min averages at the 100 MHz (0.0033cm1) point spacing, dropping to <5×104 at 170 min. When scaled to the same resolution, this SNR is comparable to high-resolution solar, up-looking FTS spectra (but in a more compact, potentially portable instrument package without long, moving interferometer arms). For the upper spectral region, fits using the similar HITRAN 2012 [43] and 2008 [44] databases result in peak residuals below 3×103, except for one errant line near 187.38 THz (coincident with a reported weak HDO line in HITRAN 2008). For the lower spectral region, HITRAN 2012 has methane parameters quite different from HITRAN 2008, and this difference is strongly reflected in the residuals, as well as the concentrations as discussed in Table 1.

 

Fig. 2. Baseline-corrected absorbance from the transmission spectrum of Fig. 1(d). (a) The left spectrum mainly comprises CH4 and H2O lines, with some weaker CO2 lines, while the right spectrum shows the 3001300001 CO2 band, CO2 hot bands, and H2O, CO213, and HDO features. The data (red line), fit with HITRAN 2008 (blue line, indistinguishable from the data), and residuals (upper blue line) are shown. There are 40,000 data points, or comb teeth, spaced at 100 MHz across the spectral windows. (b) Expanded view of a few representative lines along with residuals for fits to the HITRAN 2008 model [44], the HITRAN 2012 model [43], the line-mixing and speed-dependent model of Ref. [14], and line-by-line Voigt fits to each line. Also shown are the fit residuals for a 5 min time average, identical to those used in the time-resolved data of Fig. 3. The noise per comb tooth (in absorbance units) for the 5 min averaged spectra is 2.0×103, 2.7×103, and 1.7×103 for the three windows shown, with the differences attributable to different spectral intensities. For the 170 min average, the noise decreases with the square root of time, as expected, to 3.5×104, 5.1×104, and 3.0×104, respectively. However, there are clear residuals near the spectral lines due to mismatch between the measured lineshapes and absorption models.

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Tables Icon

Table 1. Mole Fractions Retrieved from Fits of the Absorbance Spectrum of Fig. 2 with Four Absorption Models: HITRAN 2008 [44], HITRAN 2012 [43], Line-Mixing Speed-dependent Voigt (LM/SD) [14], and Toth et al. [48]a

The Voigt profile used with the HITRAN databases [43,44] neglects, among other things, coupling between energy states of nearby transitions (line mixing) and the effect of collisions on the Doppler contribution to the lineshape (speed dependence). Therefore, concentrations extracted using the Voigt profiles have been shown to lead to inaccurate atmospheric retrievals [45]. Figure 2(b) also shows residuals to a fit using a lineshape model and a corresponding spectral parameter database that includes line-mixing and speed-dependent Voigt profiles and was developed to support accurate satellite-based trace gas monitoring [14,46,47]. Residuals remain, with quite different structures compared to the other models; however, the fitted concentration using the line-mixing and speed-dependent model should have the highest accuracy.

Figure 2(b) also contains residuals resulting from a line-by-line Voigt profile fit where the collisional linewidth, line center, and line strength are finally allowed to vary on a line-by-line basis. Though this fit overlooks the quantum-mechanical basis of the previous spectral databases, the small residual may indicate that the largest sources of error in absorption models are the spectral parameters (line strength, line center, broadening coefficients, etc.) rather than deviations from the Voigt lineshape model.

Table 1 compares the mole fractions extracted using the different absorption models. There is a significant model-dependent spread. For CO2, all four absorption models rely on analysis of the same underlying laboratory FTS data, so this spread emphasizes the consequences of different lineshape models. As mentioned above, among the models considered here the line-mixing, speed-dependent Voigt profile (LM/SD) and corresponding spectral parameter database [14,46,47] is expected to yield the most accurate results for CO2. Table 1 also reports the DCS systematic uncertainty excluding the model-dependent effects. The uncertainty is based on the root-mean-square of the sensitivities of the retrieved mole fractions to several different factors: maximum pressure and temperature path inhomogeneities (±500Pa and 6 K, respectively), uncertainty in path length (±20cm) and air pressure (±30Pa), and baseline correction. Baseline correction is the largest contributor (by a factor of 10 or more) in particular due to an etalon ripple with absorbance amplitude 103 (see Supplement 1). For CO2, the other factors contribute below 0.06 ppm uncertainty.

Table 2 compares the DCS to the tower-mounted point sensor. For CO2, there is 1.8% offset with the LM/SD fits, which increases to 2.8% for the HITRAN 2008 fits. Under the windy, well-mixed atmospheric conditions for these data, the DCS and tower-mounted point sensor should measure almost identical mole fractions. Given that the point sensor is calibrated directly against the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) reference gas (see Supplement 1), we attribute most of the offset to the DCS retrieval and specifically to the line strengths of the absorption model. For CH4, the DCS analyzed with the HITRAN 2008 database is in excellent agreement with the tower sensor (although the fits to HITRAN 2012 exhibit a 5.7% offset from the tower sensor). For H2O, the two systems agree to within the uncertainty of the tower sensor.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Comparison of the Mole Fractions Obtained with the Dual-Comb Spectrometer and the Tower-Mounted Point Sensor under the Well-Mixed, Stable Atmospheric Conditions of Fig. 2a

The main conclusion—that better absorption models are needed to support accurate greenhouse gas monitoring—very much echoes the significant body of work in support of satellite measurements. Subpercent uncertainties in retrieved gas concentrations will require improvements in the spectral database, possibly through laboratory frequency-comb or cavity ring-down systems [23,29,49,50]. Finally, while DCS does rely on accurate spectral databases (as with any open-air path absorption technique), it should be straightforward to reanalyze DCS spectra as the databases are refined. In fact, this feature of the dual-comb spectra is important for accurate greenhouse gas monitoring. Whereas extractive flushed-cell sampling instruments rely on reference gas calibrations that must be performed periodically to maintain accuracy and cross-instrument comparability, the measured dual-comb spectra from multiple instruments can be compared directly and indefinitely. Therefore, the retrieved mole fractions can be similarly compared when the spectra are fit with an accurate, bias-free absorption model. For example, as water-broadening coefficients for CO2 and CH4 become available, these effects can be included without the empirical corrections needed with flushed-cell point sensors [18].

4. TIME-RESOLVED MEASUREMENTS OF THE DRY-AIR MOLE FRACTIONS OVER A THREE-DAY PERIOD

The data of Fig. 2 were acquired over a windy, well-mixed period in which the mole fractions were quite stable. Normally, the mole fractions will vary significantly from nearby sources and sinks, and as the planetary boundary-layer height changes. We can analyze these time variations using the same fitting procedures described above. Figure 3 shows the results over a three-day period at 5 min averaging, analyzed with the HITRAN 2008 spectral database. The path-averaged air temperature is extracted directly from the fit to the 3001300001 CO2 spectral band, placing even greater reliance on accurate spectral parameters.

 

Fig. 3. Time-resolved mole fractions. (a) Time dependence of the dry-air mole fraction for CO2 (green), CH4 (light blue), and water (dark blue) retrieved from the DCS and the corresponding values from the tower-mounted point sensor (black line) at 5 min periods over three days. (b) Time dependence of CO2 and CH4 with an expanded y axis. Also shown are the time dependence of HDO (pink) and the retrieved path-averaged temperature (orange). All data are from the fit with the absorption model based on HITRAN 2008. The DCS CO2 mole fraction has been scaled to remove the 2.8% offset between the DCS and the tower-mounted sensor over the initial 3h period (shaded region) where the atmosphere was well-mixed and the measurement path was upwind from the NIST central utility plant.

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During periods of wind and daytime thermal turbulence, the dry-air mole fractions reported by both the DCS and the tower-mounted point sensor are relatively flat. During low wind and nighttime boundary-layer settling, both show strong variations in time. However, as expected, the point sensor is much more susceptible to short spikes from local plumes. (For comparison purposes, the tower-sensor data are averaged to 5 min here; at shorter timescales the spikes are even more pronounced.) Moreover, statistically significant offsets are common between the point sensor and the path-averaged DCS results, which is not surprising given the presence of localized emissions from vehicles, the NIST central utility plant (just south of the air path), and a nearby roadway. The comparison emphasizes the quantitative differences that can arise between a single point sensor and a path-averaged system. One expects the path-averaged system to connect more directly to kilometer-scale regional transport models. Moreover, with the addition of multiple reflectors the same DCS system could interrogate multiple displaced paths [11], providing even greater utility to regional models.

The overall sensitivity, or precision, of the DCS is calculated directly as the Allan deviation over a period of relative stability, as shown in Fig. 4. The optimal averaging time period depends on the timescale of the atmospheric fluctuations; we selected 5 min for Fig. 3, which also leads to a precision comparable to the systematic uncertainty (Table 2). However, operation over longer distances, at the full eye-safe power level of 9.6 mW, or at longer wavelengths where the absorption is tenfold stronger, will all dramatically improve the precision. In addition, stronger absorption lines will reduce the systematic uncertainty that is dominated by baseline ripple (etalons).

 

Fig. 4. Precision (Allan deviation) from data acquired during high-wind periods with a stable, well-mixed atmosphere. (a) CO2 precision (green) versus averaging time, τ, which follows 15τ/ppm, where τ is in seconds (gray line), or 0.86 ppm at 5 min. At longer times, actual atmospheric mole fraction variations cause a decrease in the slope. A modest increase of the launched power up to the eye-safe limit of 9.6 mW (or alternatively an increased receive aperture) would yield the improved precision of 3τ/ppm (dashed gray line). (b) CH4 precision (blue) follows a scaling of 40τ/ppb (gray line) or 2.3 ppb at 5 min. Again, modest power increases, or increased receive aperture, would yield the improved precision of 8τ/ppb (dashed gray line).

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5. CONCLUSION

We demonstrate that DCS is ideally suited to the challenges associated with accurate sensing of atmospheric trace gases across open-air paths; it combines broadband spectral coverage for accurate multispecies detection with a diffraction-limited laser output for high sensitivity over multikilometer air paths. Equally important, its high acquisition speed achieves immunity to turbulence-induced intensity noise, and its negligible instrument lineshape enables high accuracy and ultimately accurate cross comparison of spectra (and therefore concentrations) acquired with different systems, at different times and locations. We demonstrate these capabilities over a 2 km open-air path with an initial system that measures CO2, CO213, CH4, H2O, HDO, and air temperature. Future broader bandwidth systems will detect more species, while higher power output will further improve the sensitivity. DCS data can support the development of accurate absorption models used in global, satellite-based greenhouse gas monitoring. Moreover, with the recent advancement of portable, high-performance frequency combs [33], there is no technological barrier to regional deployment of fielded DCS systems that have costs comparable to high-performance point sensors and are capable of autonomous, eye-safe, around-the-clock monitoring of multiple gas species over multiple optical paths.

FUNDING INFORMATION

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (Greenhouse Gas and Climate Science Measurements); National Research Council (Research associateship award).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We thank James Whetstone, Joe Hodges, and Scott Diddams for helpful discussions, Anna Karion for calibration of the point sensor, Terry Bullett for use of the radio tower, and Masaaki Hirano and Jeff Nicholson for donation of specialty optical fiber.

 

See Supplement 1 for supporting information.

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24. T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3375 (2014). [CrossRef]  

25. B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4, 55–57 (2009). [CrossRef]  

26. J. Roy, J.-D. Deschênes, S. Potvin, and J. Genest, “Continuous real-time correction and averaging for frequency comb interferometry,” Opt. Express 20, 21932–21939 (2012). [CrossRef]  

27. S. Boudreau, S. Levasseur, C. Perilla, S. Roy, and J. Genest, “Chemical detection with hyperspectral lidar using dual frequency combs,” Opt. Express 21, 7411–7418 (2013). [CrossRef]  

28. S. Potvin and J. Genest, “Dual-comb spectroscopy using frequency-doubled combs around 775 nm,” Opt. Express 21, 30707–30715 (2013). [CrossRef]  

29. E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Spectroscopy of the methane ν3 band with an accurate midinfrared coherent dual-comb spectrometer,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011). [CrossRef]  

30. D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, K. Bielska, J. T. Hodges, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Multiheterodyne spectroscopy with optical frequency combs generated from a continuous-wave laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2688–2690 (2014). [CrossRef]  

31. T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502, 355–358 (2013). [CrossRef]  

32. S. Houweling, F.-M. Breon, I. Aben, C. Rödenbeck, M. Gloor, M. Heimann, and P. Ciais, “Inverse modeling of CO2 sources and sinks using satellite data: a synthetic inter-comparison of measurement techniques and their performance as a function of space and time,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 523–538 (2004). [CrossRef]  

33. L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, and N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22, 6996–7006 (2014). [CrossRef]  

34. A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, G. Frost, R. Michael Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, and S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4393–4397 (2013). [CrossRef]  

35. A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6, 440–449 (2012). [CrossRef]  

36. F. Adler and S. A. Diddams, “High-power, hybrid Er:fiber/Tm:fiber frequency comb source in the 2 μm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1400–1402 (2012). [CrossRef]  

37. T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011). [CrossRef]  

38. A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492, 229–233 (2012). [CrossRef]  

39. Z. Zhang, T. Gardiner, and D. T. Reid, “Mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy with an optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3148–3150 (2013). [CrossRef]  

40. N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, K. L. Vodopyanov, J. Jiang, I. Hartl, M. Fermann, and P. G. Schunemann, “Octave-spanning ultrafast OPO with 2.6–6.1 μm instantaneous bandwidth pumped by femtosecond Tm-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20, 7046–7053 (2012). [CrossRef]  

41. A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, 1978).

42. L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical phase noise from atmospheric fluctuations and its impact on optical time-frequency transfer,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 023805 (2014). [CrossRef]  

43. L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013). [CrossRef]  

44. L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009). [CrossRef]  

45. J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, and G. C. Toon, “Influence of line mixing on the retrievals of atmospheric CO2 from spectra in the 1.6 and 2.1 μm regions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 7303–7312 (2009). [CrossRef]  

46. V. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, and R. A. Toth, “Line mixing and speed dependence in CO2 at 6227.9 cm–1: constrained multispectrum analysis of intensities and line shapes in the 30013 ← 00001 band,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 245, 52–80 (2007). [CrossRef]  

47. A. Predoi-Cross, A. R. W. McKellar, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, R. R. Gamache, C. E. Miller, R. A. Toth, and L. R. Brown, “Temperature dependences for air-broadened Lorentz half-width and pressure shift coefficients in the 30013 ← 00001 and 30012 ← 00001 bands of CO2 near 1600 nm,” Can. J. Phys. 87, 517–535 (2009). [CrossRef]  

48. R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, V. M. Devi, and D. C. Benner, “Spectroscopic database of CO2,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 906–921 (2008). [CrossRef]  

49. G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 532–534 (2013). [CrossRef]  

50. D. A. Long, A. Cygan, R. D. van Zee, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, D. Lisak, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 536, 1–8 (2012). [CrossRef]  

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2014 (5)

D. R. Caulton, P. B. Shepson, R. L. Santoro, J. P. Sparks, R. W. Howarth, A. R. Ingraffea, M. O. L. Cambaliza, C. Sweeney, A. Karion, K. J. Davis, B. H. Stirm, S. A. Montzka, B. R. Miller, “Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 6237–6242 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3375 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, K. Bielska, J. T. Hodges, D. F. Plusquellic, “Multiheterodyne spectroscopy with optical frequency combs generated from a continuous-wave laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2688–2690 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22, 6996–7006 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Optical phase noise from atmospheric fluctuations and its impact on optical time-frequency transfer,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 023805 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (9)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, G. Frost, R. Michael Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4393–4397 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502, 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Boudreau, S. Levasseur, C. Perilla, S. Roy, J. Genest, “Chemical detection with hyperspectral lidar using dual frequency combs,” Opt. Express 21, 7411–7418 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Potvin, J. Genest, “Dual-comb spectroscopy using frequency-doubled combs around 775  nm,” Opt. Express 21, 30707–30715 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ramanathan, J. Mao, G. R. Allan, H. Riris, C. J. Weaver, W. E. Hasselbrack, E. V. Browell, J. B. Abshire, “Spectroscopic measurements of a CO2 absorption line in an open vertical path using an airborne lidar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 214102 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. W. Rella, H. Chen, A. E. Andrews, A. Filges, C. Gerbig, J. Hatakka, A. Karion, N. L. Miles, S. J. Richardson, M. Steinbacher, C. Sweeney, B. Wastine, C. Zellweger, “High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 837–860 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, T. Gardiner, D. T. Reid, “Mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy with an optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3148–3150 (2013).
[Crossref]

G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 532–534 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (9)

D. A. Long, A. Cygan, R. D. van Zee, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, D. Lisak, J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 536, 1–8 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492, 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, K. L. Vodopyanov, J. Jiang, I. Hartl, M. Fermann, P. G. Schunemann, “Octave-spanning ultrafast OPO with 2.6–6.1  μm instantaneous bandwidth pumped by femtosecond Tm-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20, 7046–7053 (2012).
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D. R. Thompson, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, D. Crisp, V. Malathy Devi, Y. Jiang, V. Natraj, F. Oyafuso, K. Sung, D. Wunch, R. Castaño, C. E. Miller, “Atmospheric validation of high accuracy CO2 absorption coefficients for the OCO-2 mission,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 2265–2276 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. M. Hammerling, A. M. Michalak, C. O’Dell, S. R. Kawa, “Global CO2 distributions over land from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, paper L08804 (2012).
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A. M. Zolot, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, J. W. Nicholson, W. C. Swann, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Direct-comb molecular spectroscopy with accurate, resolved comb teeth over 43  THz,” Opt. Lett. 37, 638–640 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Roy, J.-D. Deschênes, S. Potvin, J. Genest, “Continuous real-time correction and averaging for frequency comb interferometry,” Opt. Express 20, 21932–21939 (2012).
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A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6, 440–449 (2012).
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F. Adler, S. A. Diddams, “High-power, hybrid Er:fiber/Tm:fiber frequency comb source in the 2  μm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1400–1402 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
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E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Spectroscopy of the methane ν3 band with an accurate midinfrared coherent dual-comb spectrometer,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
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J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, R. Pollock, C. J. Bruegge, D. Rider, D. Crisp, C. E. Miller, “Preflight spectral calibration of the orbiting carbon observatory,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 2793–2801 (2011).
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D. Wunch, G. C. Toon, J.-F. L. Blavier, R. A. Washenfelder, J. Notholt, B. J. Connor, D. W. T. Griffith, V. Sherlock, P. O. Wennberg, “The total carbon column observing network,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 369, 2087–2112 (2011).
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T. E. L. Smith, M. J. Wooster, M. Tattaris, D. W. T. Griffith, “Absolute accuracy and sensitivity analysis of OP-FTIR retrievals of CO2, CH4 and CO over concentrations representative of “clean air” and “polluted plumes”,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 97–116 (2011).
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2010 (2)

P. Ciais, P. Rayner, F. Chevallier, P. Bousquet, M. Logan, P. Peylin, M. Ramonet, “Atmospheric inversions for estimating CO2 fluxes: methods and perspectives,” Climatic Change 103, 69–92 (2010).

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, “Coherent dual-comb spectroscopy at high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043817 (2010).
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2009 (6)

K. L. Mays, P. B. Shepson, B. H. Stirm, A. Karion, C. Sweeney, K. R. Gurney, “Aircraft-based measurements of the carbon footprint of Indianapolis,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 7816–7823 (2009).
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C. Le Quere, M. R. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, G. Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, P. Foster, P. Friedlingstein, K. Gurney, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, C. Huntingford, P. E. Levy, M. R. Lomas, J. Majkut, N. Metzl, J. P. Ometto, G. P. Peters, I. C. Prentice, J. T. Randerson, S. W. Running, J. L. Sarmiento, U. Schuster, S. Sitch, T. Takahashi, N. Viovy, G. R. van der Werf, F. I. Woodward, “Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide,” Nat. Geosci. 2, 831–836 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4, 55–57 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, G. C. Toon, “Influence of line mixing on the retrievals of atmospheric CO2 from spectra in the 1.6 and 2.1  μm regions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 7303–7312 (2009).
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A. Predoi-Cross, A. R. W. McKellar, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, R. R. Gamache, C. E. Miller, R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, “Temperature dependences for air-broadened Lorentz half-width and pressure shift coefficients in the 30013 ← 00001 and 30012 ← 00001 bands of CO2 near 1600  nm,” Can. J. Phys. 87, 517–535 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 18925–18930 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, R. A. Toth, “Line mixing and speed dependence in CO2 at 6227.9  cm–1: constrained multispectrum analysis of intensities and line shapes in the 30013 ← 00001 band,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 245, 52–80 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

A. Schliesser, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, D. van der Weide, “Frequency-comb infrared spectrometer for rapid, remote chemical sensing,” Opt. Express 13, 9029–9038 (2005).
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C. Frankenberg, J. F. Meirink, M. van Weele, U. Platt, T. Wagner, “Assessing methane emissions from global space-borne observations,” Science 308, 1010–1014 (2005).
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M. R. Raupach, P. J. Rayner, D. J. Barrett, R. S. DeFries, M. Heimann, D. S. Ojima, S. Quegan, C. C. Schmullius, “Model-data synthesis in terrestrial carbon observation: methods, data requirements and data uncertainty specifications,” Glob. Chang. Biol. 11, 378–397 (2005).

2004 (2)

F. Keilmann, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, “Time-domain mid-infrared frequency-comb spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1542–1544 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Houweling, F.-M. Breon, I. Aben, C. Rödenbeck, M. Gloor, M. Heimann, P. Ciais, “Inverse modeling of CO2 sources and sinks using satellite data: a synthetic inter-comparison of measurement techniques and their performance as a function of space and time,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 523–538 (2004).
[Crossref]

Aben, I.

S. Houweling, F.-M. Breon, I. Aben, C. Rödenbeck, M. Gloor, M. Heimann, P. Ciais, “Inverse modeling of CO2 sources and sinks using satellite data: a synthetic inter-comparison of measurement techniques and their performance as a function of space and time,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 523–538 (2004).
[Crossref]

Abshire, J. B.

A. Ramanathan, J. Mao, G. R. Allan, H. Riris, C. J. Weaver, W. E. Hasselbrack, E. V. Browell, J. B. Abshire, “Spectroscopic measurements of a CO2 absorption line in an open vertical path using an airborne lidar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 214102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adler, F.

Alkhaled, A.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

Allan, G. R.

A. Ramanathan, J. Mao, G. R. Allan, H. Riris, C. J. Weaver, W. E. Hasselbrack, E. V. Browell, J. B. Abshire, “Spectroscopic measurements of a CO2 absorption line in an open vertical path using an airborne lidar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 214102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Andrews, A. E.

C. W. Rella, H. Chen, A. E. Andrews, A. Filges, C. Gerbig, J. Hatakka, A. Karion, N. L. Miles, S. J. Richardson, M. Steinbacher, C. Sweeney, B. Wastine, C. Zellweger, “High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 837–860 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 18925–18930 (2007).
[Crossref]

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Banta, R.

A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, G. Frost, R. Michael Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4393–4397 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barrett, D. J.

M. R. Raupach, P. J. Rayner, D. J. Barrett, R. S. DeFries, M. Heimann, D. S. Ojima, S. Quegan, C. C. Schmullius, “Model-data synthesis in terrestrial carbon observation: methods, data requirements and data uncertainty specifications,” Glob. Chang. Biol. 11, 378–397 (2005).

Baumann, E.

L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Optical phase noise from atmospheric fluctuations and its impact on optical time-frequency transfer,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 023805 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. M. Zolot, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, J. W. Nicholson, W. C. Swann, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Direct-comb molecular spectroscopy with accurate, resolved comb teeth over 43  THz,” Opt. Lett. 37, 638–640 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Spectroscopy of the methane ν3 band with an accurate midinfrared coherent dual-comb spectrometer,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
[Crossref]

Benner, D. C.

A. Predoi-Cross, A. R. W. McKellar, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, R. R. Gamache, C. E. Miller, R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, “Temperature dependences for air-broadened Lorentz half-width and pressure shift coefficients in the 30013 ← 00001 and 30012 ← 00001 bands of CO2 near 1600  nm,” Can. J. Phys. 87, 517–535 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, V. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, “Spectroscopic database of CO2,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 906–921 (2008).
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V. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, R. A. Toth, “Line mixing and speed dependence in CO2 at 6227.9  cm–1: constrained multispectrum analysis of intensities and line shapes in the 30013 ← 00001 band,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 245, 52–80 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bernhardt, B.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502, 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4, 55–57 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bielska, K.

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492, 229–233 (2012).
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D. Wunch, G. C. Toon, J.-F. L. Blavier, R. A. Washenfelder, J. Notholt, B. J. Connor, D. W. T. Griffith, V. Sherlock, P. O. Wennberg, “The total carbon column observing network,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 369, 2087–2112 (2011).
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C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

Bopp, L.

C. Le Quere, M. R. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, G. Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, P. Foster, P. Friedlingstein, K. Gurney, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, C. Huntingford, P. E. Levy, M. R. Lomas, J. Majkut, N. Metzl, J. P. Ometto, G. P. Peters, I. C. Prentice, J. T. Randerson, S. W. Running, J. L. Sarmiento, U. Schuster, S. Sitch, T. Takahashi, N. Viovy, G. R. van der Werf, F. I. Woodward, “Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide,” Nat. Geosci. 2, 831–836 (2009).
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Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Boudreau, S.

Bousquet, P.

P. Ciais, P. Rayner, F. Chevallier, P. Bousquet, M. Logan, P. Peylin, M. Ramonet, “Atmospheric inversions for estimating CO2 fluxes: methods and perspectives,” Climatic Change 103, 69–92 (2010).

Brehm, M.

Breon, F.-M.

S. Houweling, F.-M. Breon, I. Aben, C. Rödenbeck, M. Gloor, M. Heimann, P. Ciais, “Inverse modeling of CO2 sources and sinks using satellite data: a synthetic inter-comparison of measurement techniques and their performance as a function of space and time,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 523–538 (2004).
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Brewer, A.

A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, G. Frost, R. Michael Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4393–4397 (2013).
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Browell, E. V.

A. Ramanathan, J. Mao, G. R. Allan, H. Riris, C. J. Weaver, W. E. Hasselbrack, E. V. Browell, J. B. Abshire, “Spectroscopic measurements of a CO2 absorption line in an open vertical path using an airborne lidar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 214102 (2013).
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Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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D. R. Thompson, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, D. Crisp, V. Malathy Devi, Y. Jiang, V. Natraj, F. Oyafuso, K. Sung, D. Wunch, R. Castaño, C. E. Miller, “Atmospheric validation of high accuracy CO2 absorption coefficients for the OCO-2 mission,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 2265–2276 (2012).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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A. Predoi-Cross, A. R. W. McKellar, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, R. R. Gamache, C. E. Miller, R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, “Temperature dependences for air-broadened Lorentz half-width and pressure shift coefficients in the 30013 ← 00001 and 30012 ← 00001 bands of CO2 near 1600  nm,” Can. J. Phys. 87, 517–535 (2009).
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R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, V. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, “Spectroscopic database of CO2,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 906–921 (2008).
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V. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, R. A. Toth, “Line mixing and speed dependence in CO2 at 6227.9  cm–1: constrained multispectrum analysis of intensities and line shapes in the 30013 ← 00001 band,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 245, 52–80 (2007).
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Bruegge, C. J.

J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, R. Pollock, C. J. Bruegge, D. Rider, D. Crisp, C. E. Miller, “Preflight spectral calibration of the orbiting carbon observatory,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 2793–2801 (2011).
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Bruhwiler, L. M. P.

W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 18925–18930 (2007).
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Byer, R. L.

Cambaliza, M. O. L.

D. R. Caulton, P. B. Shepson, R. L. Santoro, J. P. Sparks, R. W. Howarth, A. R. Ingraffea, M. O. L. Cambaliza, C. Sweeney, A. Karion, K. J. Davis, B. H. Stirm, S. A. Montzka, B. R. Miller, “Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 6237–6242 (2014).
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Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Canadell, J. G.

C. Le Quere, M. R. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, G. Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, P. Foster, P. Friedlingstein, K. Gurney, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, C. Huntingford, P. E. Levy, M. R. Lomas, J. Majkut, N. Metzl, J. P. Ometto, G. P. Peters, I. C. Prentice, J. T. Randerson, S. W. Running, J. L. Sarmiento, U. Schuster, S. Sitch, T. Takahashi, N. Viovy, G. R. van der Werf, F. I. Woodward, “Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide,” Nat. Geosci. 2, 831–836 (2009).
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Carlsten, J. L.

Castaño, R.

D. R. Thompson, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, D. Crisp, V. Malathy Devi, Y. Jiang, V. Natraj, F. Oyafuso, K. Sung, D. Wunch, R. Castaño, C. E. Miller, “Atmospheric validation of high accuracy CO2 absorption coefficients for the OCO-2 mission,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 2265–2276 (2012).
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Caulton, D. R.

D. R. Caulton, P. B. Shepson, R. L. Santoro, J. P. Sparks, R. W. Howarth, A. R. Ingraffea, M. O. L. Cambaliza, C. Sweeney, A. Karion, K. J. Davis, B. H. Stirm, S. A. Montzka, B. R. Miller, “Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 6237–6242 (2014).
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Champion, J. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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C. W. Rella, H. Chen, A. E. Andrews, A. Filges, C. Gerbig, J. Hatakka, A. Karion, N. L. Miles, S. J. Richardson, M. Steinbacher, C. Sweeney, B. Wastine, C. Zellweger, “High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 837–860 (2013).
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Chevallier, F.

P. Ciais, P. Rayner, F. Chevallier, P. Bousquet, M. Logan, P. Peylin, M. Ramonet, “Atmospheric inversions for estimating CO2 fluxes: methods and perspectives,” Climatic Change 103, 69–92 (2010).

Childers, J. W.

G. M. Russwurm, J. W. Childers, “Open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy (Wiley, 2006), pp. 1750–1773

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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D. R. Thompson, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, D. Crisp, V. Malathy Devi, Y. Jiang, V. Natraj, F. Oyafuso, K. Sung, D. Wunch, R. Castaño, C. E. Miller, “Atmospheric validation of high accuracy CO2 absorption coefficients for the OCO-2 mission,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 2265–2276 (2012).
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Ciais, P.

P. Ciais, P. Rayner, F. Chevallier, P. Bousquet, M. Logan, P. Peylin, M. Ramonet, “Atmospheric inversions for estimating CO2 fluxes: methods and perspectives,” Climatic Change 103, 69–92 (2010).

C. Le Quere, M. R. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, G. Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, P. Foster, P. Friedlingstein, K. Gurney, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, C. Huntingford, P. E. Levy, M. R. Lomas, J. Majkut, N. Metzl, J. P. Ometto, G. P. Peters, I. C. Prentice, J. T. Randerson, S. W. Running, J. L. Sarmiento, U. Schuster, S. Sitch, T. Takahashi, N. Viovy, G. R. van der Werf, F. I. Woodward, “Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide,” Nat. Geosci. 2, 831–836 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Houweling, F.-M. Breon, I. Aben, C. Rödenbeck, M. Gloor, M. Heimann, P. Ciais, “Inverse modeling of CO2 sources and sinks using satellite data: a synthetic inter-comparison of measurement techniques and their performance as a function of space and time,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 523–538 (2004).
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Coddington, I.

L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22, 6996–7006 (2014).
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L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Optical phase noise from atmospheric fluctuations and its impact on optical time-frequency transfer,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 023805 (2014).
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A. M. Zolot, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, J. W. Nicholson, W. C. Swann, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Direct-comb molecular spectroscopy with accurate, resolved comb teeth over 43  THz,” Opt. Lett. 37, 638–640 (2012).
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E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Spectroscopy of the methane ν3 band with an accurate midinfrared coherent dual-comb spectrometer,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
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I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, “Coherent dual-comb spectroscopy at high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043817 (2010).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, G. Frost, R. Michael Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4393–4397 (2013).
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C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

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C. Le Quere, M. R. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, G. Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, P. Foster, P. Friedlingstein, K. Gurney, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, C. Huntingford, P. E. Levy, M. R. Lomas, J. Majkut, N. Metzl, J. P. Ometto, G. P. Peters, I. C. Prentice, J. T. Randerson, S. W. Running, J. L. Sarmiento, U. Schuster, S. Sitch, T. Takahashi, N. Viovy, G. R. van der Werf, F. I. Woodward, “Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide,” Nat. Geosci. 2, 831–836 (2009).
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D. R. Thompson, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, D. Crisp, V. Malathy Devi, Y. Jiang, V. Natraj, F. Oyafuso, K. Sung, D. Wunch, R. Castaño, C. E. Miller, “Atmospheric validation of high accuracy CO2 absorption coefficients for the OCO-2 mission,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 2265–2276 (2012).
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J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, R. Pollock, C. J. Bruegge, D. Rider, D. Crisp, C. E. Miller, “Preflight spectral calibration of the orbiting carbon observatory,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 2793–2801 (2011).
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C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

Cygan, A.

D. A. Long, A. Cygan, R. D. van Zee, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, D. Lisak, J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 536, 1–8 (2012).
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Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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D. R. Caulton, P. B. Shepson, R. L. Santoro, J. P. Sparks, R. W. Howarth, A. R. Ingraffea, M. O. L. Cambaliza, C. Sweeney, A. Karion, K. J. Davis, B. H. Stirm, S. A. Montzka, B. R. Miller, “Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 6237–6242 (2014).
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Day, J. O.

J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, R. Pollock, C. J. Bruegge, D. Rider, D. Crisp, C. E. Miller, “Preflight spectral calibration of the orbiting carbon observatory,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 2793–2801 (2011).
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DeCola, P. L.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

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Denning, A. S.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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A. Predoi-Cross, A. R. W. McKellar, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, R. R. Gamache, C. E. Miller, R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, “Temperature dependences for air-broadened Lorentz half-width and pressure shift coefficients in the 30013 ← 00001 and 30012 ← 00001 bands of CO2 near 1600  nm,” Can. J. Phys. 87, 517–535 (2009).
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R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, V. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, “Spectroscopic database of CO2,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 906–921 (2008).
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V. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, R. A. Toth, “Line mixing and speed dependence in CO2 at 6227.9  cm–1: constrained multispectrum analysis of intensities and line shapes in the 30013 ← 00001 band,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 245, 52–80 (2007).
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A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, G. Frost, R. Michael Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4393–4397 (2013).
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C. Le Quere, M. R. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, G. Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, P. Foster, P. Friedlingstein, K. Gurney, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, C. Huntingford, P. E. Levy, M. R. Lomas, J. Majkut, N. Metzl, J. P. Ometto, G. P. Peters, I. C. Prentice, J. T. Randerson, S. W. Running, J. L. Sarmiento, U. Schuster, S. Sitch, T. Takahashi, N. Viovy, G. R. van der Werf, F. I. Woodward, “Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide,” Nat. Geosci. 2, 831–836 (2009).
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C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

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D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, K. Bielska, J. T. Hodges, D. F. Plusquellic, “Multiheterodyne spectroscopy with optical frequency combs generated from a continuous-wave laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2688–2690 (2014).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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C. Le Quere, M. R. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, G. Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, P. Foster, P. Friedlingstein, K. Gurney, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, C. Huntingford, P. E. Levy, M. R. Lomas, J. Majkut, N. Metzl, J. P. Ometto, G. P. Peters, I. C. Prentice, J. T. Randerson, S. W. Running, J. L. Sarmiento, U. Schuster, S. Sitch, T. Takahashi, N. Viovy, G. R. van der Werf, F. I. Woodward, “Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide,” Nat. Geosci. 2, 831–836 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Foster, P.

C. Le Quere, M. R. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, G. Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, P. Foster, P. Friedlingstein, K. Gurney, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, C. Huntingford, P. E. Levy, M. R. Lomas, J. Majkut, N. Metzl, J. P. Ometto, G. P. Peters, I. C. Prentice, J. T. Randerson, S. W. Running, J. L. Sarmiento, U. Schuster, S. Sitch, T. Takahashi, N. Viovy, G. R. van der Werf, F. I. Woodward, “Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide,” Nat. Geosci. 2, 831–836 (2009).
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Friedlingstein, P.

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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A. Ramanathan, J. Mao, G. R. Allan, H. Riris, C. J. Weaver, W. E. Hasselbrack, E. V. Browell, J. B. Abshire, “Spectroscopic measurements of a CO2 absorption line in an open vertical path using an airborne lidar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 214102 (2013).
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W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 18925–18930 (2007).
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Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, K. Bielska, J. T. Hodges, D. F. Plusquellic, “Multiheterodyne spectroscopy with optical frequency combs generated from a continuous-wave laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2688–2690 (2014).
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G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 532–534 (2013).
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K. L. Mays, P. B. Shepson, B. H. Stirm, A. Karion, C. Sweeney, K. R. Gurney, “Aircraft-based measurements of the carbon footprint of Indianapolis,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 7816–7823 (2009).
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McKellar, A. R. W.

A. Predoi-Cross, A. R. W. McKellar, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, R. R. Gamache, C. E. Miller, R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, “Temperature dependences for air-broadened Lorentz half-width and pressure shift coefficients in the 30013 ← 00001 and 30012 ← 00001 bands of CO2 near 1600  nm,” Can. J. Phys. 87, 517–535 (2009).
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C. Le Quere, M. R. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, G. Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, P. Foster, P. Friedlingstein, K. Gurney, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, C. Huntingford, P. E. Levy, M. R. Lomas, J. Majkut, N. Metzl, J. P. Ometto, G. P. Peters, I. C. Prentice, J. T. Randerson, S. W. Running, J. L. Sarmiento, U. Schuster, S. Sitch, T. Takahashi, N. Viovy, G. R. van der Werf, F. I. Woodward, “Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide,” Nat. Geosci. 2, 831–836 (2009).
[Crossref]

Michael Hardesty, R.

A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, G. Frost, R. Michael Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4393–4397 (2013).
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Michalak, A. M.

D. M. Hammerling, A. M. Michalak, C. O’Dell, S. R. Kawa, “Global CO2 distributions over land from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, paper L08804 (2012).
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C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

Mikel, D. K.

D. K. MikelU. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Optical Remote Sensing for Measurement and Monitoring of Emissions Flux (n.d.), EPA Handbook, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Air quality analysis division, Measurement technology group.

Mikhailenko, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Miles, N. L.

C. W. Rella, H. Chen, A. E. Andrews, A. Filges, C. Gerbig, J. Hatakka, A. Karion, N. L. Miles, S. J. Richardson, M. Steinbacher, C. Sweeney, B. Wastine, C. Zellweger, “High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 837–860 (2013).
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Miller, B. R.

D. R. Caulton, P. B. Shepson, R. L. Santoro, J. P. Sparks, R. W. Howarth, A. R. Ingraffea, M. O. L. Cambaliza, C. Sweeney, A. Karion, K. J. Davis, B. H. Stirm, S. A. Montzka, B. R. Miller, “Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 6237–6242 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, G. Frost, R. Michael Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4393–4397 (2013).
[Crossref]

Miller, C. E.

D. R. Thompson, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, D. Crisp, V. Malathy Devi, Y. Jiang, V. Natraj, F. Oyafuso, K. Sung, D. Wunch, R. Castaño, C. E. Miller, “Atmospheric validation of high accuracy CO2 absorption coefficients for the OCO-2 mission,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 2265–2276 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. A. Long, A. Cygan, R. D. van Zee, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, D. Lisak, J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 536, 1–8 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, R. Pollock, C. J. Bruegge, D. Rider, D. Crisp, C. E. Miller, “Preflight spectral calibration of the orbiting carbon observatory,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 2793–2801 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Predoi-Cross, A. R. W. McKellar, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, R. R. Gamache, C. E. Miller, R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, “Temperature dependences for air-broadened Lorentz half-width and pressure shift coefficients in the 30013 ← 00001 and 30012 ← 00001 bands of CO2 near 1600  nm,” Can. J. Phys. 87, 517–535 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, V. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, “Spectroscopic database of CO2,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 906–921 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, R. A. Toth, “Line mixing and speed dependence in CO2 at 6227.9  cm–1: constrained multispectrum analysis of intensities and line shapes in the 30013 ← 00001 band,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 245, 52–80 (2007).
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C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

Miller, J. B.

W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 18925–18930 (2007).
[Crossref]

Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Montzka, S. A.

D. R. Caulton, P. B. Shepson, R. L. Santoro, J. P. Sparks, R. W. Howarth, A. R. Ingraffea, M. O. L. Cambaliza, C. Sweeney, A. Karion, K. J. Davis, B. H. Stirm, S. A. Montzka, B. R. Miller, “Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 6237–6242 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, G. Frost, R. Michael Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4393–4397 (2013).
[Crossref]

Müller, H. S. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Natraj, V.

D. R. Thompson, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, D. Crisp, V. Malathy Devi, Y. Jiang, V. Natraj, F. Oyafuso, K. Sung, D. Wunch, R. Castaño, C. E. Miller, “Atmospheric validation of high accuracy CO2 absorption coefficients for the OCO-2 mission,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 2265–2276 (2012).
[Crossref]

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nehrir, A. R.

Newberger, T.

A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, G. Frost, R. Michael Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4393–4397 (2013).
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Newbury, N. R.

L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22, 6996–7006 (2014).
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L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Optical phase noise from atmospheric fluctuations and its impact on optical time-frequency transfer,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 023805 (2014).
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A. M. Zolot, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, J. W. Nicholson, W. C. Swann, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Direct-comb molecular spectroscopy with accurate, resolved comb teeth over 43  THz,” Opt. Lett. 37, 638–640 (2012).
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E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Spectroscopy of the methane ν3 band with an accurate midinfrared coherent dual-comb spectrometer,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
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I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, “Coherent dual-comb spectroscopy at high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043817 (2010).
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Nicholls, M. E.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

Nicholson, J. W.

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, R. Pollock, C. J. Bruegge, D. Rider, D. Crisp, C. E. Miller, “Preflight spectral calibration of the orbiting carbon observatory,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 2793–2801 (2011).
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Rayner, P.

P. Ciais, P. Rayner, F. Chevallier, P. Bousquet, M. Logan, P. Peylin, M. Ramonet, “Atmospheric inversions for estimating CO2 fluxes: methods and perspectives,” Climatic Change 103, 69–92 (2010).

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

Rayner, P. J.

M. R. Raupach, P. J. Rayner, D. J. Barrett, R. S. DeFries, M. Heimann, D. S. Ojima, S. Quegan, C. C. Schmullius, “Model-data synthesis in terrestrial carbon observation: methods, data requirements and data uncertainty specifications,” Glob. Chang. Biol. 11, 378–397 (2005).

Reid, D. T.

Rella, C. W.

C. W. Rella, H. Chen, A. E. Andrews, A. Filges, C. Gerbig, J. Hatakka, A. Karion, N. L. Miles, S. J. Richardson, M. Steinbacher, C. Sweeney, B. Wastine, C. Zellweger, “High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 837–860 (2013).
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Repasky, K. S.

Richard, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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C. W. Rella, H. Chen, A. E. Andrews, A. Filges, C. Gerbig, J. Hatakka, A. Karion, N. L. Miles, S. J. Richardson, M. Steinbacher, C. Sweeney, B. Wastine, C. Zellweger, “High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 837–860 (2013).
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Rider, D.

J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, R. Pollock, C. J. Bruegge, D. Rider, D. Crisp, C. E. Miller, “Preflight spectral calibration of the orbiting carbon observatory,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 2793–2801 (2011).
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Rieker, G. B.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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A. Ramanathan, J. Mao, G. R. Allan, H. Riris, C. J. Weaver, W. E. Hasselbrack, E. V. Browell, J. B. Abshire, “Spectroscopic measurements of a CO2 absorption line in an open vertical path using an airborne lidar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 214102 (2013).
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Rödenbeck, C.

S. Houweling, F.-M. Breon, I. Aben, C. Rödenbeck, M. Gloor, M. Heimann, P. Ciais, “Inverse modeling of CO2 sources and sinks using satellite data: a synthetic inter-comparison of measurement techniques and their performance as a function of space and time,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 523–538 (2004).
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Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Roy, J.

Roy, S.

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C. Le Quere, M. R. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, G. Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, P. Foster, P. Friedlingstein, K. Gurney, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, C. Huntingford, P. E. Levy, M. R. Lomas, J. Majkut, N. Metzl, J. P. Ometto, G. P. Peters, I. C. Prentice, J. T. Randerson, S. W. Running, J. L. Sarmiento, U. Schuster, S. Sitch, T. Takahashi, N. Viovy, G. R. van der Werf, F. I. Woodward, “Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide,” Nat. Geosci. 2, 831–836 (2009).
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Russwurm, G. M.

G. M. Russwurm, J. W. Childers, “Open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy (Wiley, 2006), pp. 1750–1773

Salawitch, R. J.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

Sander, S. P.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

Santoro, R. L.

D. R. Caulton, P. B. Shepson, R. L. Santoro, J. P. Sparks, R. W. Howarth, A. R. Ingraffea, M. O. L. Cambaliza, C. Sweeney, A. Karion, K. J. Davis, B. H. Stirm, S. A. Montzka, B. R. Miller, “Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 6237–6242 (2014).
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Sarmiento, J. L.

C. Le Quere, M. R. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, G. Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, P. Foster, P. Friedlingstein, K. Gurney, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, C. Huntingford, P. E. Levy, M. R. Lomas, J. Majkut, N. Metzl, J. P. Ometto, G. P. Peters, I. C. Prentice, J. T. Randerson, S. W. Running, J. L. Sarmiento, U. Schuster, S. Sitch, T. Takahashi, N. Viovy, G. R. van der Werf, F. I. Woodward, “Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide,” Nat. Geosci. 2, 831–836 (2009).
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Schliesser, A.

Schmullius, C. C.

M. R. Raupach, P. J. Rayner, D. J. Barrett, R. S. DeFries, M. Heimann, D. S. Ojima, S. Quegan, C. C. Schmullius, “Model-data synthesis in terrestrial carbon observation: methods, data requirements and data uncertainty specifications,” Glob. Chang. Biol. 11, 378–397 (2005).

Schnell, R.

A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, G. Frost, R. Michael Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4393–4397 (2013).
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Schunemann, P. G.

Schuster, U.

C. Le Quere, M. R. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, G. Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, P. Foster, P. Friedlingstein, K. Gurney, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, C. Huntingford, P. E. Levy, M. R. Lomas, J. Majkut, N. Metzl, J. P. Ometto, G. P. Peters, I. C. Prentice, J. T. Randerson, S. W. Running, J. L. Sarmiento, U. Schuster, S. Sitch, T. Takahashi, N. Viovy, G. R. van der Werf, F. I. Woodward, “Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide,” Nat. Geosci. 2, 831–836 (2009).
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Sen, B.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

Shepson, P. B.

D. R. Caulton, P. B. Shepson, R. L. Santoro, J. P. Sparks, R. W. Howarth, A. R. Ingraffea, M. O. L. Cambaliza, C. Sweeney, A. Karion, K. J. Davis, B. H. Stirm, S. A. Montzka, B. R. Miller, “Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 6237–6242 (2014).
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K. L. Mays, P. B. Shepson, B. H. Stirm, A. Karion, C. Sweeney, K. R. Gurney, “Aircraft-based measurements of the carbon footprint of Indianapolis,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 7816–7823 (2009).
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Sherlock, V.

D. Wunch, G. C. Toon, J.-F. L. Blavier, R. A. Washenfelder, J. Notholt, B. J. Connor, D. W. T. Griffith, V. Sherlock, P. O. Wennberg, “The total carbon column observing network,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 369, 2087–2112 (2011).
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Simeckova, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Sinclair, L. C.

L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Optical phase noise from atmospheric fluctuations and its impact on optical time-frequency transfer,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 023805 (2014).
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L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22, 6996–7006 (2014).
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Sitch, S.

C. Le Quere, M. R. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, G. Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, P. Foster, P. Friedlingstein, K. Gurney, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, C. Huntingford, P. E. Levy, M. R. Lomas, J. Majkut, N. Metzl, J. P. Ometto, G. P. Peters, I. C. Prentice, J. T. Randerson, S. W. Running, J. L. Sarmiento, U. Schuster, S. Sitch, T. Takahashi, N. Viovy, G. R. van der Werf, F. I. Woodward, “Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide,” Nat. Geosci. 2, 831–836 (2009).
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Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Smith, T. E. L.

T. E. L. Smith, M. J. Wooster, M. Tattaris, D. W. T. Griffith, “Absolute accuracy and sensitivity analysis of OP-FTIR retrievals of CO2, CH4 and CO over concentrations representative of “clean air” and “polluted plumes”,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 97–116 (2011).
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Spangler, L. H.

Sparks, J. P.

D. R. Caulton, P. B. Shepson, R. L. Santoro, J. P. Sparks, R. W. Howarth, A. R. Ingraffea, M. O. L. Cambaliza, C. Sweeney, A. Karion, K. J. Davis, B. H. Stirm, S. A. Montzka, B. R. Miller, “Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 6237–6242 (2014).
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Starikova, E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Steinbacher, M.

C. W. Rella, H. Chen, A. E. Andrews, A. Filges, C. Gerbig, J. Hatakka, A. Karion, N. L. Miles, S. J. Richardson, M. Steinbacher, C. Sweeney, B. Wastine, C. Zellweger, “High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 837–860 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stirm, B. H.

D. R. Caulton, P. B. Shepson, R. L. Santoro, J. P. Sparks, R. W. Howarth, A. R. Ingraffea, M. O. L. Cambaliza, C. Sweeney, A. Karion, K. J. Davis, B. H. Stirm, S. A. Montzka, B. R. Miller, “Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 6237–6242 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. L. Mays, P. B. Shepson, B. H. Stirm, A. Karion, C. Sweeney, K. R. Gurney, “Aircraft-based measurements of the carbon footprint of Indianapolis,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 7816–7823 (2009).
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Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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D. R. Thompson, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, D. Crisp, V. Malathy Devi, Y. Jiang, V. Natraj, F. Oyafuso, K. Sung, D. Wunch, R. Castaño, C. E. Miller, “Atmospheric validation of high accuracy CO2 absorption coefficients for the OCO-2 mission,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 2265–2276 (2012).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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D. Wunch, G. C. Toon, J.-F. L. Blavier, R. A. Washenfelder, J. Notholt, B. J. Connor, D. W. T. Griffith, V. Sherlock, P. O. Wennberg, “The total carbon column observing network,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 369, 2087–2112 (2011).
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[Crossref]

Wofsy, S. C.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Open-air path greenhouse gas sensing through dual-comb spectroscopy. (a) DCS concept: two combs with slightly different tooth spacing interfere on a detector, giving a third rf comb with a one-to-one mapping to the optical comb teeth. (The actual experiment spans 105 comb teeth.) (b) Experimental setup: two combs are amplified, pulse-compressed in large mode area (LMA) fiber, spectrally broadened in highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF), and filtered to generate light covering the spectral bands of interest. Two fibers carry the comb light to the rooftop, where the light is combined and launched in a 40mm beam (1/e2 diameter), and reflected from a 50 cm diameter plane mirror located 1 km distant. The return light is coupled to a multimode fiber and detected. The transmitted light power was limited to 1.5 mW so that the maximum received power was always below a conservative detector nonlinearity threshold of 50 μW average power (500 fJ pulse energy). (c) Location of the 2 km interrogation path (red line, ground projection represented by black line), the tower with the point sensor intake (inset), and elevation of the beam path (bottom inset). (d) Example transmitted intensity showing the smoothly varying comb intensity and abrupt dips due to absorption. (e) Expanded view of absorption features. The typical gas absorption lines have 40 teeth across each 4GHz wide line (top, several transitions from the 2ν3 level of the CH4 tetradecad; bottom, R20 transition of the 3001300001 band of CO2).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Baseline-corrected absorbance from the transmission spectrum of Fig. 1(d). (a) The left spectrum mainly comprises CH4 and H2O lines, with some weaker CO2 lines, while the right spectrum shows the 3001300001 CO2 band, CO2 hot bands, and H2O, CO213, and HDO features. The data (red line), fit with HITRAN 2008 (blue line, indistinguishable from the data), and residuals (upper blue line) are shown. There are 40,000 data points, or comb teeth, spaced at 100 MHz across the spectral windows. (b) Expanded view of a few representative lines along with residuals for fits to the HITRAN 2008 model [44], the HITRAN 2012 model [43], the line-mixing and speed-dependent model of Ref. [14], and line-by-line Voigt fits to each line. Also shown are the fit residuals for a 5 min time average, identical to those used in the time-resolved data of Fig. 3. The noise per comb tooth (in absorbance units) for the 5 min averaged spectra is 2.0×103, 2.7×103, and 1.7×103 for the three windows shown, with the differences attributable to different spectral intensities. For the 170 min average, the noise decreases with the square root of time, as expected, to 3.5×104, 5.1×104, and 3.0×104, respectively. However, there are clear residuals near the spectral lines due to mismatch between the measured lineshapes and absorption models.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Time-resolved mole fractions. (a) Time dependence of the dry-air mole fraction for CO2 (green), CH4 (light blue), and water (dark blue) retrieved from the DCS and the corresponding values from the tower-mounted point sensor (black line) at 5 min periods over three days. (b) Time dependence of CO2 and CH4 with an expanded y axis. Also shown are the time dependence of HDO (pink) and the retrieved path-averaged temperature (orange). All data are from the fit with the absorption model based on HITRAN 2008. The DCS CO2 mole fraction has been scaled to remove the 2.8% offset between the DCS and the tower-mounted sensor over the initial 3h period (shaded region) where the atmosphere was well-mixed and the measurement path was upwind from the NIST central utility plant.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Precision (Allan deviation) from data acquired during high-wind periods with a stable, well-mixed atmosphere. (a) CO2 precision (green) versus averaging time, τ, which follows 15τ/ppm, where τ is in seconds (gray line), or 0.86 ppm at 5 min. At longer times, actual atmospheric mole fraction variations cause a decrease in the slope. A modest increase of the launched power up to the eye-safe limit of 9.6 mW (or alternatively an increased receive aperture) would yield the improved precision of 3τ/ppm (dashed gray line). (b) CH4 precision (blue) follows a scaling of 40τ/ppb (gray line) or 2.3 ppb at 5 min. Again, modest power increases, or increased receive aperture, would yield the improved precision of 8τ/ppb (dashed gray line).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Mole Fractions Retrieved from Fits of the Absorbance Spectrum of Fig. 2 with Four Absorption Models: HITRAN 2008 [44], HITRAN 2012 [43], Line-Mixing Speed-dependent Voigt (LM/SD) [14], and Toth et al. [48]a

Tables Icon

Table 2. Comparison of the Mole Fractions Obtained with the Dual-Comb Spectrometer and the Tower-Mounted Point Sensor under the Well-Mixed, Stable Atmospheric Conditions of Fig. 2a

Metrics