Abstract

Driven Kerr nonlinear optical resonators can sustain localized structures known as dissipative Kerr cavity solitons, which have recently attracted significant attention as the temporal counterparts of microresonator optical frequency combs. While conventional wisdom asserts that bright cavity solitons can only exist when driving in the region of anomalous dispersion, recent theoretical studies have predicted that higher-order dispersion can fundamentally alter the situation, enabling bright localized structures even under conditions of normal dispersion driving. Here we demonstrate a flexible optical fiber ring resonator platform that offers unprecedented control over dispersion conditions, and we report on the first experimental observations of bright localized structures that are fundamentally enabled by higher-order dispersion. In broad agreement with past theoretical predictions, we find that several distinct bright structures can coexist for the same parameters, and we observe experimental evidence of their collapsed snaking bifurcation structure. Our results also elucidate the physical mechanisms that underpin the bright structures, highlighting the key role of spectral recoil due to dispersive wave emission. In addition to enabling direct experimental verifications of a number of theoretical predictions, we show that the ability to judiciously control the dispersion conditions offers a novel route for ultrashort pulse generation: the bright structures circulating in our resonator correspond to pulses of light as short as 230 fs—the record for a passive all-fiber ring resonator. We envisage that our work will stimulate further fundamental studies on the impact of higher-order dispersion on Kerr cavity dynamics, as well as guide the development of novel ultrashort pulse sources and dispersion-engineered microresonator frequency combs.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2020 (1)

X. Dong, Q. Yang, C. Spiess, V. G. Bucklew, and W. H. Renninger, “Stretched-pulse soliton Kerr resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 033902 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (5)

N. L. B. Sayson, T. Bi, V. Ng, H. Pham, L. S. Trainor, H. G. L. Schwefel, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, and S. G. Murdoch, “Octave-spanning tunable parametric oscillation in crystalline Kerr microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 13, 701–706 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ó. B. Helgason, A. Fülöp, J. Schröder, P. A. Andrekson, A. M. Weiner, and V. Torres-Company, “Superchannel engineering of microcombs for optical communications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 36, 2013–2022 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. U. Nielsen, B. Garbin, S. Coen, S. G. Murdoch, and M. Erkintalo, “Coexistence and interactions between nonlinear states with different polarizations in a monochromatically driven passive Kerr resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 013902 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Xue, X. Zheng, and B. Zhou, “Super-efficient temporal solitons in mutually coupled optical cavities,” Nat. Photonics 13, 616–622 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Karpov, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, H. Guo, W. Weng, J. Liu, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Dynamics of soliton crystals in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 15, 1071–1077 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (10)

A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “On-chip dual-comb source for spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 4, e1701858 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. C. Cole, J. R. Stone, M. Erkintalo, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, K. J. Vahala, and S. B. Papp, “Kerr-microresonator solitons from a chirped background,” Optica 5, 1304–1310 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Lucas, G. Lihachev, R. Bouchand, N. G. Pavlov, A. S. Raja, M. Karpov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Spatial multiplexing of soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 12, 699–705 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. K. Jang, A. Klenner, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Synchronization of coupled optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 12, 688–693 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361, eaan8083 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359, 887–891 (2018).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh and K. J. Vahala, “Soliton microcomb range measurement,” Science 359, 884–887 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Fülöp, M. Mazur, A. Lorences-Riesgo, Ó. B. Helgason, P.-H. Wang, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, P. A. Andrekson, A. M. Weiner, and V. Torres-Company, “High-order coherent communications using mode-locked dark-pulse Kerr combs from microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1598 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. U. Nielsen, B. Garbin, S. Coen, S. G. Murdoch, and M. Erkintalo, “Invited article: emission of intense resonant radiation by dispersion-managed Kerr cavity solitons,” APL Photon. 3, 120804 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (12)

F. Copie, M. Conforti, A. Kudlinski, S. Trillo, and A. Mussot, “Dynamics of Turing and Faraday instabilities in a longitudinally modulated fiber-ring cavity,” Opt. Lett. 42, 435–438 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, F. Leo, J. Fatome, M. Erkintalo, S. G. Murdoch, and S. Coen, “Universal mechanism for the binding of temporal cavity solitons,” Optica 4, 855–863 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Parra-Rivas, D. Gomila, and L. Gelens, “Coexistence of stable dark- and bright-soliton Kerr combs in normal-dispersion resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 053863 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. E. Lobanov, A. V. Cherenkov, A. E. Shitikov, I. A. Bilenko, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dynamics of platicons due to third-order dispersion,” Eur. Phys. J. D 71, 185 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, Y. Xuan, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Microresonator Kerr frequency combs with high conversion efficiency,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1600276 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Bessin, F. Copie, M. Conforti, A. Kudlinski, and A. Mussot, “Modulation instability in the weak normal dispersion region of passive fiber ring cavities,” Opt. Lett. 42, 3730–3733 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Obrzud, S. Lecomte, and T. Herr, “Temporal solitons in microresonators driven by optical pulses,” Nat. Photonics 11, 600–607 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. C. Cole, E. S. Lamb, P. Del’Haye, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Soliton crystals in Kerr resonators,” Nat. Photonics 11, 671–676 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, V. Brasch, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13, 94–102 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, X. Zhang, K. Y. Yang, X. Li, and K. Vahala, “Single-mode dispersive waves and soliton microcomb dynamics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14869 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Anderson, Y. Wang, F. Leo, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, and S. G. Murdoch, “Coexistence of multiple nonlinear states in a tristable passive Kerr resonator,” Phys. Rev. X 7, 031031 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

M. Anderson, F. Leo, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, and S. G. Murdoch, “Observations of spatiotemporal instabilities of temporal cavity solitons,” Optica 3, 1071–1074 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. K. Jang, M. Erkintalo, J. Schröder, B. J. Eggleton, S. G. Murdoch, and S. Coen, “All-optical buffer based on temporal cavity solitons operating at 10  Gb/s,” Opt. Lett. 41, 4526–4529 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip–based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, and K. J. Vahala, “Microresonator soliton dual-comb spectroscopy,” Science 354, 600–603 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Parra-Rivas, D. Gomila, E. Knobloch, S. Coen, and L. Gelens, “Origin and stability of dark pulse Kerr combs in normal dispersion resonators,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2402–2405 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. K. Jang, Y. Okawachi, M. Yu, K. Luke, X. Ji, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Dynamics of mode-coupling-induced microresonator frequency combs in normal dispersion,” Opt. Express 24, 28794–28803 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Copie, M. Conforti, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, and S. Trillo, “Competing Turing and Faraday instabilities in longitudinally modulated passive resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 143901 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Mode-locked ultrashort pulse generation from on-chip normal dispersion microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 053901 (2015).
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V. E. Lobanov, G. Lihachev, T. J. Kippenberg, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Frequency combs and platicons in optical microresonators with normal GVD,” Opt. Express 23, 7713–7721 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. E. Lobanov, G. Lihachev, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Generation of platicons and frequency combs in optical microresonators with normal GVD by modulated pump,” Europhys. Lett. 112, 54008 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9, 594–600 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. K. Jang, M. Erkintalo, S. Coen, and S. G. Murdoch, “Temporal tweezing of light through the trapping and manipulation of temporal cavity solitons,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7370 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. K. Jang, M. Erkintalo, S. G. Murdoch, and S. Coen, “Observation of dispersive wave emission by temporal cavity solitons,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5503–5506 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123901 (2014).
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C. Milián and D. Skryabin, “Soliton families and resonant radiation in a micro-ring resonator near zero group-velocity dispersion,” Opt. Express 22, 3732–3739 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6, 84–92 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

F. Leo, S. Coen, P. Kockaert, S.-P. Gorza, P. Emplit, and M. Haelterman, “Temporal cavity solitons in one-dimensional Kerr media as bits in an all-optical buffer,” Nat. Photonics 4, 471–476 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

2002 (2)

W. J. Firth and C. O. Weiss, “Cavity and feedback solitons,” Opt. Photon. News 13(2), 54–58 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Barland, J. R. Tredicce, M. Brambilla, L. A. Lugiato, S. Balle, M. Giudici, T. Maggipinto, L. Spinelli, G. Tissoni, T. Knödl, M. Miller, and R. Jäger, “Cavity solitons as pixels in semiconductor microcavities,” Nature 419, 699–702 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

L. Spinelli, G. Tissoni, M. Brambilla, F. Prati, and L. A. Lugiato, “Spatial solitons in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 2542–2559 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

W. J. Firth and A. J. Scroggie, “Optical bullet holes: robust controllable localized states of a nonlinear cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1623–1626 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1992 (2)

J. P. Gordon, “Dispersive perturbations of solitons of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 91–97 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. M. Kelly, “Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett. 28, 806–807 (1992).
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1983 (1)

D. W. M. Laughlin, J. V. Moloney, and A. C. Newell, “Solitary waves as fixed points of infinite-dimensional maps in an optical bistable ring cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 75–78 (1983).
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Ackemann, T.

T. Ackemann, W. Firth, and G.-L. Oppo, “Chapter 6 fundamentals and applications of spatial dissipative solitons in photonic devices,” in Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, E. Arimondo, P. R. Berman, and C. C. Lin, eds. (Academic, 2009), Vol. 57.

Akhmediev, N.

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6, 84–92 (2012).
[Crossref]

Anderson, M.

M. Anderson, Y. Wang, F. Leo, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, and S. G. Murdoch, “Coexistence of multiple nonlinear states in a tristable passive Kerr resonator,” Phys. Rev. X 7, 031031 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Anderson, F. Leo, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, and S. G. Murdoch, “Observations of spatiotemporal instabilities of temporal cavity solitons,” Optica 3, 1071–1074 (2016).
[Crossref]

Anderson, M. H.

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
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M. H. Anderson, G. Lihachev, W. Weng, J. Liu, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Zero-dispersion Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” arXiv:2007.14507 (2020).

Andrekson, P. A.

Ó. B. Helgason, A. Fülöp, J. Schröder, P. A. Andrekson, A. M. Weiner, and V. Torres-Company, “Superchannel engineering of microcombs for optical communications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 36, 2013–2022 (2019).
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A. Fülöp, M. Mazur, A. Lorences-Riesgo, Ó. B. Helgason, P.-H. Wang, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, P. A. Andrekson, A. M. Weiner, and V. Torres-Company, “High-order coherent communications using mode-locked dark-pulse Kerr combs from microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1598 (2018).
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Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Balle, S.

S. Barland, J. R. Tredicce, M. Brambilla, L. A. Lugiato, S. Balle, M. Giudici, T. Maggipinto, L. Spinelli, G. Tissoni, T. Knödl, M. Miller, and R. Jäger, “Cavity solitons as pixels in semiconductor microcavities,” Nature 419, 699–702 (2002).
[Crossref]

Barland, S.

S. Barland, J. R. Tredicce, M. Brambilla, L. A. Lugiato, S. Balle, M. Giudici, T. Maggipinto, L. Spinelli, G. Tissoni, T. Knödl, M. Miller, and R. Jäger, “Cavity solitons as pixels in semiconductor microcavities,” Nature 419, 699–702 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bessin, F.

Bi, T.

N. L. B. Sayson, T. Bi, V. Ng, H. Pham, L. S. Trainor, H. G. L. Schwefel, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, and S. G. Murdoch, “Octave-spanning tunable parametric oscillation in crystalline Kerr microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 13, 701–706 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bilenko, I. A.

V. E. Lobanov, A. V. Cherenkov, A. E. Shitikov, I. A. Bilenko, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dynamics of platicons due to third-order dispersion,” Eur. Phys. J. D 71, 185 (2017).
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Bluestone, A.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bouchand, R.

E. Lucas, G. Lihachev, R. Bouchand, N. G. Pavlov, A. S. Raja, M. Karpov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Spatial multiplexing of soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 12, 699–705 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Brambilla, M.

S. Barland, J. R. Tredicce, M. Brambilla, L. A. Lugiato, S. Balle, M. Giudici, T. Maggipinto, L. Spinelli, G. Tissoni, T. Knödl, M. Miller, and R. Jäger, “Cavity solitons as pixels in semiconductor microcavities,” Nature 419, 699–702 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. Spinelli, G. Tissoni, M. Brambilla, F. Prati, and L. A. Lugiato, “Spatial solitons in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 2542–2559 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brasch, V.

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, V. Brasch, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13, 94–102 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip–based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Briles, T. C.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bucklew, V. G.

X. Dong, Q. Yang, C. Spiess, V. G. Bucklew, and W. H. Renninger, “Stretched-pulse soliton Kerr resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 033902 (2020).
[Crossref]

C. Spiess, Q. Yang, X. Dong, V. G. Bucklew, and W. H. Renninger, “Chirped temporal solitons in driven optical resonators,” arXiv:1906.12127 [physics] (2019).

Buckley, J.

Cardenas, J.

A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “On-chip dual-comb source for spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 4, e1701858 (2018).
[Crossref]

Carmon, T.

Chang, L.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9, 594–600 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cherenkov, A. V.

V. E. Lobanov, A. V. Cherenkov, A. E. Shitikov, I. A. Bilenko, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dynamics of platicons due to third-order dispersion,” Eur. Phys. J. D 71, 185 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chong, A.

Coen, S.

N. L. B. Sayson, T. Bi, V. Ng, H. Pham, L. S. Trainor, H. G. L. Schwefel, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, and S. G. Murdoch, “Octave-spanning tunable parametric oscillation in crystalline Kerr microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 13, 701–706 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. U. Nielsen, B. Garbin, S. Coen, S. G. Murdoch, and M. Erkintalo, “Coexistence and interactions between nonlinear states with different polarizations in a monochromatically driven passive Kerr resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 013902 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. U. Nielsen, B. Garbin, S. Coen, S. G. Murdoch, and M. Erkintalo, “Invited article: emission of intense resonant radiation by dispersion-managed Kerr cavity solitons,” APL Photon. 3, 120804 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, F. Leo, J. Fatome, M. Erkintalo, S. G. Murdoch, and S. Coen, “Universal mechanism for the binding of temporal cavity solitons,” Optica 4, 855–863 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Anderson, Y. Wang, F. Leo, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, and S. G. Murdoch, “Coexistence of multiple nonlinear states in a tristable passive Kerr resonator,” Phys. Rev. X 7, 031031 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. K. Jang, M. Erkintalo, J. Schröder, B. J. Eggleton, S. G. Murdoch, and S. Coen, “All-optical buffer based on temporal cavity solitons operating at 10  Gb/s,” Opt. Lett. 41, 4526–4529 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Anderson, F. Leo, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, and S. G. Murdoch, “Observations of spatiotemporal instabilities of temporal cavity solitons,” Optica 3, 1071–1074 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Parra-Rivas, D. Gomila, E. Knobloch, S. Coen, and L. Gelens, “Origin and stability of dark pulse Kerr combs in normal dispersion resonators,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2402–2405 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. K. Jang, M. Erkintalo, S. Coen, and S. G. Murdoch, “Temporal tweezing of light through the trapping and manipulation of temporal cavity solitons,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7370 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. K. Jang, M. Erkintalo, S. G. Murdoch, and S. Coen, “Observation of dispersive wave emission by temporal cavity solitons,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5503–5506 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Leo, L. Gelens, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman, and S. Coen, “Dynamics of one-dimensional Kerr cavity solitons,” Opt. Express 21, 9180–9191 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. K. Jang, M. Erkintalo, S. G. Murdoch, and S. Coen, “Ultraweak long-range interactions of solitons observed over astronomical distances,” Nat. Photonics 7, 657–663 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Coen, H. G. Randle, T. Sylvestre, and M. Erkintalo, “Modeling of octave-spanning Kerr frequency combs using a generalized mean-field Lugiato–Lefever model,” Opt. Lett. 38, 37–39 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Leo, S. Coen, P. Kockaert, S.-P. Gorza, P. Emplit, and M. Haelterman, “Temporal cavity solitons in one-dimensional Kerr media as bits in an all-optical buffer,” Nat. Photonics 4, 471–476 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cole, D. C.

D. C. Cole, J. R. Stone, M. Erkintalo, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, K. J. Vahala, and S. B. Papp, “Kerr-microresonator solitons from a chirped background,” Optica 5, 1304–1310 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. C. Cole, E. S. Lamb, P. Del’Haye, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Soliton crystals in Kerr resonators,” Nat. Photonics 11, 671–676 (2017).
[Crossref]

Conforti, M.

Copie, F.

Del’Haye, P.

D. C. Cole, E. S. Lamb, P. Del’Haye, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Soliton crystals in Kerr resonators,” Nat. Photonics 11, 671–676 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. C. Cole, E. S. Lamb, P. Del’Haye, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Soliton crystals in Kerr resonators,” Nat. Photonics 11, 671–676 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dong, X.

X. Dong, Q. Yang, C. Spiess, V. G. Bucklew, and W. H. Renninger, “Stretched-pulse soliton Kerr resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 033902 (2020).
[Crossref]

C. Spiess, Q. Yang, X. Dong, V. G. Bucklew, and W. H. Renninger, “Chirped temporal solitons in driven optical resonators,” arXiv:1906.12127 [physics] (2019).

Drake, T.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dutt, A.

A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “On-chip dual-comb source for spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 4, e1701858 (2018).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

Emplit, P.

F. Leo, L. Gelens, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman, and S. Coen, “Dynamics of one-dimensional Kerr cavity solitons,” Opt. Express 21, 9180–9191 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Leo, S. Coen, P. Kockaert, S.-P. Gorza, P. Emplit, and M. Haelterman, “Temporal cavity solitons in one-dimensional Kerr media as bits in an all-optical buffer,” Nat. Photonics 4, 471–476 (2010).
[Crossref]

Erkintalo, M.

A. U. Nielsen, B. Garbin, S. Coen, S. G. Murdoch, and M. Erkintalo, “Coexistence and interactions between nonlinear states with different polarizations in a monochromatically driven passive Kerr resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 013902 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. L. B. Sayson, T. Bi, V. Ng, H. Pham, L. S. Trainor, H. G. L. Schwefel, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, and S. G. Murdoch, “Octave-spanning tunable parametric oscillation in crystalline Kerr microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 13, 701–706 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. U. Nielsen, B. Garbin, S. Coen, S. G. Murdoch, and M. Erkintalo, “Invited article: emission of intense resonant radiation by dispersion-managed Kerr cavity solitons,” APL Photon. 3, 120804 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. C. Cole, J. R. Stone, M. Erkintalo, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, K. J. Vahala, and S. B. Papp, “Kerr-microresonator solitons from a chirped background,” Optica 5, 1304–1310 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Anderson, Y. Wang, F. Leo, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, and S. G. Murdoch, “Coexistence of multiple nonlinear states in a tristable passive Kerr resonator,” Phys. Rev. X 7, 031031 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, F. Leo, J. Fatome, M. Erkintalo, S. G. Murdoch, and S. Coen, “Universal mechanism for the binding of temporal cavity solitons,” Optica 4, 855–863 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. K. Jang, M. Erkintalo, J. Schröder, B. J. Eggleton, S. G. Murdoch, and S. Coen, “All-optical buffer based on temporal cavity solitons operating at 10  Gb/s,” Opt. Lett. 41, 4526–4529 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Anderson, F. Leo, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, and S. G. Murdoch, “Observations of spatiotemporal instabilities of temporal cavity solitons,” Optica 3, 1071–1074 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. K. Jang, M. Erkintalo, S. Coen, and S. G. Murdoch, “Temporal tweezing of light through the trapping and manipulation of temporal cavity solitons,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7370 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. K. Jang, M. Erkintalo, S. G. Murdoch, and S. Coen, “Observation of dispersive wave emission by temporal cavity solitons,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5503–5506 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. K. Jang, M. Erkintalo, S. G. Murdoch, and S. Coen, “Ultraweak long-range interactions of solitons observed over astronomical distances,” Nat. Photonics 7, 657–663 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Coen, H. G. Randle, T. Sylvestre, and M. Erkintalo, “Modeling of octave-spanning Kerr frequency combs using a generalized mean-field Lugiato–Lefever model,” Opt. Lett. 38, 37–39 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fatome, J.

Firth, W.

T. Ackemann, W. Firth, and G.-L. Oppo, “Chapter 6 fundamentals and applications of spatial dissipative solitons in photonic devices,” in Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, E. Arimondo, P. R. Berman, and C. C. Lin, eds. (Academic, 2009), Vol. 57.

Firth, W. J.

W. J. Firth and C. O. Weiss, “Cavity and feedback solitons,” Opt. Photon. News 13(2), 54–58 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. J. Firth and A. J. Scroggie, “Optical bullet holes: robust controllable localized states of a nonlinear cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1623–1626 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fredrick, C.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Freude, W.

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic illustration of the experimental setup. A passive fiber ring resonator made out of a 26-m-long segment of dispersion-shifted fiber (DSF, orange shaded region) with a zero-dispersion wavelength of 1565.4 nm (see inset) is driven with nanosecond pulses carved from an external-cavity diode laser (ECDL). The pump repetition rate is actively locked to the intracavity soliton repetition rate by a computer-based measurement and feedback system (green shaded region). The detuning between the ECDL frequency and a linear cavity resonance is actively stabilized using the Pound–Drever–Hall (PDH) technique (magenta shaded region); a digital laser locking module (Toptica Digilock) simultaneously provides the PDH modulation signal, demodulates the photodetector signal measured at the cavity output, and acts as the proportional-integral-derivative controller for the driving laser. AM, amplitude modulator; PPG, pulse-pattern generator; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; BPF, bandpass filter; circ., circulator; PC, polarization controller; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; PM, phase modulator; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; osc., oscilloscope.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Observations of different bright structures with normal dispersion driving at 1563 nm. (a)–(d) The left panels show experimentally measured (blue solid curves) and numerically simulated (orange solid curves) optical spectra, while the right panels show corresponding temporal profiles extracted from numerical simulations. Dashed red vertical lines highlight the theoretically predicted dispersive wave wavelengths (see Appendix B), while dashed black vertical lines highlight the ZDW of 1565.4 nm. All results obtained for the same system parameters, including pump peak power (6.7 W) and linear cavity detuning (${\delta _0} = 1.05\;{\rm rad} $).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Signatures of collapsed snaking: (a) 704 optical spectra measured at different detunings for a three-peak soliton, concatenated vertically to form a single pseudo-color plot. (b) Experimentally measured bifurcation curve for the different bright structures considered in Fig. 2. (c) Corresponding theoretical bifurcation curve. Numbers next to the curves correspond to the number of peaks the different structures possess in their temporal profile.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimental observation of a single-peak CS with normal dispersion driving. (a) Experimentally measured (solid blue curve) and theoretically predicted (solid orange curve) spectra for a driving wavelength and peak power of 1563 nm and 6.7 W, respectively. Black dashed line indicates the zero-dispersion wavelength of 1565.4 nm, while red dashed lines indicate the theoretically predicted dispersive wave positions, with $\Delta\textit{f}$ the corresponding frequency shift from the pump frequency ${f_{\rm p}}$. Inset shows a zoom around the weak dispersive wave at 1578 nm. (b) Simulated temporal profile corresponding to the theoretical spectrum shown in (a). All parameters as in Fig. 3 except for the linear cavity detuning, which was set to ${\delta _0} = 0.8\;{\rm rad} $.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Experimental results, showing how the single-peak soliton spectrum changes as the driving wavelength is tuned across the ZDW. The different curves show spectra measured for driving wavelengths ranging from 1563 nm (top) to 1568 nm (bottom) in 0.5 nm intervals. The dashed black line indicates the ZDW of 1565.4 nm, while the red diamonds indicate the positions of the theoretically predicted (short-wavelength) dispersive waves. All measurements use a driving pulse peak power of 15 W and a linear cavity detuning ${\delta _0} = 1.5\;{\rm rad} $. (b) Blue solid curve shows an experimentally measured intensity autocorrelation (AC) trace for a single-peak soliton when driving in the normal dispersion regime at 1563 nm, while the red dashed curve shows the calculated autocorrelation of a CS predicted by theory.

Equations (4)

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β 2 = β 3 , Z D W Ω + β 4 , Z D W 2 Ω 2 , β 3 = β 3 , Z D W + β 4 , Z D W Ω , β 4 = β 4 , Z D W ,
d 3 = 2 π L F ( β 3 ( 3 | β 2 | ) 3 / 2 ) ,
π F + i β 3 L 3 ! Q 3 i V Q ± i ( 2 γ LP 0 δ 0 + β 2 L 2 ! Q 2 + β 4 L 4 ! Q 4 ) 2 ( γ LP 0 ) 2 = 0.
β 4 L 4 ! Q 4 + β 3 L 3 ! Q 3 + β 2 L 2 ! Q 2 VQ + [ ( 2 γ LP 0 δ 0 ) + i π F ] = 0.