Abstract

Electromagnetic coupling is ubiquitous in photonic systems and transfers optical signals from one device to the other, creating crosstalk between devices. While this allows the functionality of some photonic components such as couplers, it limits the integration density of photonic chips, and many approaches have been proposed to reduce the crosstalk. However, due to the wave nature of light, complete elimination of crosstalk between closely spaced, identical waveguides is believed to be impossible and has not been observed experimentally. Here we show an exceptional coupling that can completely suppresses the crosstalk utilizing highly anisotropic photonic metamaterials. The anisotropic dielectric perturbations in the metamaterial mutually cancel the couplings from different field components, resulting in an infinitely long coupling length. We demonstrate the extreme suppression of crosstalk via exceptional coupling on a silicon-on-insulator platform, which is compatible with a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process. The idea of exceptional coupling with anisotropic metamaterials can be applied to many other electromagnetic devices, and it could drastically increase the integration density of photonic chips.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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Corrections

29 July 2020: A typographical correction was made to paragraph 2 of page 885.

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2020 (1)

2019 (3)

Z. Wang, T. Li, A. Soman, D. Mao, T. Kananen, and T. Gu, “On-chip wavefront shaping with dielectric metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 10, 3547 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Gatdula, S. Abbaslou, M. Lu, A. Stein, and W. Jiang, “Guiding light in bent waveguide superlattices with low crosstalk,” Optica 6, 585–591 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. A. Miri and A. Alu, “Exceptional points in optics and photonics,” Science 363, eaar7709 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (8)

V. Stojanović, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, M. Wade, C. Sun, L. Alloatti, A. Atabaki, F. Pavanello, N. Mehta, and P. Bhargava, “Monolithic silicon-photonic platforms in state-of-the-art CMOS SOI processes,” Opt. Express 26, 13106–13121 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Jahani, S. Kim, J. Atkinson, J. C. Wirth, F. Kalhor, A. A. Noman, W. D. Newman, P. Shekhar, K. Han, V. Van, R. G. DeCorby, L. Chrostowski, M. Qi, and Z. Jacob, “Controlling evanescent waves using silicon photonic all-dielectric metamaterials for dense integration,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1893 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560, 565–572 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, D. A. Westly, B. J. Roxworthy, Q. Li, A. Yulaev, K. Srinivasan, and V. A. Aksyuk, “Photonic waveguide to free-space Gaussian beam extreme mode converter,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 72 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. T. Hummon, S. Kang, D. G. Bopp, Q. Li, D. A. Westly, S. Kim, C. Fredrick, S. A. Diddams, K. Srinivasan, V. Aksyuk, and J. E. Kitching, “Photonic chip for laser stabilization to an atomic vapor with 10-11 instability,” Optica 5, 443–449 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Spencer, T. Drake, T. Briles, J. Stone, L. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “On-chip dual-comb source for spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 4, e1701858 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. A. Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556, 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, K. Han, C. Wang, J. A. Jaramillo-Villegas, X. Xue, C. Bao, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Dispersion engineering and frequency comb generation in thin silicon nitride concentric microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 8, 372 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. M. Luque-González, J. D. Sarmiento-Merenguel, J. H. Schmid, G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D.-X. Xu, S. Wang, A. Ortega-Moñux, and Í. Molina-Fernández, “Ultra-broadband nanophotonic beamsplitter using an anisotropic sub-wavelength metamaterial,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 1039–1046 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Shen, R. Polson, and R. Menon, “Increasing the density of passive photonic-integrated circuits via nanophotonic cloaking,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13126 (2016).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, and K. J. Vahala, “Microresonator soliton dual-comb spectroscopy,” Science 354, 600–603 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. K. Mehta, C. D. Bruzewicz, R. McConnell, R. J. Ram, J. M. Sage, and J. Chiaverini, “Integrated optical addressing of an ion qubit,” Nat. Nanotech. 11, 1066–1070 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, M. Davanço, and K. Srinivasan, “Efficient and low-noise single-photon-level frequency conversion interfaces using silicon nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 10, 406–414 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

B. Shen, R. Polson, and R. Menon, “Metamaterial-waveguide bends with effective bend radius λ0/2,” Opt. Lett. 40, 5750–5753 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Kim and M. Qi, “Mode-evolution-based polarization rotation and coupling between silicon and hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18378 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, J. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Kim and M. Qi, “Polarization rotation and coupling between silicon waveguide and hybrid plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 23, 9968–9978 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Song, R. Gatdula, S. Abbaslou, M. Lu, A. Stein, W. Y. Lai, J. Provine, R. F. W. Pease, D. N. Christodoulides, and W. Jiang, “High-density waveguide superlattices with low crosstalk,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7027 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, “Transparent subdiffraction optics: nanoscale light confinement without metal,” Optica 1, 96–100 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8, 369–374 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493, 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Lin and K. B. Crozier, “Trapping-assisted sensing of particles and proteins using on-chip optical microcavities,” ACS Nano 7, 1725–1730 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

J. S. Orcutt, A. Khilo, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popović, H. Li, J. Sun, T. Bonifield, R. Hollingsworth, F. X. Kärtner, H. I. Smith, V. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Nanophotonic integration in state-of-the-art CMOS foundries,” Opt. Express 19, 2335–2346 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Fan and I. M. White, “Optofluidic microsystems for chemical and biological analysis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 591–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. Genov, D. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2, 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

Abbaslou, S.

R. Gatdula, S. Abbaslou, M. Lu, A. Stein, and W. Jiang, “Guiding light in bent waveguide superlattices with low crosstalk,” Optica 6, 585–591 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Song, R. Gatdula, S. Abbaslou, M. Lu, A. Stein, W. Y. Lai, J. Provine, R. F. W. Pease, D. N. Christodoulides, and W. Jiang, “High-density waveguide superlattices with low crosstalk,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aksyuk, V.

Aksyuk, V. A.

S. Kim, D. A. Westly, B. J. Roxworthy, Q. Li, A. Yulaev, K. Srinivasan, and V. A. Aksyuk, “Photonic waveguide to free-space Gaussian beam extreme mode converter,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 72 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. A. Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556, 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Stojanović, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, M. Wade, C. Sun, L. Alloatti, A. Atabaki, F. Pavanello, N. Mehta, and P. Bhargava, “Monolithic silicon-photonic platforms in state-of-the-art CMOS SOI processes,” Opt. Express 26, 13106–13121 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alu, A.

M. A. Miri and A. Alu, “Exceptional points in optics and photonics,” Science 363, eaar7709 (2019).
[Crossref]

Anderson, M. H.

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

Atabaki, A.

Atabaki, A. H.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. A. Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556, 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref]

Atkinson, J.

S. Jahani, S. Kim, J. Atkinson, J. C. Wirth, F. Kalhor, A. A. Noman, W. D. Newman, P. Shekhar, K. Han, V. Van, R. G. DeCorby, L. Chrostowski, M. Qi, and Z. Jacob, “Controlling evanescent waves using silicon photonic all-dielectric metamaterials for dense integration,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1893 (2018).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560, 565–572 (2018).
[Crossref]

Baeuerle, B.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, J. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baiocco, C. V.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. A. Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556, 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bao, C.

S. Kim, K. Han, C. Wang, J. A. Jaramillo-Villegas, X. Xue, C. Bao, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Dispersion engineering and frequency comb generation in thin silicon nitride concentric microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 8, 372 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bhargava, P.

Bluestone, A.

D. Spencer, T. Drake, T. Briles, J. Stone, L. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bonifield, T.

Bopp, D. G.

Bowers, J. E.

D. Spencer, T. Drake, T. Briles, J. Stone, L. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Brasch, V.

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

Briles, T.

D. Spencer, T. Drake, T. Briles, J. Stone, L. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. On-chip coupled waveguide configurations and exceptional coupling in coupled extreme skin-depth (e-skid) waveguides. (a)–(c) Schematic cross sections, geometric parameters, and mode profiles of the coupled silicon waveguides: (a) strip, (b) practical e-skid with subwavelength multilayers, and (c) ideal e-skid with effective medium theory (EMT). (d)–(f) Numerically simulated effective indices of the symmetric ${n_{\rm s}}$ (yellow solid) and anti-symmetric ${n_{\rm a}}$ (blue dashed) modes, and (g)–(i) their corresponding normalized coupling lengths ${L_{\rm c}}/{\lambda _0} = 1/(2|{n_{\rm s}} - {n_{\rm a}}|)$ (blue dots): (d) and (g) strip, (e) and (h) e-skid with multilayers, and (f) and (i) e-skid with EMT. All the simulations are performed as a function of the core width $w$, while fixing the other parameters as $h = 220\;{\rm nm} $, $\Lambda = 100\;{\rm nm} $, $\rho = 0.5$, and $N = 5$. The free space wavelength is ${\lambda _0} = 1550\;{\rm nm} $. The inset boxes of (d)–(f) show the zoomed-in view of each mode. The red-shaded areas in e-skid couplings show the non-trivial coupling regimes, where ${n_{\rm s}} \lt {n_{\rm a}}$, which cannot be observed in a typical strip coupling. The red arrows in e-skid couplings indicate the exceptional coupling points, where ${n_{\rm s}} \approx {n_{\rm a}}$, thus causing the ${L_{\rm c}} \to \infty$.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Anisotropic coupled mode analysis on the exceptional coupling in coupled e-skid waveguides. (a)–(c) Normalized anisotropic coupling coefficients ${\kappa _x}$ (blue dashed), ${\kappa _y}$ (orange dashed), and ${\kappa _z}$ (yellow dashed) of the coupled (a) strip, (b) e-skid with multilayer, and (c) e-skid with EMT waveguides. Geometric parameters and the wavelength are the same as in Figs. 1. (d)–(f) Magnitude of the total coupling coefficient $|\kappa | = |{\kappa _x} + {\kappa _y} + {\kappa _z}|$ (orange solid), and (g)–(i) their corresponding normalized coupling lengths ${L_{\rm c}}/{\lambda _0} = \pi /(2|\kappa |{\lambda _0})$ (blue dots) for each configuration: (d) and (g) strip, (e) and (h) e-skid with multilayer, and (f) and (i) e-skid with EMT. The normalized coupling lengths in (g)–(i), which are obtained with anisotropic coupled mode analysis, match with those results in Figs. 1(g)1(i) from the full numerical simulations. The red-shaded areas in e-skid couplings show the non-trivial coupling regimes where $\kappa \lt 0$, which cannot be observed in typical strip waveguide coupling. The red arrows in e-skid couplings indicate the exceptional coupling points where $|\kappa | \approx 0$, thus causing the ${L_{\rm c}} \to \infty$. As shown in (b) and (c), the anisotropic nature of e-skid waveguides can cause a larger ${\kappa _z}$, which results in the non-trivial coupling regime ($\kappa \lt 0$) and the exceptional coupling ($\kappa \approx 0$) at the transition.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental demonstration of the exceptional coupling in coupled e-skid waveguides. Schematic view of the coupled (a) e-skid (multilayer) and (b) strip waveguides. ${I_0},{I_1}$, and ${I_2}$ indicate the optical powers at input, through, and coupled ports, respectively. (c) SEM images of the fabricated devices. Zoomed-in images show (left) the coupled e-skid waveguides and (right) the adiabatic transition from strip to e-skid waveguides. (d) Experimentally measured waveguide crosstalk and (e) the corresponding normalized coupling length of the coupled e-skid (solid) and strip (dashed) waveguides: $w = 420\;{\rm nm} $ (blue), 430 nm (orange), 440 nm (yellow), and 450 nm (purple). Numerically simulated (f) crosstalk and (g) normalized coupling length that correspond to the experimental results in (d) and (e), respectively. Geometric parameters are $h = 220\;{\rm nm} $, $\rho = 0.5$, $\Lambda = 100\;{\rm nm} $, $N = 5$, and $L = 100\,\,\unicode{x00B5}$m. Map plots of the measured crosstalk as functions of $\lambda$ and $w$ for the coupled (h) e-skid and (j) strip waveguides; (i) and (k) are their corresponding simulation results, respectively. Dark regions in (h) and (i) indicate the exceptional couplings in coupled e-skid waveguides.

Equations (6)

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ε = ρ ε S i + ( 1 ρ ) ε a i r ,
ε = ε S i ε a i r ρ ε a i r + ( 1 ρ ) ε S i ,
L c λ 0 = 1 2 Δ n = 1 2 | n s n a | ,
κ i = ω ε 0 4 Δ ε i ( x , y ) E 1 i ( x , y ) E 2 i ( x , y ) d x d y ,
L c = π 2 | κ | .
I 2 I 1 = tan 2 ( π L 2 L c ) ,