Abstract

Single photons coupled to atomic systems have shown to be a promising platform for developing quantum technologies. Yet a bright on-demand, highly pure, and highly indistinguishable single-photon source compatible with atomic platforms is lacking. In this work, we demonstrate such a source based on a strongly interacting Rydberg system. The large optical nonlinearities in a blockaded Rydberg ensemble convert coherent light into a single collective excitation that can be coherently retrieved as a quantum field. We simultaneously observe a fully single-mode (spectral, temporal, spatial, and polarization) efficiency up to 0.098(2), a detector-background-subtracted ${g^{(2)}} = 5.0(1.6) \times {10^{- 4}}$, and indistinguishability of 0.980(7), at an average photon production rate of $1.18(2) \times {10^4} \;{{\rm s}^{- 1}}$. All of these make this system promising for scalable quantum information applications. Furthermore, we investigate the effects of contaminant Rydberg excitations on the source efficiency and observed single-mode efficiencies up to 0.18(2) for lower photon rates. Finally, recognizing that many quantum information protocols require a single photon in a fully single mode, we introduce metrics that take into account all degrees of freedom to benchmark the performance of on-demand sources.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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Corrections

15 July 2020: A correction was made to the acknowledgment section.

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2019 (7)

L. W. Clark, N. Jia, N. Schine, C. Baum, A. Georgakopoulos, and J. Simon, “Interacting Floquet polaritons,” Nature 571, 532–536 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Kaneda and P. G. Kwiat, “High-efficiency single-photon generation via large-scale active time multiplexing,” Sci. Adv. 5, eaaw8586 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, Y.-M. He, T.-H. Chung, H. Hu, Y. Yu, S. Chen, X. Ding, M.-C. Chen, J. Qin, X. Yang, R.-Z. Liu, Z.-C. Duan, J.-P. Li, S. Gerhardt, K. Winkler, J. Jurkat, L.-J. Wang, N. Gregersen, Y.-H. Huo, Q. Dai, S. Yu, S. Höfling, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Towards optimal single-photon sources from polarized microcavities,” Nat. Photonics 13, 770–775 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, J. Qin, X. Ding, M.-C. Chen, S. Chen, X. You, Y.-M. He, X. Jiang, L. You, Z. Wang, C. Schneider, J. J. Renema, S. Höfling, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Boson sampling with 20 input photons and a 60-mode interferometer in a 1014-dimensional Hilbert space,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 250503 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, J. Li, S. Zhang, K. Su, Y. Zhou, K. Liao, S. Du, H. Yan, and S.-L. Zhu, “Efficient quantum memory for single-photon polarization qubits,” Nat. Photonics 13, 346–351 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Tiarks, S. Schmidt-Eberle, T. Stolz, G. Rempe, and S. Dürr, “A photon–photon quantum gate based on Rydberg interactions,” Nat. Phys. 15, 124–126 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. N. Craddock, J. Hannegan, D. P. Ornelas-Huerta, J. D. Siverns, A. J. Hachtel, E. A. Goldschmidt, J. V. Porto, Q. Quraishi, and S. L. Rolston, “Quantum interference between photons from an atomic ensemble and a remote atomic ion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 213601 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (7)

H. Levine, A. Keesling, A. Omran, H. Bernien, S. Schwartz, A. S. Zibrov, M. Endres, M. Greiner, V. Vuletić, and M. D. Lukin, “High-fidelity control and entanglement of Rydberg-atom qubits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 123603 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Lienhard, S. de Léséleuc, D. Barredo, T. Lahaye, A. Browaeys, M. Schuler, L.-P. Henry, and A. M. Läuchli, “Observing the space- and time-dependent growth of correlations in dynamically tuned synthetic Ising models with antiferromagnetic interactions,” Phys. Rev. X 8, 021070 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, Y. Park, K. Kim, H.-S. Sim, and J. Ahn, “Detailed balance of thermalization dynamics in Rydberg-atom quantum simulators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 180502 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Bock, P. Eich, S. Kucera, M. Kreis, A. Lenhard, C. Becher, and J. Eschner, “High-fidelity entanglement between a trapped ion and a telecom photon via quantum frequency conversion,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1998 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Ripka, H. Kübler, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, “A room-temperature single-photon source based on strongly interacting Rydberg atoms,” Science 362, 446–449 (2018).
[Crossref]

H.-S. Zhong, Y. Li, W. Li, L.-C. Peng, Z.-E. Su, Y. Hu, Y.-M. He, X. Ding, W. Zhang, H. Li, L. Zhang, Z. Wang, L. You, X.-L. Wang, X. Jiang, L. Li, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “12-photon entanglement and scalable scattershot boson sampling with optimal entangled-photon pairs from parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 250505 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. T. Young, T. Boulier, E. Magnan, E. A. Goldschmidt, R. M. Wilson, S. L. Rolston, J. V. Porto, and A. V. Gorshkov, “Dissipation-induced dipole blockade and antiblockade in driven Rydberg systems,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 023424 (2018).
[Crossref]

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D. P. Sadler, E. M. Bridge, D. Boddy, A. D. Bounds, N. C. Keegan, G. Lochead, M. P. A. Jones, and B. Olmos, “Radiation trapping in a dense cold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 013839 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Boulier, E. Magnan, C. Bracamontes, J. Maslek, E. A. Goldschmidt, J. T. Young, A. V. Gorshkov, S. L. Rolston, and J. V. Porto, “Spontaneous avalanche dephasing in large Rydberg ensembles,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 053409 (2017).
[Crossref]

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N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Antón, J. Demory, C. Gómez, I. Sagnes, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Lemaítre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near-optimal single-photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 340–345 (2016).
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2015 (2)

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349, 711–716 (2015).
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K. M. Maller, M. T. Lichtman, T. Xia, Y. Sun, M. J. Piotrowicz, A. W. Carr, L. Isenhower, and M. Saffman, “Rydberg-blockade controlled-not gate and entanglement in a two-dimensional array of neutral-atom qubits,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 022336 (2015).
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2014 (2)

H. Gorniaczyk, C. Tresp, J. Schmidt, H. Fedder, and S. Hofferberth, “Single-photon transistor mediated by interstate Rydberg interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 053601 (2014).
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2013 (2)

D. Maxwell, D. J. Szwer, D. Paredes-Barato, H. Busche, J. D. Pritchard, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, M. P. A. Jones, and C. S. Adams, “Storage and control of optical photons using Rydberg polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 103001 (2013).
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2012 (5)

Y. O. Dudin and A. Kuzmich, “Strongly interacting Rydberg excitations of a cold atomic gas,” Science 336, 887–889 (2012).
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P. Schauß, M. Cheneau, M. Endres, T. Fukuhara, S. Hild, A. Omran, T. Pohl, C. Gross, S. Kuhr, and I. Bloch, “Observation of spatially ordered structures in a two-dimensional Rydberg gas,” Nature 491, 87–91 (2012).
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Y. Dudin, L. Li, F. Bariani, and A. Kuzmich, “Observation of coherent many-body Rabi oscillations,” Nat. Phys. 8, 790–794 (2012).
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2011 (3)

P. B. R. Nisbet-Jones, J. Dilley, D. Ljunggren, and A. Kuhn, “Highly efficient source for indistinguishable single photons of controlled shape,” New J. Phys. 13, 103036 (2011).
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2007 (4)

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2006 (1)

J. K. Thompson, J. Simon, H. Loh, and V. Vuletić, “A high-brightness source of narrowband, identical-photon pairs,” Science 313, 74–77 (2006).
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2002 (1)

M. Saffman and T. G. Walker, “Creating single-atom and single-photon sources from entangled atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 065403 (2002).
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2001 (1)

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Relevant atomic levels and setup for single-photon generation. During the spin-wave writing stage, we set the single-photon detuning ${\Delta _p}/(2\pi) \approx 50\;{\rm MHz} $ and the two-photon detuning $\delta = {\Delta _p} + {\Delta _c}$ to Raman resonance, $\delta /(2\pi) \approx - 2\;{\rm MHz} $. For retrieval, ${\Delta _c}/(2\pi) \approx 7\;{\rm MHz} $. (b) Experimental setup schematic. There is a polarization beamsplitter (PBS) to project the photons into a single-polarization mode, followed by an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) that shutters the incoming photons during the write pulse. All of the light is directed to the polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF) to realize a purity measurement. For the indistinguishability characterization, we split the light such that the rate is roughly the same at both ports of the second beamsplitter (BS). By rotating the half-wave plate ($\lambda /2$), we can control the relative polarization of the photons coming from the PMF port and the long-delay port. After each port of the final 50:50 BS, the photons are coupled to a single-mode fiber (not shown) connected to a SPAD. (c) Photon temporal envelope. Gray dashed lines indicate the gate window containing more than 99.9% of the pulse. (d) Timing sequence for the generation of successive single photons, the writing $\pi$ pulse lasts for ${t_w} \approx 370\;{\rm ns} $. We use a minimum storage time ${t_s} \approx 350\;{\rm ns} $ to maximize the retrieval and vary ${t_r}$ to change the repetition rate $R = 1/{t_p}$.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Measured coincidences for purity and characterization. (a) Normalized coincidences for ${g^{(2)}}(\tau)$ with 5 µs cycle. (b) Normalized coincidences for ${g^{(2)}}(\tau)$ around $\tau = 0$, gray line represents the background coincidences with 20 ns bins. The shape of this profile arises from the convolution of the photon pulse shape with a constant background within the gate window, and the pedestal asymmetry is because the background rate is not the same for each channel. All ${\sim}2.4 \times {10^9}$ pulse cycles for the data shown were taken with 60% duty cycle.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Measured coincidences for indistinguishability characterization. (a) Normalized coincidences for HOM characterization with 4.92 µs cycle. Indistinguishable polarization states are represented in blue, and distinguishable polarization states are in red. (b) Normalized coincidences for HOM around $\tau = 0$, the gray line represents the background coincidences with 52 ns bins. All ${\sim}3 \times {10^8}$ pulse cycles for the data shown were taken with 60% duty cycle.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Effect of contaminants on single-photon generation. (a) Photon generation probability as a function of pulse period ${t_p}$. Dark blue line is fitted using Eq. (1) in the steady state for $n \to \infty$ using the values for ${P_c}$ and ${\tau _c}$ in the main text, and we obtain ${P_{\max}} = 0.35(2)$. Red band shows the generation probability predicted by the theoretical model. (b) Normalized summed counts per pulse for a pulse train with 2.5 µs pulse period. Dark-blue line is fitted with Eq. (1). (c) ${P_c}$ versus peak atomic density ${\rho _0}$ with a fixed storage ${t_s} = 350\;{\rm ns} $. (d) ${P_c}$ versus time ${t_s}$ with a density of $\,\approx\! 4 \times {10^{11}} \;{{\rm cm}^{- 3}}$.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Performance of a sample from different single-photon sources. Solid-state systems considered are spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) [46,47], multiplexed-heralded-single-photon source (MUX-HSPS) [48,49], and quantum dots (QD) [5055]. Atomic systems considered are single atoms in free space [56,57], atoms in cavities [5861], and this work. The range indicated by the purple shaded area is based on measured efficiencies $P$, with different pulse periods ${t_p}$, assuming ${g^{(2)}}$ and ${\cal V}$ remain unchanged with ${t_p}$. (a) Fidelity ${\cal F}$ versus fully single-mode single-photon efficiency $P_1^{{\rm sm}}$. (b) Single-mode single-photon rate ${\cal R}$ versus fully single-mode single-photon efficiency $P_1^{{\rm sm}}$. (For details on these sources, see tables in Supplement 1.)

Equations (6)

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P n = P c 1 ( e t p / τ c P c ) n 1 e t p / τ c + P c .
P = 1 P 0 η d e t P 1 s m + P 1 + ( 2 η d e t ) P 2 ,
V = P 1 s m P 1 s m + P 1 ,
g ( 2 ) 2 P 2 ( P 1 s m + P 1 ) 2 .
P 1 s m = P V [ 1 P g ( 2 ) 2 ( 2 η d e t ) ( 1 P g ( 2 ) ( 2 η d e t ) ) ] .
F = 1 P 1 + P 2 P = P 1 s m P .