Abstract

Photodetectors are cornerstone components in integrated optical circuits and are essential for applications underlying modern science and engineering. Structures harnessing conventional crystalline materials are typically at the heart of such devices. In particular, group-IV semiconductors such as silicon and germanium open up more possibilities for high-performing on-chip photodetection thanks to their favorable electrical and optical properties at near-infrared wavelengths and processing compatibility with modern chip manufacturing. However, scaling the performance of silicon-germanium photodetectors to technologically relevant levels and benefiting from improved speed, reduced driving bias, enhanced sensitivity, and lowered power consumption arguably remains key for densely integrated photonic links in mainstream shortwave infrared optical communications. Here we report on a reliable 40 Gbps direct detection of chip-integrated silicon-germanium avalanche p-i-n photo receiver driven with low-bias supplies at 1.55 µm wavelength. The avalanche photodetection scheme calls upon fabrication steps commonly used in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor foundries, alleviating the need for complex epitaxial wafer structures and/or multiple ion implantation schemes. The photo receiver exhibits an internal multiplication gain of 120, a high gain-bandwidth product up to 210 GHz, and a low effective ionization coefficient of ${\sim}{0.25}$. Robust and stable photodetection at 40 Gbps of on–off keying modulation is achieved at low optical input powers, without any need for receiver electronic stages. Simultaneously, compact avalanche p-i-n photodetectors with submicrometric heterostructures promote error-free operation at transmission bit rates of 32 Gbps and 40 Gbps, with power sensitivities of ${-}{12.8}\;{\rm dBm}$ and ${-}{11.2}\;{\rm dBm}$, respectively (for ${{10}^{- 9}}$ error rate and without error correction coding during use). Such a performance in an on-chip avalanche photodetector is a significant step toward large-scale integrated optoelectronic systems. These achievements are promising for use in data center networks, optical interconnects, or quantum information technologies.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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Corrections

15 September 2020: A typographical correction was made to Ref. [36].

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2020 (1)

D. Benedikovic, L. Virot, G. Aubin, J.-M. Hartmann, F. Amar, B. Szelag, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, F. Boeuf, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Kopp, and L. Vivien, “Comprehensive study on chip-integrated germanium pin photodetectors for energy-efficient silicon interconnects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 56, 1–9 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (9)

A. Rahim, J. Goyvaerts, B. Szelag, J.-M. Fedeli, P. Absil, T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, C. Littlejohns, G. Reed, G. Winzer, S. Lischke, L. Zimmermann, D. Knoll, D. Geuzebroek, A. Leinse, M. Geiselmann, M. Zervas, H. Jans, A. Stassen, C. Dominguez, P. Munoz, D. Domenech, A. L. Giesecke, M. C. Lemme, and R. Baets, “Open-access silicon photonics platforms in Europe,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 1–18 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Van der Walls integration before and beyond two-dimensional materials,” Nature 567, 323–333 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Yuan, D. Jung, K. Sun, J. Zheng, A. H. Jones, J. E. Bowers, and J. C. Campbell, “III-V on silicon avalanche photodiodes by heteroexpitaxy,” Opt. Lett. 44, 3538–3541 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Tossoun, G. Kerczveil, C. Zhang, A. Descos, Z. Huang, A. Beling, J. C. Campbell, D. Liang, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Indium arsenide quantum dot waveguide photodiodes heterogeneously integarted on silicon,” Optica 6, 1277–1281 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Nada, T. Yoshimatsu, F. Nakajima, K. Sano, and H. Matsuzaki, “A 42-GHz bandwidth avalanche photodiodes based on III–V compounds for 106-Gbit/s PAM4 applications,” J. Lightwave Technol 37, 260–265 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Filer, J. Gaudette, Y. Yin, D. Billor, Z. Bakhtiari, and J. L. Cox, “Low-margin optical networking at cloud scale,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 11, C94–C105 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Benedikovic, L. Virot, G. Aubin, F. Amar, B. Szelag, B. Karakus, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Alonso-Ramos, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, F. Boeuf, J.-M. Fédéli, C. Kopp, and L. Vivien, “25  Gbps low-voltage hetero-structured silicon-germanium waveguide pin photodetectors for monolithic on-chip nanophotonic architectures,” Photon. Res. 7, 437–444 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, Z. Huang, X. Zeng, W. V. Sorin, D. Liang, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A compact model for Si–Ge avalanche photodiodes over a wide range of multiplication gain,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37, 3229–3235 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Zeng, Z. Huang, B. Wang, D. Liang, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Silicon-germanium avalanche photodiodes with direct control of electric field in charge multiplication region,” Optica 6, 772–777 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (7)

M. Nada, Y. Yamada, and H. Matsuzaki, “Responsivity-bandwidth limit of avalanche photodiodes: toward future ethernet systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1–11 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Huang, S. Li, P. Cai, C. Hou, T.-I. Su, W. Chen, C.-Y. Hong, and D. Pan, “Germanium on silicon avalanche photodiode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 3800911 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560, 565–572 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloati, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popovic, V. M. Stojanovic, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556, 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Minkenberg, N. Farrington, A. Zilkie, D. Nelson, C. P. Lai, D. Brunina, J. Byrd, B. Chowdhuri, N. Kucharewski, K. Muth, A. Nagra, G. Rodriguez, D. Rubi, T. Schrans, P. Srinivasan, Y. Wang, C. Yeh, and A. Rickman, “Reimagining datacenter topologies with integrated silicon photonics,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 10, B126–B139 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Cheng, M. Bahadori, M. Glick, S. Rumley, and K. Bergman, “Recent advances in optical technologies for data centers: a review,” Optica 5 (9), 1354–1370 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Nagarajan, M. Filer, Y. Fu, M. Kato, T. Rope, and J. Stewart, “Silicon photonics-based 100 Gbit/s, PAM4, DWDM data center interconnects,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 10, B25–B36 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

2016 (4)

2015 (7)

H. T. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10  Gb/s Si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled Ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, B. Moeneclaey, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “25-Gb/s 1310-nm optical receiver based on a sub-5-V waveguide-coupled germanium avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 7902909 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Waveguide-coupled p-i-n photodetector with a lateral silicon-germanium-silicon heterojunction integrated at the end of a silicon-on-insulator waveguide. (a) Three-dimensional schematics. Insets: cross-sectional views of the p-i-n device and the injection waveguide. Standard 200 mm SOI wafers with 0.22 µm thick silicon layer and 2 µm thick buried oxides were used as substrates. Thicknesses of the intrinsic germanium region and the underlying silicon floors are ${\sim}{0.26}\;{\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}}$ and ${\sim}{0.060}\;{\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}}$, respectively. (b) Optical microscopy image of a few fabricated devices. The nominal device has a 0.26 µm deep, 0.50 µm wide, and 40 µm long intrinsic Ge region.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Current-voltage characteristics and avalanche photodetection in the heterostructured silicon–germanium–silicon p-i-n photodetectors. (a) Evolution of the dark current with an applied reverse bias. Inset: avalanche breakdown voltage as a function of the intrinsic region width. (b) Photocurrent evolution with an applied reverse bias and different illumination conditions. A tunable laser source emitting at a fixed wavelength of 1.55 µm was used to generate the photocurrent. (c) Photoresponsivity as a function of the reverse bias for an optical input power of ${-}{12.4}\;{\rm dBm}$. Inset: photocurrent versus optical input power at 0 V and 0.5 V bias. (d) Avalanche multiplication gain as a function of reverse bias for different optical input powers. Inset: maximum multiplication gain versus optical input power coupled into the photodetector.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Frequency response, bandwidth, and noise characteristics of the heterostructured silicon–germanium–silicon p-i-n photodetector operated in an avalanche mode. (a) Normalized frequency response under different bias conditions. Power coupled into the device is ${-}{13.4}\;{\rm dBm}$ at a 1.55 µm wavelength. Inset: eye diagram for a transmission bit rate of 32 Gbps and zero-bias operation. (b) Extracted 3 dB bandwidths and gains versus the applied reverse bias for ${-}{13.4}\;{\rm dBm}$ and ${-}{18.6}\;{\rm dBm}$ input powers. (c) Gain-bandwidth product as a function of the multiplication gain for different optical input powers. (d) Excess noise factor as a function of the avalanche multiplication gain. Eye diagrams: (e) at a 32 Gbps, under 1 V reverse bias, and a gain of 1.1; (f) at a 40 Gbps, under 1 V reverse bias, and a gain of 1.1; (g) at a 32 Gbps, under 6 V reverse bias, and a gain of 2.7; and (h) at a 40 Gbps, under 6 V reverse bias, and a gain of 2.7.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Evolution of eye diagrams’ apertures for 40 Gbps transmission bit rate measured at a reference wavelength of 1.55 µm and different avalanche operating conditions: (a) under 3 V reverse bias with ${-}{14.2}\;{\rm dBm}$ optical power and a gain of 1.5; (b) under 5 V reverse bias with ${-}{14.2}\;{\rm dBm}$ optical power and a gain of 2.1; (c) under 7 V reverse bias with ${-}{17.1}\;{\rm dBm}$ optical power and a gain of 2.6; (d) under 9 V reverse bias with ${-}{17.1}\;{\rm dBm}$ optical power and a gain of 5.3; (e) under 10 V reverse bias with ${-}{9.2}\;{\rm dBm}$ optical power and a gain of 5.5; (f) under 10 V reverse bias with ${-}{14.2}\;{\rm dBm}$ optical power and a gain of 6.7; (g) under 10 V reverse bias with ${-}{17.1}\;{\rm dBm}$ optical power and a gain of 8.4; and (h) under 10 V reverse bias with ${-}{19.7}\;{\rm dBm}$ optical power and a gain of 13. Here, $x$ [ps/div] and $y$ [mV/div] identify the horizontal and the vertical scope axes within the measurement setting.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Sensitivity assessments of waveguide-coupled silicon–germanium–silicon p-i-n photodetectors operating under avalanche conditions at a 1.55 µm wavelength. BER performance as a function of received optical power for (a) 32 Gbps and (b) 40 Gbps transmission bit rates.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Summary on Key Performance Metrics of the State-of-the-Art Avalanche Photodetectors made in a Silicon–Germanium Platforma

Equations (1)

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F ( G ) = k e f f G + ( 1 k e f f ) ( 2 1 G ) .

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