Abstract

As single-photon imaging becomes progressively more commonplace in sensing applications such as low-light-level imaging, three-dimensional profiling, and fluorescence imaging, there exist a number of fields where multispectral information can also be exploited, e.g., in environmental monitoring and target identification. We have fabricated a high-transmittance mosaic filter array, where each optical filter was composed of a plasmonic metasurface fabricated in a single lithographic step. This plasmonic metasurface design utilized an array of elliptical and circular nanoholes, which produced enhanced optical coupling between multiple plasmonic interactions. The resulting metasurfaces produced narrow bandpass filters for blue, green, and red light with peak transmission efficiencies of 79%, 75%, and 68%, respectively. After the three metasurface filter designs were arranged in a ${64} \times {64}$ format random mosaic pattern, this mosaic filter was directly integrated onto a CMOS single-photon avalanche diode detector array. Color images were then reconstructed at light levels as low as approximately 5 photons per pixel, on average, via the simultaneous acquisition of low-photon multispectral data using both three-color active laser illumination and a broadband white-light illumination source.

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2019 (3)

J. Tachella, Y. Altmann, N. Mellado, A. McCarthy, R. Tobin, G. S. Buller, J.-Y. Tourneret, and S. McLaughlin, “Real-time 3D reconstruction from single-photon lidar data using plug-and-play point cloud denoisers,” Nat. Commun. 10, 4984 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Accarino, G. Melino, V. F. Annese, M. A. Al-Rawhani, Y. D. Shah, D. Maneuski, C. Giagkoulovits, J. P. Grant, S. Mitra, C. Buttar, and D. R. S. Cumming, “A 64 × 64 SPAD array for portable colorimetric sensing, fluorescence and x-ray imaging,” IEEE Sens. J. 19, 7319–7327 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. W. R. Connolly, X. Ren, R. K. Henderson, and G. S. Buller, “Hot pixel classification of single-photon avalanche diode detector arrays using a log-normal statistical distribution,” Electron. Lett. 55, 1004–1006 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (12)

R. M. M. Hasan and X. Luo, “Promising lithography techniques for next-generation logic devices,” Nanomanufacturing Metrol. 1, 67–81 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Qiu, S. Zhang, F. Capasso, and Y. Kivshar, “Special issue on "ultra-capacity metasurfaces with low dimension and high efficiency",” ACS Photon. 5, 1640–1642 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Shah, J. Grant, D. Hao, M. Kenny, V. Pusino, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Ultra-narrow line width polarization-insensitive filter using a symmetry-breaking selective plasmonic metasurface,” ACS Photon. 5, 663–669 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Pinton, J. Grant, S. Collins, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Exploitation of magnetic dipole resonances in metal-insulator-metal plasmonic nanostructures to selectively filter visible light,” ACS Photon. 5, 1250–1261 (2018).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Li, J.-S. Hong, W.-T. Chou, D.-J. Huang, and K.-R. Chen, “Light funneling profile during enhanced transmission through a subwavelength metallic slit,” Plasmonics 13, 2249–2254 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Altmann, A. Maccarone, A. McCarthy, S. McLaughlin, and G. S. Buller, “Spectral classification of sparse photon depth images,” Opt. Express 26, 5514–5530 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Ren, Y. Altmann, R. Tobin, A. McCarthy, S. McLaughlin, and G. S. Buller, “Wavelength-time coding for multispectral 3D imaging using single-photon LiDAR,” Opt. Express 26, 30146–30161 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Ren, P. W. R. Connolly, A. Halimi, Y. Altmann, S. McLaughlin, I. Gyongy, R. K. Henderson, and G. S. Buller, “High-resolution depth profiling using a range-gated CMOS SPAD quanta image sensor,” Opt. Express 26, 5541–5557 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. C. Ulku, C. Bruschini, I. M. Antolovic, Y. Kuo, R. Ankri, S. Weiss, X. Michalet, and E. Charbon, “A 512 × 512 SPAD image sensor with integrated gating for widefield FLIM,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 6801212 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. M. Choudhury, D. Wang, K. Chaudhuri, C. DeVault, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Material platforms for optical metasurfaces,” Nanophotonics 7, 959–987 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, G. Li, K. W. Cheah, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Controlling the phase of optical nonlinearity with plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nanophotonics 7, 1013–1024 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Ding, Y. Yang, R. A. Deshpande, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “A review of gap-surface plasmon metasurfaces: fundamentals and applications,” Nanophotonics 7, 1129–1156 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (8)

P. C. Wu, W.-Y. Tsai, W. T. Chen, Y.-W. Huang, T.-Y. Chen, J.-W. Chen, C. Y. Liao, C. H. Chu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Versatile polarization generation with an aluminum plasmonic metasurface,” Nano Lett. 17, 445–452 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Yan, K.-Y. Yang, and O. J. F. Martin, “Fano-resonance-assisted metasurface for color routing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17017 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Tobin, Y. Altmann, X. Ren, A. McCarthy, R. A. Lamb, S. McLaughlin, and G. S. Buller, “Comparative study of sampling strategies for sparse photon multispectral lidar imaging: towards mosaic filter arrays,” J. Opt. 19, 094006 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. M. Pawlikowska, A. Halimi, R. A. Lamb, and G. S. Buller, “Single-photon three-dimensional imaging at up to 10  kilometers range,” Opt. Express 25, 11919–11931 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. R. Unnithan, M. Sun, X. He, E. Balaur, A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, E. Skafidas, and A. Roberts, “Plasmonic colour filters based on coaxial holes in aluminium,” Materials 10, 383 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Williams, G. Rughoobur, A. J. Flewitt, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Nanostructured plasmonic metapixels,” Sci. Rep. 7, 7745 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad and F. Capasso, “Metalenses: versatile multifunctional photonic components,” Science 358, eaam8100 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Heydari, J. R. Sperling, S. L. Neale, and A. W. Clark, “Plasmonic color filters as dual-state nanopixels for high-density microimage encoding,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 2, 1701866 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

Z. Li, A. W. Clark, and J. M. Cooper, “Dual color plasmonic pixels create a polarization controlled nano color palette,” ACS Nano 10, 492–498 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. V. Correa, H. Arguello, and G. R. Arce, “Spatiotemporal blue noise coded aperture design for multi-shot compressive spectral imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 33, 2312–2322, 2016.
[Crossref]

L. Duempelmann, A. Luu-Dinh, B. Gallinet, and L. Novotny, “Four-fold color filter based on plasmonic phase retarder,” ACS Photon. 3, 190–196 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. M. Antolovic, S. Burri, R. A. Hoebe, Y. Maruyama, C. Bruschini, and E. Charbon, “Photon-counting arrays for time-resolved imaging,” Sensors 16, 1005 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Shin, F. Xu, D. Venkatraman, R. Lussana, F. Villa, F. Zappa, V. K. Goyal, F. N. C. Wong, and J. H. Shapiro, “Photon-efficient imaging with a single-photon camera,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12046 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Almeida, G. Shalem, and Y. Prior, “Subwavelength nonlinear phase control and anomalous phase matching in plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10367 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, Y. Wang, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Multicolor 3D meta-holography by broadband plasmonic modulation,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1601102 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

W. Wan, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Full-color plasmonic metasurface holograms,” Nano Lett. 15, 10671–10680 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-W. Huang, W. T. Chen, W.-Y. Tsai, P. C. Wu, C.-M. Wang, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Aluminum plasmonic multicolor meta-hologram,” Nano Lett. 15, 3122–3127 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, E. Palacios, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Visible-frequency metasurfaces for broadband anomalous reflection and high-efficiency spectrum splitting,” Nano Lett. 15, 1615–1621 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. E. Minovich, “Functional and nonlinear optical metasurfaces,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 195–213 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. P. Poland, N. Krstajić, J. Monypenny, S. Coelho, D. Tyndall, R. J. Walker, V. Devauges, J. Richardson, N. Dutton, P. Barber, D. D. U. Li, K. Suhling, T. Ng, R. K. Henderson, and S. M. Ameer-Beg, “A high speed multifocal multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope for live-cell FRET imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 277–296 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Bronzi, F. Villa, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, D. Durini, S. Weyers, and W. Brockherde, “100,000  frames/s 64 × 32 single-photon detector array for 2-D imaging and 3-D ranging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 354–363 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. M. Wallace, A. McCarthy, C. J. Nichol, X. Ren, S. Morak, D. Martinez-Ramirez, I. H. Woodhouse, and G. S. Buller, “Design and evaluation of multispectral LiDAR for the recovery of arboreal parameters,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 52, 4942–4954 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

Y. Nanfang, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 4700423 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Zeng, Y. Gao, and F. J. Bartoli, “Ultrathin nanostructured metals for highly transmissive plasmonic subtractive color filters,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2840 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. W. Knight, N. S. King, L. Liu, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum for plasmonics,” ACS Nano 8, 834–840 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

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2011 (2)

2010 (3)

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2007 (2)

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Y. Altmann, A. Maccarone, A. McCarthy, S. McLaughlin, and G. S. Buller, “Spectral classification of sparse photon depth images,” Opt. Express 26, 5514–5530 (2018).
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G. S. Buller and A. Wallace, “Ranging and three-dimensional imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting and point-by-point acquisition,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1006–1015 (2007).
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G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083112 (2005).
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S. Yokogawa, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic color filters for CMOS image sensor applications,” Nano Lett. 12, 4349–4354 (2012).
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I. M. Antolovic, S. Burri, R. A. Hoebe, Y. Maruyama, C. Bruschini, and E. Charbon, “Photon-counting arrays for time-resolved imaging,” Sensors 16, 1005 (2016).
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A. C. Ulku, C. Bruschini, I. M. Antolovic, Y. Kuo, R. Ankri, S. Weiss, X. Michalet, and E. Charbon, “A 512 × 512 SPAD image sensor with integrated gating for widefield FLIM,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 6801212 (2018).
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I. M. Antolovic, S. Burri, R. A. Hoebe, Y. Maruyama, C. Bruschini, and E. Charbon, “Photon-counting arrays for time-resolved imaging,” Sensors 16, 1005 (2016).
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C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D.-U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, “A 160 × 128 single-photon image sensor with on-pixel 55  ps 10b time-to-digital converter,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (2011), pp. 312–314.

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S. M. Choudhury, D. Wang, K. Chaudhuri, C. DeVault, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Material platforms for optical metasurfaces,” Nanophotonics 7, 959–987 (2018).
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J.-W. Li, J.-S. Hong, W.-T. Chou, D.-J. Huang, and K.-R. Chen, “Light funneling profile during enhanced transmission through a subwavelength metallic slit,” Plasmonics 13, 2249–2254 (2018).
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Q. Chen, D. Das, D. Chitnis, K. Walls, T. D. Drysdale, S. Collins, and D. R. S. Cumming, “A CMOS image sensor integrated with plasmonic colour filters,” Plasmonics 7, 695–699 (2012).
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Q. Chen and D. R. S. Cumming, “High transmission and low color cross-talk plasmonic color filters using triangular-lattice hole arrays in aluminum films,” Opt. Express 18, 14056–14062 (2010).
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J.-W. Li, J.-S. Hong, W.-T. Chou, D.-J. Huang, and K.-R. Chen, “Light funneling profile during enhanced transmission through a subwavelength metallic slit,” Plasmonics 13, 2249–2254 (2018).
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S. M. Choudhury, D. Wang, K. Chaudhuri, C. DeVault, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Material platforms for optical metasurfaces,” Nanophotonics 7, 959–987 (2018).
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Q. Chen, D. Das, D. Chitnis, K. Walls, T. D. Drysdale, S. Collins, and D. R. S. Cumming, “A CMOS image sensor integrated with plasmonic colour filters,” Plasmonics 7, 695–699 (2012).
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P. W. R. Connolly, X. Ren, R. K. Henderson, and G. S. Buller, “Hot pixel classification of single-photon avalanche diode detector arrays using a log-normal statistical distribution,” Electron. Lett. 55, 1004–1006 (2019).
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X. Ren, P. W. R. Connolly, A. Halimi, Y. Altmann, S. McLaughlin, I. Gyongy, R. K. Henderson, and G. S. Buller, “High-resolution depth profiling using a range-gated CMOS SPAD quanta image sensor,” Opt. Express 26, 5541–5557 (2018).
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C. Accarino, G. Melino, V. F. Annese, M. A. Al-Rawhani, Y. D. Shah, D. Maneuski, C. Giagkoulovits, J. P. Grant, S. Mitra, C. Buttar, and D. R. S. Cumming, “A 64 × 64 SPAD array for portable colorimetric sensing, fluorescence and x-ray imaging,” IEEE Sens. J. 19, 7319–7327 (2019).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the proposed plasmonic metasurface design. (a) Schematic of the visible plasmonic metasurface designed on a borosilicate substrate. (b) The unit cell is highlighted with period $p$, long axis $a$, and short axis $b$ of the elliptical nanohole array. A ratio $\frac{b}{a}$ of 0.85 was used to maintain polarization insensitivity [44]. Circular nanoholes were created with control radii ${r_1}$ and ${r_2}$. (c) As shown in the schematic, unpolarized light (${E_{ix,y}}$) is normally incident in the ${k_z}$ direction. The nanoholes are over-etched into the substrate by 50 nm. The Al thickness, $d$, is 70 nm.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Characterization of the fabricated visible metasurface filters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and micrographs (insets) of the fabricated metasurface design for (a) blue, (b) green, and (c) red color filters. Experimental and Lumerical FDTD transmission spectra of the (d) blue, (e) green, and (f) red plasmonic metasurfaces. The difference in transmission between design A and design B for red plasmonic metasurface is shown.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Mosaic plasmonic filter integrated with ${64} \times {64}$ SPAD array taken with macro lens CCD camera. (b) Composite reflection micrograph taken at $\times {5}$ magnification.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. $4\!f$ optical sytem used for filter transmission measurements and calibration. The variable aperture stop allowed varying-illumination $f$-numbers to be incident on the SPAD array.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Transmission spectra for (a) blue, (b) green, and (c) red filter sets when illuminated at $f/{8}$ and $f/{2}$. (d) Entire spectrum shown at $f/{8}$.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Uniformity of each of the three filter sets measured at (a) $\lambda = {500}\;{\rm nm}$, (b) $\lambda = {580}\;{\rm nm}$, and (c) $\lambda = {680}\;{\rm nm}$. (d) Normalized distribution of average counts in the bare chip at all three wavelengths. In each case the data are displayed as transmission histograms with the Gaussian trend fitted. The standard deviation $\sigma$ of the fit is provided for each case.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Active imaging system in a bistatic configuration. The illumination is provided by a tunable laser source, diffusers (D1, D2), and an illumination lens. The receiving channel is composed of an objective lens ($f = {50}\;{\rm mm}$, $f/{1.8}$) and the SPAD array.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Targets used for imaging with multispectral laser illumination. Dashed lines on (a) and (b) represent approximate camera fields of view of ${3}\;{\rm cm} \times {3}\;{\rm cm}$.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Raw intensity images from the SPAD imager for multispectral laser illumination. Intensity values are shown as detected photons per pixel.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Active imaging color reconstructions of each target for multispectral laser illumination. The target field was ${3}\;{\rm cm} \times {3}\;{\rm cm}$.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Color image reconstruction of the toy figure when the exposure duration is progressively reduced using multispectral laser illumination.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Passive imaging color reconstruction of each target.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Filter Design Specifications

Equations (2)

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λ S P P = p 4 3 ( i 2 + i j + j 2 ) ε m ε d ε m + ε d ,
I ( n ) = B ( n ) + t = 1 t = 3 A i ( n ) l t ( n ) ,

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