Abstract

A critical component for all high-power laser systems that is particularly susceptible to laser damage is the antireflective coating, which maximizes energy transmission and minimizes scattered and stray light. We demonstrate the ability to generate substrate-engraved nanostructured surfaces (NS) for scalable and designable antireflective (AR) coatings that are monolithic to the substrate and can handle peak power levels comparable to the bulk material. Experimentally measured reflectance from these fabricated structures has validated our effective index theory-based transmission matrix model, demonstrating the designability of the AR properties. Upon exposure to sufficiently high fluences, a new mode of damage, nanostructured surface damage, has been observed and is likely the result of thermally driven material reflow accompanied by plasma initiation on the nanostructured surface. At 1053 nm, nanostructured surface damage onsets at ${39}\;{{\rm J/cm}^2}$ with sample cleaning and ${74}\;{{\rm J/cm}^2}$ after laser conditioning—very close to the reference substrate at ${81}\;{{\rm J/cm}^2}$. At 351 nm we show damage onset of ${30}\;{{\rm J/cm}^2}$, with reference substrate material damage onset of ${47}\;{{\rm J/cm}^2}$. Therefore, damage is close to the bulk material and represents an improvement with respect to other methods. The nanostructured surfaces were found to be mechanically durable and able to withstand cleaning procedures with sonication. Under normal incidence mechanical testing with a 200 µm radius indenter tip, the AR performance of these nanostructured surfaces was minimally impacted at pressures orders of magnitude higher than an average fingerprint pressure—indicating that incidental handling contact will not affect NS structures. Mechanical damage is attributed to plastic compression, not fracturing of the NS features. We demonstrate for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that NS AR coatings, despite being rich in etched surface features, can tolerate laser fluences comparable to unprocessed optical surfaces. Furthermore, laser-damage features of NS indicate a unique non-growing failure mode whereby following absorption the featureless damage site does not precipitate future damage growth, reducing considerably the burdens for managing optics processing in high-power laser systems.

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2019 (3)

J.-H. Yoo, H. T. Nguyen, N. J. Ray, M. A. Johnson, W. A. Steele, J. M. Chesser, S. H. Baxamusa, S. Elhadj, J. T. McKeown, M. J. Matthews, and E. Feigenbaum, “Scalable light-printing of substrate-engraved free-form metasurfaces,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interface 11, 22684−22691 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. J. Ray, J.-H. Yoo, J. T. McKeown, S. Elhadj, S. H. Baxamusa, M. A. Johnson, H. T. Nguyen, W. A. Steele, J. M. Chesser, M. J. Matthews, and E. Feigenbaum, “Enhanced tunability of gold nanoparticle size, spacing, and shape for large-scale plasmonic arrays,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2, 4395–4401 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Feigenbaum, N. J. Ray, and J.-H. Yoo, “Optical modeling of random anti-reflective meta-surfaces for laser systems applications,” Appl. Opt. 58, 7558–7565 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

M. Bouabdellaoui, C. Simona, T. Wood, M. Naffouti, R. P. Sena, K. Liu, C. M. Ruiz, D. Duche, J. le Rouzo, L. Escoubas, G. Berginc, N. Bonod, M. Zazoui, L. Favre, L. Metayer, A. Ronda, I. Berbezier, D. Grosso, M. Gurioli, and M. Abbarchi, “Self-assembled antireflection coatings for light trapping based on SiGe random metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Mater. 2, 035203 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

M. Rahmani, L. Xu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, A. Komar, R. Camacho-Morales, H. Chen, Y. Zárate, S. Kruk, G. Zhang, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Reversible thermal tuning of all-dielectric metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1700580 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. S. Asakawa, G. H. Crocker, A. Schmaltz, and D. L. Jindrich, “Fingertip forces and completion time for index finger and thumb touchscreen gestures,” J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol. 34, 6–13 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics recycle loop strategy for NIF operations above UV laser-induced damage threshold,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 69, 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. A. Baisden, L. J. Atherton, R. A. Hawley, T. A. Land, J. A. Menapace, P. E. Miller, M. J. Runkel, M. L. Spaeth, C. J. Stolz, T. I. Suratwala, P. J. Wegner, and L. L. Wong, “Large optics for the National Ignition Facility,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 69, 295–351 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Kim, H. Kim, B. H. Kim, T. Chang, J. Lim, H. M. Jin, J. H. Mun, Y. J. Choi, K. Chung, J. Shin, S. Fan, and S. O. Kim, “Highly tunable refractive index visible-light metasurface from block copolymer self-assembly,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12911 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. W. Stewart, G. M. Akselrob, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Toward multispectral imaging with colloidal metasurface pixels,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1602971 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Kim, H. Kim, B. H. Kim, T. Chang, J. Lim, H. M. Jin, J. H. Mun, Y. J. Choi, K. Chung, J. Shin, S. Fan, and S. O. Kim, “Highly tunable refractive index visible-light metasurface from block copolymer self-assembly,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12911 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, T. A. Palmer, and A. M. Beese, “Effect of processing parameters on microstructure and tensile properties of austenitic stainless steel 304L made by directed energy deposition additive manufacturing,” Acta Mater. 110, 226–235 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

R. H. Siddique, G. Gomard, and H. Hölscher, “The role of random nanostructures for the omnidirectional anti-reflection properties of the glasswing butterfly,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6909 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. H. Jiang, P. E. Sieber, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Restoring intrinsic properties of electromagnetic radiators using ultralightweight integrated metasurface cloaks,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 4708–4716 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

X. Li, L. Zou, G. Wu, and J. Shen, “Laser-induced damage on ordered and amorphous sol-gel silica coatings,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 2478–2483 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. P. Nole, “Nanotextured optical surfaces advance laser power and reliability,” Laser Focus World 50, 38–43 (2014).

G. S. Evtushenko, M. V. Trigub, F. A. Gubarev, T. G. Evtushenko, S. N. Torgaev, and D. V. Shiyanov, “Laser monitor for non-destructive testing of materials and processes shielded by intensive background lighting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033111 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

R. Kawakami, K. Sawada, A. Sato, T. Hibi, Y. Kozawa, S. Sato, H. Yokoyama, and T. Nemoto, “Visualizing hippocampal neurons with in vivo two-photon microscopy using a 1030  nm picosecond pulse laser,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1–7 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Bago, V. Plečko, D. G. Pandurić, Z. Schauperl, A. Baraba, and I. Anić, “Antimicrobial efficacy of a high-power diode laser, photo-activated disinfection, conventional and sonic activated irrigation during root canal treatment,” Int. Endodontic J. 46, 339–347 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. S. Hobbs, B. D. MacLeod, and E. Sabatino, “Contamination resistant antireflection nano-textures in fused silica for laser optics,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 88850J (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

T. Nakamura, J. K. Koga, T. Z. Esirkepov, M. Kando, G. Korn, and S. V. Bulanov, “High-power γ-ray flash generation in ultraintense laser-plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 195001 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Fallahi and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Design of tunable biperiodic graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 195408 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Albooyeh, D. Morits, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Effective electric and magnetic properties of metasurfaces in transition from crystalline to amorphous state,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 205110 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

C. Wagner and N. Harned, “Lithography gets extreme,” Nat. Photonics 4, 24–26 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. J. Stolz, M. Caputo, A. J. Griffin, and M. D. Thomas, “BDS thin film UV antireflection laser damage competition,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784206 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

C.-H. Sun, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061112 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

D. S. Hobbs and B. D. MacLeod, “High laser damage threshold surface relief micro-structures for anti-reflection applications,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200L (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

C. Scurlock, “A phenomenological study of the effect of trace contaminants on lifetime reduction and laser-induced damage for optics,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 86–94 (2004).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

R. G. Radwin, S. Oh, T. R. Jensen, and J. G. Webster, “External finger forces in submaximal five-finger static pinch prehension,” Ergonomics 35, 275–288 (1992).
[Crossref]

Abbarchi, M.

M. Bouabdellaoui, C. Simona, T. Wood, M. Naffouti, R. P. Sena, K. Liu, C. M. Ruiz, D. Duche, J. le Rouzo, L. Escoubas, G. Berginc, N. Bonod, M. Zazoui, L. Favre, L. Metayer, A. Ronda, I. Berbezier, D. Grosso, M. Gurioli, and M. Abbarchi, “Self-assembled antireflection coatings for light trapping based on SiGe random metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Mater. 2, 035203 (2018).
[Crossref]

Akselrob, G. M.

J. W. Stewart, G. M. Akselrob, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Toward multispectral imaging with colloidal metasurface pixels,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1602971 (2016).
[Crossref]

Albooyeh, M.

M. Albooyeh, D. Morits, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Effective electric and magnetic properties of metasurfaces in transition from crystalline to amorphous state,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 205110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Almeida, J.

Anic, I.

I. Bago, V. Plečko, D. G. Pandurić, Z. Schauperl, A. Baraba, and I. Anić, “Antimicrobial efficacy of a high-power diode laser, photo-activated disinfection, conventional and sonic activated irrigation during root canal treatment,” Int. Endodontic J. 46, 339–347 (2013).
[Crossref]

Asakawa, D. S.

D. S. Asakawa, G. H. Crocker, A. Schmaltz, and D. L. Jindrich, “Fingertip forces and completion time for index finger and thumb touchscreen gestures,” J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol. 34, 6–13 (2017).
[Crossref]

Atherton, L. J.

P. A. Baisden, L. J. Atherton, R. A. Hawley, T. A. Land, J. A. Menapace, P. E. Miller, M. J. Runkel, M. L. Spaeth, C. J. Stolz, T. I. Suratwala, P. J. Wegner, and L. L. Wong, “Large optics for the National Ignition Facility,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 69, 295–351 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bago, I.

I. Bago, V. Plečko, D. G. Pandurić, Z. Schauperl, A. Baraba, and I. Anić, “Antimicrobial efficacy of a high-power diode laser, photo-activated disinfection, conventional and sonic activated irrigation during root canal treatment,” Int. Endodontic J. 46, 339–347 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baisden, P. A.

P. A. Baisden, L. J. Atherton, R. A. Hawley, T. A. Land, J. A. Menapace, P. E. Miller, M. J. Runkel, M. L. Spaeth, C. J. Stolz, T. I. Suratwala, P. J. Wegner, and L. L. Wong, “Large optics for the National Ignition Facility,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 69, 295–351 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baraba, A.

I. Bago, V. Plečko, D. G. Pandurić, Z. Schauperl, A. Baraba, and I. Anić, “Antimicrobial efficacy of a high-power diode laser, photo-activated disinfection, conventional and sonic activated irrigation during root canal treatment,” Int. Endodontic J. 46, 339–347 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baxamusa, S. H.

J.-H. Yoo, H. T. Nguyen, N. J. Ray, M. A. Johnson, W. A. Steele, J. M. Chesser, S. H. Baxamusa, S. Elhadj, J. T. McKeown, M. J. Matthews, and E. Feigenbaum, “Scalable light-printing of substrate-engraved free-form metasurfaces,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interface 11, 22684−22691 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. J. Ray, J.-H. Yoo, J. T. McKeown, S. Elhadj, S. H. Baxamusa, M. A. Johnson, H. T. Nguyen, W. A. Steele, J. M. Chesser, M. J. Matthews, and E. Feigenbaum, “Enhanced tunability of gold nanoparticle size, spacing, and shape for large-scale plasmonic arrays,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2, 4395–4401 (2019).
[Crossref]

Beese, A. M.

Z. Wang, T. A. Palmer, and A. M. Beese, “Effect of processing parameters on microstructure and tensile properties of austenitic stainless steel 304L made by directed energy deposition additive manufacturing,” Acta Mater. 110, 226–235 (2016).
[Crossref]

Berbezier, I.

M. Bouabdellaoui, C. Simona, T. Wood, M. Naffouti, R. P. Sena, K. Liu, C. M. Ruiz, D. Duche, J. le Rouzo, L. Escoubas, G. Berginc, N. Bonod, M. Zazoui, L. Favre, L. Metayer, A. Ronda, I. Berbezier, D. Grosso, M. Gurioli, and M. Abbarchi, “Self-assembled antireflection coatings for light trapping based on SiGe random metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Mater. 2, 035203 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bercegol, H.

Berginc, G.

M. Bouabdellaoui, C. Simona, T. Wood, M. Naffouti, R. P. Sena, K. Liu, C. M. Ruiz, D. Duche, J. le Rouzo, L. Escoubas, G. Berginc, N. Bonod, M. Zazoui, L. Favre, L. Metayer, A. Ronda, I. Berbezier, D. Grosso, M. Gurioli, and M. Abbarchi, “Self-assembled antireflection coatings for light trapping based on SiGe random metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Mater. 2, 035203 (2018).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bonod, N.

M. Bouabdellaoui, C. Simona, T. Wood, M. Naffouti, R. P. Sena, K. Liu, C. M. Ruiz, D. Duche, J. le Rouzo, L. Escoubas, G. Berginc, N. Bonod, M. Zazoui, L. Favre, L. Metayer, A. Ronda, I. Berbezier, D. Grosso, M. Gurioli, and M. Abbarchi, “Self-assembled antireflection coatings for light trapping based on SiGe random metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Mater. 2, 035203 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bouabdellaoui, M.

M. Bouabdellaoui, C. Simona, T. Wood, M. Naffouti, R. P. Sena, K. Liu, C. M. Ruiz, D. Duche, J. le Rouzo, L. Escoubas, G. Berginc, N. Bonod, M. Zazoui, L. Favre, L. Metayer, A. Ronda, I. Berbezier, D. Grosso, M. Gurioli, and M. Abbarchi, “Self-assembled antireflection coatings for light trapping based on SiGe random metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Mater. 2, 035203 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bude, J. D.

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics recycle loop strategy for NIF operations above UV laser-induced damage threshold,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 69, 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bulanov, S. V.

T. Nakamura, J. K. Koga, T. Z. Esirkepov, M. Kando, G. Korn, and S. V. Bulanov, “High-power γ-ray flash generation in ultraintense laser-plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 195001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.

W. Cai and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2010).

Camacho-Morales, R.

M. Rahmani, L. Xu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, A. Komar, R. Camacho-Morales, H. Chen, Y. Zárate, S. Kruk, G. Zhang, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Reversible thermal tuning of all-dielectric metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1700580 (2017).
[Crossref]

Caputo, M.

C. J. Stolz, M. Caputo, A. J. Griffin, and M. D. Thomas, “BDS thin film UV antireflection laser damage competition,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, T.

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Fabrication process and design parameters for nanostructured surfaces. (a) Production of substrate-engraved nanostructured surfaces, in which a thin gold film is dewet to produce a dry-etching mask. (b), (c) Surface cross section and top view, respectively, with the sloping function (SF) and period (${\Lambda}$) shown in (b) and described in the text. The fill factor is given by the area fraction of NS features relative to the substrate surface area, where the ‘A’ in (c) represents the NS feature surface area projected to the underlying substrate.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Structural parameters (pit depth and masking fill factor) key to minimizing the NS reflection for different depth index grading cases. (a) Vertical sidewalls (${\rm SF} = {0}$); (b) ${\rm SF} = {1}$. Cross-section illustrations of the simulated nanostructured surfaces are shown below the contour plots, where the contours (color scales) give percent reflectance.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Nanostructured surface features fabricated for a wavelength of 351 nm in (a) and (b) and 1053 nm in (c) and (d). (a), (c) Top views. (b), (d) Cross sections. Note: magnifications vary across the SEM micrographs.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Predicted and measured reflectance for the generated NS AR. Reflection predictions for ${3}\omega$ and ${1}\omega$ are depicted in (a) and (c), respectively, while the measured reflectance for ${3}\omega$ and ${1}\omega$ are given in (b) and (d), respectively. The red indicators in (a) and (c) denote where the generated NS lies on the contour maps, while the red indicators in (b) and (d) illustrate the predicted reflectance for the fabricated topographies. Panels (b) and (d) plot the NS reflectance against unetched fused silica.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Nanostructured surface damage morphology top view SEM in (a) for ${3}\omega$ exposure, and cross section SEM in (b) following ${1}\omega$ exposure, with an accompanying reflection micrograph to depict the location relative to the damaged region. (c) Proposed damage mechanism.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Laser-induced damage testing results of (a), (b) ${3}\omega$ NS AR and (c), (d) ${1}\omega$ NS AR. (a) Percent damaged area per fluence bin, with the inset showing a typical microscope image with fluence contour map to calculate fractional damaged area. (b) Percent damaged area (black color) on the left axis, and damage density on the right axis (red color) under ${3}\omega$ exposure. Damage density data was generated from ${10}\;{{\rm mm}^2}$ total irradiated area. (c) Peak fluences at which nanostructured surface damage was induced over an array of 100 damage sites under 1ω exposure. (d) Damage probability (at ${1}\omega$) of an etched and subsequently cleaned nanostructured surface (red), laser-conditioned nanostructured surface (black), and reference unetched fused silica substrate (blue). All dashed lines are linear fits at the onset of damage to guide the eye.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Static indents reveal NS robustness. A 200 µm radius canonical tip was used to load (a) the ${3}\omega$ NS and (b) the ${1}\omega$ NS, with loads ranging from 50 mN to 50 N. For both plots, the color legend from (a) is used. Confocal microscopy displays changes to the NS reflectance under these applied loads, with the images above (a) displaying typical 370 nm reflectance at the indicated applied loads. Diffraction patterns induced by subsurface damage are evident in the 50 N loads for both ${3}\omega$ and ${1}\omega$ NS.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. SEM of NS damage induced by static indenting reveals plastic deformation of NS features. Panel (a) is a higher magnification of (b), showing the interface between damaged and undamaged NS. (c), (d) Unloaded NS features and features at the center of the region loaded with 0.5 N, respectively. These images display ${3}\omega$ NS damage, but ${1}\omega$ and ${3}\omega$ were observed to damage in similar ways.