Abstract

X-ray tomography is a powerful method for visualizing the three-dimensional structure of an object with a high spatial resolution. Conventional time-resolved x-ray tomography using synchrotron radiation requires fast rotation of the object, which limits the temporal resolution and hampers its application to, e.g., fluids and in vivo observation of living beings. Here, we present a multibeam x-ray optical system for high-speed 4D tomography, which can obtain projection images of a sample in a wide angular range simultaneously. It consists of about three dozen single-crystalline blades oriented with different angles to the incident beam, which each Bragg-reflect a part of the incident x-rays in the direction of the sample position. Thirty-two projection images covering an angular range of more than $\pm {70}^\circ$ were obtained without moving the sample or optical system, with an exposure time of 1 ms. The data set was successfully used for reconstructing the three-dimensional structure of two test samples. The optical system provides the basis for realizing millisecond time resolution x-ray tomography of nonrepeatable phenomena, and can be expected to be useful for other applications as well, for example, for time-resolved element-specific imaging.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2020 (1)

W. Yashiro, T. Shirasawa, C. Kamezawa, W. Voegeli, E. Arakawa, and K. Kajiwara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 59, 038003 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (2)

F. García-Moreno, P. H. Kamm, T. R. Neu, F. Bülk, R. Mokso, C. M. Schlepütz, M. Stampanoni, and J. Banhart, Nat. Commun. 10, 3762 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, H. Kudo, F. Yamazaki, and H. Liu, Phys. Med. Biol. 64, 145006 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

2017 (3)

W. Yashiro, R. Ueda, K. Kajiwara, and D. Noda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56, 112503 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Yashiro, D. Noda, and K. Kajiwara, Appl. Phys. Express 10, 052501 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Ruhlandt, M. Töpperwien, M. Krenkel, R. Mokso, and T. Salditt, Sci. Rep. 7, 6487 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

H. Kudo, F. Yamazaki, T. Nemoto, and K. Takaki, Proc. SPIE 9967, 996711 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

D. P. Finegan, M. Scheel, J. B. Robinson, B. Tjaden, I. Hunt, T. J. Mason, J. Millichamp, M. Di Michiel, G. J. Offer, G. Hinds, D. J. L. Brett, and P. R. Shearing, Nat. Commun. 6, 6924 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

S. M. Walker, D. A. Schwyn, R. Mokso, M. Wicklein, T. Müller, M. Doube, M. Stampanoni, H. G. Krapp, and G. K. Taylor, PLoS Biol. 12, e1001823 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

M. Hoshino, T. Sera, K. Uesugi, and N. Yagi, J. Instrum. 8, C05002 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

K. Kamada, T. Endo, K. Tsutumi, T. Yanagida, Y. Fujimoto, A. Fukabori, A. Yoshikawa, J. Pejchal, and M. Nikl, Cryst. Growth Des. 11, 4484 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Defrise, C. Vanhove, and X. Liu, Inverse Probl. 27, 065002 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, S. Harasse, and H. Kuwabara, Opt. Express 19, 8423 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Bieberle, F. Barthel, H.-J. Menz, H.-G. Mayer, and U. Hampel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 034101 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Hoshino, K. Uesugi, J. Pearson, T. Sonobe, M. Shirai, and N. Yagi, J. Synchrotron Rad. 18, 569 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

E. Y. Sidky and X. Pan, Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 4777 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, Nat. Mater. 7, 134 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, Nat. Phys. 2, 258 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C. David, B. Nohammer, and H. H. Solak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3287 (2002).
[Crossref]

Arakawa, E.

W. Yashiro, T. Shirasawa, C. Kamezawa, W. Voegeli, E. Arakawa, and K. Kajiwara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 59, 038003 (2020).
[Crossref]

Banhart, J.

F. García-Moreno, P. H. Kamm, T. R. Neu, F. Bülk, R. Mokso, C. M. Schlepütz, M. Stampanoni, and J. Banhart, Nat. Commun. 10, 3762 (2019).
[Crossref]

Barthel, F.

M. Bieberle, F. Barthel, H.-J. Menz, H.-G. Mayer, and U. Hampel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 034101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bieberle, M.

M. Bieberle, F. Barthel, H.-J. Menz, H.-G. Mayer, and U. Hampel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 034101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brett, D. J. L.

D. P. Finegan, M. Scheel, J. B. Robinson, B. Tjaden, I. Hunt, T. J. Mason, J. Millichamp, M. Di Michiel, G. J. Offer, G. Hinds, D. J. L. Brett, and P. R. Shearing, Nat. Commun. 6, 6924 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bülk, F.

F. García-Moreno, P. H. Kamm, T. R. Neu, F. Bülk, R. Mokso, C. M. Schlepütz, M. Stampanoni, and J. Banhart, Nat. Commun. 10, 3762 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bunk, O.

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, Nat. Mater. 7, 134 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, Nat. Phys. 2, 258 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chapman, H. N.

Cloetens, P.

David, C.

Defrise, M.

M. Defrise, C. Vanhove, and X. Liu, Inverse Probl. 27, 065002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Di Michiel, M.

D. P. Finegan, M. Scheel, J. B. Robinson, B. Tjaden, I. Hunt, T. J. Mason, J. Millichamp, M. Di Michiel, G. J. Offer, G. Hinds, D. J. L. Brett, and P. R. Shearing, Nat. Commun. 6, 6924 (2015).
[Crossref]

Diaz, A.

Doube, M.

S. M. Walker, D. A. Schwyn, R. Mokso, M. Wicklein, T. Müller, M. Doube, M. Stampanoni, H. G. Krapp, and G. K. Taylor, PLoS Biol. 12, e1001823 (2014).
[Crossref]

Endo, T.

K. Kamada, T. Endo, K. Tsutumi, T. Yanagida, Y. Fujimoto, A. Fukabori, A. Yoshikawa, J. Pejchal, and M. Nikl, Cryst. Growth Des. 11, 4484 (2011).
[Crossref]

Finegan, D. P.

D. P. Finegan, M. Scheel, J. B. Robinson, B. Tjaden, I. Hunt, T. J. Mason, J. Millichamp, M. Di Michiel, G. J. Offer, G. Hinds, D. J. L. Brett, and P. R. Shearing, Nat. Commun. 6, 6924 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, Y.

K. Kamada, T. Endo, K. Tsutumi, T. Yanagida, Y. Fujimoto, A. Fukabori, A. Yoshikawa, J. Pejchal, and M. Nikl, Cryst. Growth Des. 11, 4484 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fukabori, A.

K. Kamada, T. Endo, K. Tsutumi, T. Yanagida, Y. Fujimoto, A. Fukabori, A. Yoshikawa, J. Pejchal, and M. Nikl, Cryst. Growth Des. 11, 4484 (2011).
[Crossref]

García-Moreno, F.

F. García-Moreno, P. H. Kamm, T. R. Neu, F. Bülk, R. Mokso, C. M. Schlepütz, M. Stampanoni, and J. Banhart, Nat. Commun. 10, 3762 (2019).
[Crossref]

Guzenko, V. A.

Hamaishi, Y.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hampel, U.

M. Bieberle, F. Barthel, H.-J. Menz, H.-G. Mayer, and U. Hampel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 034101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Harasse, S.

Hinds, G.

D. P. Finegan, M. Scheel, J. B. Robinson, B. Tjaden, I. Hunt, T. J. Mason, J. Millichamp, M. Di Michiel, G. J. Offer, G. Hinds, D. J. L. Brett, and P. R. Shearing, Nat. Commun. 6, 6924 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hoshino, M.

M. Hoshino, T. Sera, K. Uesugi, and N. Yagi, J. Instrum. 8, C05002 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Hoshino, K. Uesugi, J. Pearson, T. Sonobe, M. Shirai, and N. Yagi, J. Synchrotron Rad. 18, 569 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hunt, I.

D. P. Finegan, M. Scheel, J. B. Robinson, B. Tjaden, I. Hunt, T. J. Mason, J. Millichamp, M. Di Michiel, G. J. Offer, G. Hinds, D. J. L. Brett, and P. R. Shearing, Nat. Commun. 6, 6924 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kajiwara, K.

W. Yashiro, T. Shirasawa, C. Kamezawa, W. Voegeli, E. Arakawa, and K. Kajiwara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 59, 038003 (2020).
[Crossref]

W. Yashiro, C. Kamezawa, D. Noda, and K. Kajiwara, Appl. Phys. Express 11, 122501 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Yashiro, R. Ueda, K. Kajiwara, and D. Noda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56, 112503 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Yashiro, D. Noda, and K. Kajiwara, Appl. Phys. Express 10, 052501 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kamada, K.

K. Kamada, T. Endo, K. Tsutumi, T. Yanagida, Y. Fujimoto, A. Fukabori, A. Yoshikawa, J. Pejchal, and M. Nikl, Cryst. Growth Des. 11, 4484 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kamezawa, C.

W. Yashiro, T. Shirasawa, C. Kamezawa, W. Voegeli, E. Arakawa, and K. Kajiwara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 59, 038003 (2020).
[Crossref]

W. Yashiro, C. Kamezawa, D. Noda, and K. Kajiwara, Appl. Phys. Express 11, 122501 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kamm, P. H.

F. García-Moreno, P. H. Kamm, T. R. Neu, F. Bülk, R. Mokso, C. M. Schlepütz, M. Stampanoni, and J. Banhart, Nat. Commun. 10, 3762 (2019).
[Crossref]

Kawabata, K.

Kawamoto, S.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866 (2003).
[Crossref]

Koyama, I.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866 (2003).
[Crossref]

Krapp, H. G.

S. M. Walker, D. A. Schwyn, R. Mokso, M. Wicklein, T. Müller, M. Doube, M. Stampanoni, H. G. Krapp, and G. K. Taylor, PLoS Biol. 12, e1001823 (2014).
[Crossref]

Krenkel, M.

A. Ruhlandt, M. Töpperwien, M. Krenkel, R. Mokso, and T. Salditt, Sci. Rep. 7, 6487 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kudo, H.

T. Wang, H. Kudo, F. Yamazaki, and H. Liu, Phys. Med. Biol. 64, 145006 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Kudo, F. Yamazaki, T. Nemoto, and K. Takaki, Proc. SPIE 9967, 996711 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kuwabara, H.

Leake, S. J.

Liu, H.

T. Wang, H. Kudo, F. Yamazaki, and H. Liu, Phys. Med. Biol. 64, 145006 (2019).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

M. Defrise, C. Vanhove, and X. Liu, Inverse Probl. 27, 065002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Maikusa, H.

Mason, T. J.

D. P. Finegan, M. Scheel, J. B. Robinson, B. Tjaden, I. Hunt, T. J. Mason, J. Millichamp, M. Di Michiel, G. J. Offer, G. Hinds, D. J. L. Brett, and P. R. Shearing, Nat. Commun. 6, 6924 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mayer, H.-G.

M. Bieberle, F. Barthel, H.-J. Menz, H.-G. Mayer, and U. Hampel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 034101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Menz, H.-J.

M. Bieberle, F. Barthel, H.-J. Menz, H.-G. Mayer, and U. Hampel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 034101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Millichamp, J.

D. P. Finegan, M. Scheel, J. B. Robinson, B. Tjaden, I. Hunt, T. J. Mason, J. Millichamp, M. Di Michiel, G. J. Offer, G. Hinds, D. J. L. Brett, and P. R. Shearing, Nat. Commun. 6, 6924 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mokso, R.

F. García-Moreno, P. H. Kamm, T. R. Neu, F. Bülk, R. Mokso, C. M. Schlepütz, M. Stampanoni, and J. Banhart, Nat. Commun. 10, 3762 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Villanueva-Perez, B. Pedrini, R. Mokso, P. Vagovic, V. A. Guzenko, S. J. Leake, P. R. Willmott, P. Oberta, C. David, H. N. Chapman, and M. Stampanoni, Optica 5, 1521 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Ruhlandt, M. Töpperwien, M. Krenkel, R. Mokso, and T. Salditt, Sci. Rep. 7, 6487 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. M. Walker, D. A. Schwyn, R. Mokso, M. Wicklein, T. Müller, M. Doube, M. Stampanoni, H. G. Krapp, and G. K. Taylor, PLoS Biol. 12, e1001823 (2014).
[Crossref]

Momose, A.

Müller, T.

S. M. Walker, D. A. Schwyn, R. Mokso, M. Wicklein, T. Müller, M. Doube, M. Stampanoni, H. G. Krapp, and G. K. Taylor, PLoS Biol. 12, e1001823 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nemoto, T.

H. Kudo, F. Yamazaki, T. Nemoto, and K. Takaki, Proc. SPIE 9967, 996711 (2016).
[Crossref]

Neu, T. R.

F. García-Moreno, P. H. Kamm, T. R. Neu, F. Bülk, R. Mokso, C. M. Schlepütz, M. Stampanoni, and J. Banhart, Nat. Commun. 10, 3762 (2019).
[Crossref]

Nikl, M.

K. Kamada, T. Endo, K. Tsutumi, T. Yanagida, Y. Fujimoto, A. Fukabori, A. Yoshikawa, J. Pejchal, and M. Nikl, Cryst. Growth Des. 11, 4484 (2011).
[Crossref]

Noda, D.

W. Yashiro, C. Kamezawa, D. Noda, and K. Kajiwara, Appl. Phys. Express 11, 122501 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Yashiro, R. Ueda, K. Kajiwara, and D. Noda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56, 112503 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Yashiro, D. Noda, and K. Kajiwara, Appl. Phys. Express 10, 052501 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nohammer, B.

C. David, B. Nohammer, and H. H. Solak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3287 (2002).
[Crossref]

Oberta, P.

Offer, G. J.

D. P. Finegan, M. Scheel, J. B. Robinson, B. Tjaden, I. Hunt, T. J. Mason, J. Millichamp, M. Di Michiel, G. J. Offer, G. Hinds, D. J. L. Brett, and P. R. Shearing, Nat. Commun. 6, 6924 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pan, X.

E. Y. Sidky and X. Pan, Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 4777 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pearson, J.

M. Hoshino, K. Uesugi, J. Pearson, T. Sonobe, M. Shirai, and N. Yagi, J. Synchrotron Rad. 18, 569 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pedrini, B.

Pejchal, J.

K. Kamada, T. Endo, K. Tsutumi, T. Yanagida, Y. Fujimoto, A. Fukabori, A. Yoshikawa, J. Pejchal, and M. Nikl, Cryst. Growth Des. 11, 4484 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, F.

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, Nat. Mater. 7, 134 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, Nat. Phys. 2, 258 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, Opt. Express 13, 6296 (2005).
[Crossref]

Robinson, J. B.

D. P. Finegan, M. Scheel, J. B. Robinson, B. Tjaden, I. Hunt, T. J. Mason, J. Millichamp, M. Di Michiel, G. J. Offer, G. Hinds, D. J. L. Brett, and P. R. Shearing, Nat. Commun. 6, 6924 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ruhlandt, A.

A. Ruhlandt, M. Töpperwien, M. Krenkel, R. Mokso, and T. Salditt, Sci. Rep. 7, 6487 (2017).
[Crossref]

Salditt, T.

A. Ruhlandt, M. Töpperwien, M. Krenkel, R. Mokso, and T. Salditt, Sci. Rep. 7, 6487 (2017).
[Crossref]

Scheel, M.

D. P. Finegan, M. Scheel, J. B. Robinson, B. Tjaden, I. Hunt, T. J. Mason, J. Millichamp, M. Di Michiel, G. J. Offer, G. Hinds, D. J. L. Brett, and P. R. Shearing, Nat. Commun. 6, 6924 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schlepütz, C. M.

F. García-Moreno, P. H. Kamm, T. R. Neu, F. Bülk, R. Mokso, C. M. Schlepütz, M. Stampanoni, and J. Banhart, Nat. Commun. 10, 3762 (2019).
[Crossref]

Schwyn, D. A.

S. M. Walker, D. A. Schwyn, R. Mokso, M. Wicklein, T. Müller, M. Doube, M. Stampanoni, H. G. Krapp, and G. K. Taylor, PLoS Biol. 12, e1001823 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sera, T.

M. Hoshino, T. Sera, K. Uesugi, and N. Yagi, J. Instrum. 8, C05002 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shearing, P. R.

D. P. Finegan, M. Scheel, J. B. Robinson, B. Tjaden, I. Hunt, T. J. Mason, J. Millichamp, M. Di Michiel, G. J. Offer, G. Hinds, D. J. L. Brett, and P. R. Shearing, Nat. Commun. 6, 6924 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shirai, M.

M. Hoshino, K. Uesugi, J. Pearson, T. Sonobe, M. Shirai, and N. Yagi, J. Synchrotron Rad. 18, 569 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shirasawa, T.

W. Yashiro, T. Shirasawa, C. Kamezawa, W. Voegeli, E. Arakawa, and K. Kajiwara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 59, 038003 (2020).
[Crossref]

Sidky, E. Y.

E. Y. Sidky and X. Pan, Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 4777 (2008).
[Crossref]

Solak, H. H.

C. David, B. Nohammer, and H. H. Solak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3287 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sonobe, T.

M. Hoshino, K. Uesugi, J. Pearson, T. Sonobe, M. Shirai, and N. Yagi, J. Synchrotron Rad. 18, 569 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stampanoni, M.

F. García-Moreno, P. H. Kamm, T. R. Neu, F. Bülk, R. Mokso, C. M. Schlepütz, M. Stampanoni, and J. Banhart, Nat. Commun. 10, 3762 (2019).
[Crossref]

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A. Ruhlandt, M. Töpperwien, M. Krenkel, R. Mokso, and T. Salditt, Sci. Rep. 7, 6487 (2017).
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K. Kamada, T. Endo, K. Tsutumi, T. Yanagida, Y. Fujimoto, A. Fukabori, A. Yoshikawa, J. Pejchal, and M. Nikl, Cryst. Growth Des. 11, 4484 (2011).
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Appl. Phys. Express (2)

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W. Yashiro, D. Noda, and K. Kajiwara, Appl. Phys. Express 10, 052501 (2017).
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Cryst. Growth Des. (1)

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[Crossref]

Inverse Probl. (1)

M. Defrise, C. Vanhove, and X. Liu, Inverse Probl. 27, 065002 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Instrum. (1)

M. Hoshino, T. Sera, K. Uesugi, and N. Yagi, J. Instrum. 8, C05002 (2013).
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J. Synchrotron Rad. (1)

M. Hoshino, K. Uesugi, J. Pearson, T. Sonobe, M. Shirai, and N. Yagi, J. Synchrotron Rad. 18, 569 (2011).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

W. Yashiro, R. Ueda, K. Kajiwara, and D. Noda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56, 112503 (2017).
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A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Yashiro, T. Shirasawa, C. Kamezawa, W. Voegeli, E. Arakawa, and K. Kajiwara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 59, 038003 (2020).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

D. P. Finegan, M. Scheel, J. B. Robinson, B. Tjaden, I. Hunt, T. J. Mason, J. Millichamp, M. Di Michiel, G. J. Offer, G. Hinds, D. J. L. Brett, and P. R. Shearing, Nat. Commun. 6, 6924 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. García-Moreno, P. H. Kamm, T. R. Neu, F. Bülk, R. Mokso, C. M. Schlepütz, M. Stampanoni, and J. Banhart, Nat. Commun. 10, 3762 (2019).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, Nat. Mater. 7, 134 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, Nat. Phys. 2, 258 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Optica (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

T. Wang, H. Kudo, F. Yamazaki, and H. Liu, Phys. Med. Biol. 64, 145006 (2019).
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E. Y. Sidky and X. Pan, Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 4777 (2008).
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PLoS Biol. (1)

S. M. Walker, D. A. Schwyn, R. Mokso, M. Wicklein, T. Müller, M. Doube, M. Stampanoni, H. G. Krapp, and G. K. Taylor, PLoS Biol. 12, e1001823 (2014).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Kudo, F. Yamazaki, T. Nemoto, and K. Takaki, Proc. SPIE 9967, 996711 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

A. Ruhlandt, M. Töpperwien, M. Krenkel, R. Mokso, and T. Salditt, Sci. Rep. 7, 6487 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

SPring-8, Bending Magnet, http://www.spring8.or.jp/en/about_us/whats_sp8/facilities/bl/sources/bending_magnet/ .

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       Additional information about the design of the multi-beam optical elements and the 3D reconstruction; transmittance images; tomogram of the tungsten wire sample; resolution

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Figures (3)

Fig.
			1.
Fig. 1. (a) Principle of the multibeam optical element. An Si crystal with a number of blades is bent such that the x-ray beams diffracted at each blade converge on the sample position. (b) Schematic illustration of the multibeam optics consisting of three optical elements with different focal lengths; only one x-ray beam from each optical element is shown for clarity. (c) Top view of the multibeam optics showing all measured x-ray beams. (d) Crystal 2 mounted on the crystal bender. (e) Experimental setup.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Typical transmittance image of the tungsten wire sample using the beam with a scattering angle of 32.3°. The exposure time is 1 ms. [gray scale, 0–1.2]. (b) Three-dimensional reconstruction of the tungsten wire sample (rendered using maximum intensity projection); the size of the box is $2.56 \times 2.56 \times 1 . 86 \;{{\rm mm}^3}$.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Transmittance image of the Al tape sample at a scattering angle of 32.3° [gray scale, 0–1.2]; (b) tomogram of the Al tape sample, at the height indicated by the arrow in (a).