Abstract

The advancements in bright and coherent X-ray free-electron lasers (XFEL) have in the last decade revolutionized diverse fields of study, leading to an ever-increasing demand in more intense X-ray pulses. The accurate knowledge of the wavefront and the focal profile of such pulses ultimately dictates much of the experimental outcome. Here we present a single-shot shearing interferometry method to measure the wavefront of a focused hard XFEL pulse. Two identical transmission gratings are placed near the focus, and the interference pattern of overlapping diffraction orders is analyzed, resulting in a two-dimensional reconstruction of the X-ray wavefront. The spatial resolution and wavefront sensitivity can be tuned in-situ during the measurement. The method is non-invasive (i.e., the zeroth order or transmitted pulse is not modified in intensity or profile), allowing for either a simultaneous intensity measurement at high resolution or a fully characterized transmitted pulse for general experimental use.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

M. Seaberg, R. Cojocaru, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, A. Jaggi, J. Krempasky, F. Seiboth, A. Aquila, Y. Liu, A. Sakdinawat, H. J. Lee, U. Flechsig, L. Patthey, F. Koch, G. Seniutinas, C. David, D. Zhu, L. Mikeš, M. Makita, and P. Vagovic, “Wavefront sensing at x-ray free-electron lasers wavefront sensing at x-ray free-electron lasers,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 26, 1115–1126 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

T. Inoue, S. Matsuyama, S. Kawai, H. Yumoto, Y. Inubushi, T. Osaka, I. Inoue, T. Koyama, K. Tono, H. Ohashi, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Systematic-error-free wavefront measurement using an x-ray single-grating interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89, 043106 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuyama, T. Inoue, J. Yamada, J. Kim, H. Yumoto, Y. Inubushi, T. Osaka, I. Inoue, T. Koyama, K. Tono, H. Ohashi, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Nanofocusing of X-ray free-electron laser using wavefront-corrected multilayer focusing mirrors,” Sci. Rep. 8, 17440 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, M. Seaberg, D. Zhu, J. Krzywinski, F. Seiboth, C. Hardin, D. Cocco, A. Aquila, B. Nagler, H. J. Lee, S. Boutet, Y. Feng, Y. Ding, G. Marcus, and A. Sakdinawat, “High-accuracy wavefront sensing for x-ray free electron lasers,” Optica 5, 967–975 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

M. Makita, P. Karvinen, V. Guzenko, N. Kujala, P. Vagovic, and C. David, “Fabrication of diamond diffraction gratings for experiments with intense hard x-rays,” Microelectron. Eng. 176, 75–78 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Nagler, A. Aquila, S. Boutet, E. C. Galtier, A. Hashim, M. S. Hunter, M. Liang, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. G. Schroer, A. Schropp, M. H. Seaberg, F. Seiboth, T. van Driel, Z. Xing, Y. Liu, and H. J. Lee, “Focal spot and wavefront sensing of an x-ray free electron laser using Ronchi shearing interferometry,” Sci. Rep. 7, 13698 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

J. Chalupský, P. Boháček, T. Burian, V. Hájková, S. P. Hau-Riege, P. A. Heimann, L. Juha, M. Messerschmidt, S. P. Moeller, B. Nagler, M. Rowen, W. F. Schlotter, M. L. Swiggers, J. J. Turner, and J. Krzywinski, “Imprinting a focused x-ray laser beam to measure its full spatial characteristics,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4, 014004 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Fuchs, M. Trigo, J. Chen, S. Ghimire, S. Shwartz, M. Kozina, M. Jiang, T. Henighan, C. Bray, G. Ndabashimiye, P. H. Bucksbaum, Y. Feng, S. Herrmann, G. A. Carini, J. P. Nad Philip Hart, C. Kenney, S. Guillet, S. Boutet, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, M. M. Seibert, S. Moeller, J. B. Hastings, and D. A. Reis, “Anomalous nonlinear x-ray Compton scattering,” Nat. Phys. 11, 964–971 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Nass, L. Foucar, T. R. M. Barends, E. Hartmann, S. Botha, R. L. Shoeman, R. B. Doak, R. Alonso-Mori, A. Aquila, S. Sa Bajt, A. Barty, R. Bean, K. R. Beyerlein, M. Bublitz, N. Drachmann, J. Gregersen, H. O. Jonsson, W. Kabsch, S. Kassemeyer, J. E. Koglin, M. Krumrey, D. Mattle, M. Messerschmidt, P. Nissen, L. Reinhard, O. Sitsel, D. Sokaras, G. J. Williams, S. Hau-Riege, N. Timneanu, C. Caleman, H. N. Chapman, S. Boutetb, and I. Schlichting, “Indications of radiation damage in ferredoxin microcrystals using high-intensity X-FEL beams,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 225–238 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Liang, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, M. M. Seibert, P. A. Montanez, M. Hayes, D. Milathianaki, A. Aquila, M. S. Hunter, J. E. Koglin, D. W. Schafer, S. Guillet, A. Busse, R. Bergan, W. Olson, K. Fox, N. Stewart, R. Curtis, A. A. Miahnahri, and S. Boutet, “The coherent x-ray imaging instrument at the Linac coherent light source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22, 514–519 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, and P. Cloetens, “X-ray pulse wavefront metrology using speckle tracking,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22, 886–894 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

K. Tamasaku, E. Shigemasa, Y. Inubushi, T. Katayama, K. Sawada, H. Yumoto, H. Ohashi, H. Mimura, M. Yabashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “X-ray two-photon absorption competing against single and sequential multiphoton processes,” Nat. Photonics 8, 313–316 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, A. Holmberg, H. M. Hertz, A. Schropp, J. Patommel, R. Hoppe, F. Seiboth, V. Meier, C. G. Schroer, E. Galtier, B. Nagler, H. J. Lee, and U. Vogt, “Ronchi test for characterization of nanofocusing optics at a hard x-ray free-electron laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 5046–5048 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. M. Vinko, O. Ciricosta, B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, H.-K. Chung, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, R. W. Falcone, C. Graves, V. Hajkova, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messerschmidt, C. D. Murphy, Y. Ping, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, P. A. Heimann, B. Nagler, and J. S. Wark, “Creation and diagnosis of a solid-density plasma with an x-ray free-electron laser,” Nature 482, 59–62 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Rutishauser, L. Samoylova, J. Krzywinski, O. Bunk, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, and C. David, “Exploring the wavefront of hard X-ray free-electron laser radiation,” Nat. Commun. 3, 947 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Siewert, J. Buchheim, S. Boutet, G. J. Williams, P. A. Montanez, J. Krzywinski, and R. Signorato, “Ultra-precise characterization of LCLS hard x-ray focusing mirrors by high resolution slope measuring deflectometry,” Opt. Express 20, 4525–4536 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

S. Boutet and G. J. Williams, “The coherent x-ray imaging (cxi) instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS),” New J. Phys. 12, 035024 (2010).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (3)

C. Elster and I. Weingärtner, “Solution to the shearing problem,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5024–5031 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. Elster, “Recovering wavefronts from difference measurements in lateral shearing interferometry,” J. Comput. Appl. Math. 110, 177–180 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. Elster and I. Weingärtner, “Exact wave-front reconstruction from two lateral shearing interferograms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A: 16, 2281–2285 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1982 (1)

1973 (1)

Alonso-Mori, R.

K. Nass, L. Foucar, T. R. M. Barends, E. Hartmann, S. Botha, R. L. Shoeman, R. B. Doak, R. Alonso-Mori, A. Aquila, S. Sa Bajt, A. Barty, R. Bean, K. R. Beyerlein, M. Bublitz, N. Drachmann, J. Gregersen, H. O. Jonsson, W. Kabsch, S. Kassemeyer, J. E. Koglin, M. Krumrey, D. Mattle, M. Messerschmidt, P. Nissen, L. Reinhard, O. Sitsel, D. Sokaras, G. J. Williams, S. Hau-Riege, N. Timneanu, C. Caleman, H. N. Chapman, S. Boutetb, and I. Schlichting, “Indications of radiation damage in ferredoxin microcrystals using high-intensity X-FEL beams,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 225–238 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aquila, A.

M. Seaberg, R. Cojocaru, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, A. Jaggi, J. Krempasky, F. Seiboth, A. Aquila, Y. Liu, A. Sakdinawat, H. J. Lee, U. Flechsig, L. Patthey, F. Koch, G. Seniutinas, C. David, D. Zhu, L. Mikeš, M. Makita, and P. Vagovic, “Wavefront sensing at x-ray free-electron lasers wavefront sensing at x-ray free-electron lasers,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 26, 1115–1126 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, M. Seaberg, D. Zhu, J. Krzywinski, F. Seiboth, C. Hardin, D. Cocco, A. Aquila, B. Nagler, H. J. Lee, S. Boutet, Y. Feng, Y. Ding, G. Marcus, and A. Sakdinawat, “High-accuracy wavefront sensing for x-ray free electron lasers,” Optica 5, 967–975 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Nagler, A. Aquila, S. Boutet, E. C. Galtier, A. Hashim, M. S. Hunter, M. Liang, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. G. Schroer, A. Schropp, M. H. Seaberg, F. Seiboth, T. van Driel, Z. Xing, Y. Liu, and H. J. Lee, “Focal spot and wavefront sensing of an x-ray free electron laser using Ronchi shearing interferometry,” Sci. Rep. 7, 13698 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Nass, L. Foucar, T. R. M. Barends, E. Hartmann, S. Botha, R. L. Shoeman, R. B. Doak, R. Alonso-Mori, A. Aquila, S. Sa Bajt, A. Barty, R. Bean, K. R. Beyerlein, M. Bublitz, N. Drachmann, J. Gregersen, H. O. Jonsson, W. Kabsch, S. Kassemeyer, J. E. Koglin, M. Krumrey, D. Mattle, M. Messerschmidt, P. Nissen, L. Reinhard, O. Sitsel, D. Sokaras, G. J. Williams, S. Hau-Riege, N. Timneanu, C. Caleman, H. N. Chapman, S. Boutetb, and I. Schlichting, “Indications of radiation damage in ferredoxin microcrystals using high-intensity X-FEL beams,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 225–238 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Liang, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, M. M. Seibert, P. A. Montanez, M. Hayes, D. Milathianaki, A. Aquila, M. S. Hunter, J. E. Koglin, D. W. Schafer, S. Guillet, A. Busse, R. Bergan, W. Olson, K. Fox, N. Stewart, R. Curtis, A. A. Miahnahri, and S. Boutet, “The coherent x-ray imaging instrument at the Linac coherent light source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22, 514–519 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arnold, B.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barends, T. R. M.

K. Nass, L. Foucar, T. R. M. Barends, E. Hartmann, S. Botha, R. L. Shoeman, R. B. Doak, R. Alonso-Mori, A. Aquila, S. Sa Bajt, A. Barty, R. Bean, K. R. Beyerlein, M. Bublitz, N. Drachmann, J. Gregersen, H. O. Jonsson, W. Kabsch, S. Kassemeyer, J. E. Koglin, M. Krumrey, D. Mattle, M. Messerschmidt, P. Nissen, L. Reinhard, O. Sitsel, D. Sokaras, G. J. Williams, S. Hau-Riege, N. Timneanu, C. Caleman, H. N. Chapman, S. Boutetb, and I. Schlichting, “Indications of radiation damage in ferredoxin microcrystals using high-intensity X-FEL beams,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 225–238 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barty, A.

K. Nass, L. Foucar, T. R. M. Barends, E. Hartmann, S. Botha, R. L. Shoeman, R. B. Doak, R. Alonso-Mori, A. Aquila, S. Sa Bajt, A. Barty, R. Bean, K. R. Beyerlein, M. Bublitz, N. Drachmann, J. Gregersen, H. O. Jonsson, W. Kabsch, S. Kassemeyer, J. E. Koglin, M. Krumrey, D. Mattle, M. Messerschmidt, P. Nissen, L. Reinhard, O. Sitsel, D. Sokaras, G. J. Williams, S. Hau-Riege, N. Timneanu, C. Caleman, H. N. Chapman, S. Boutetb, and I. Schlichting, “Indications of radiation damage in ferredoxin microcrystals using high-intensity X-FEL beams,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 225–238 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bean, R.

K. Nass, L. Foucar, T. R. M. Barends, E. Hartmann, S. Botha, R. L. Shoeman, R. B. Doak, R. Alonso-Mori, A. Aquila, S. Sa Bajt, A. Barty, R. Bean, K. R. Beyerlein, M. Bublitz, N. Drachmann, J. Gregersen, H. O. Jonsson, W. Kabsch, S. Kassemeyer, J. E. Koglin, M. Krumrey, D. Mattle, M. Messerschmidt, P. Nissen, L. Reinhard, O. Sitsel, D. Sokaras, G. J. Williams, S. Hau-Riege, N. Timneanu, C. Caleman, H. N. Chapman, S. Boutetb, and I. Schlichting, “Indications of radiation damage in ferredoxin microcrystals using high-intensity X-FEL beams,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 225–238 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bergan, R.

M. Liang, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, M. M. Seibert, P. A. Montanez, M. Hayes, D. Milathianaki, A. Aquila, M. S. Hunter, J. E. Koglin, D. W. Schafer, S. Guillet, A. Busse, R. Bergan, W. Olson, K. Fox, N. Stewart, R. Curtis, A. A. Miahnahri, and S. Boutet, “The coherent x-ray imaging instrument at the Linac coherent light source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22, 514–519 (2015).
[Crossref]

Berujon, S.

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Bucksbaum, P. H.

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M. Fuchs, M. Trigo, J. Chen, S. Ghimire, S. Shwartz, M. Kozina, M. Jiang, T. Henighan, C. Bray, G. Ndabashimiye, P. H. Bucksbaum, Y. Feng, S. Herrmann, G. A. Carini, J. P. Nad Philip Hart, C. Kenney, S. Guillet, S. Boutet, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, M. M. Seibert, S. Moeller, J. B. Hastings, and D. A. Reis, “Anomalous nonlinear x-ray Compton scattering,” Nat. Phys. 11, 964–971 (2015).
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K. Nass, L. Foucar, T. R. M. Barends, E. Hartmann, S. Botha, R. L. Shoeman, R. B. Doak, R. Alonso-Mori, A. Aquila, S. Sa Bajt, A. Barty, R. Bean, K. R. Beyerlein, M. Bublitz, N. Drachmann, J. Gregersen, H. O. Jonsson, W. Kabsch, S. Kassemeyer, J. E. Koglin, M. Krumrey, D. Mattle, M. Messerschmidt, P. Nissen, L. Reinhard, O. Sitsel, D. Sokaras, G. J. Williams, S. Hau-Riege, N. Timneanu, C. Caleman, H. N. Chapman, S. Boutetb, and I. Schlichting, “Indications of radiation damage in ferredoxin microcrystals using high-intensity X-FEL beams,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 225–238 (2015).
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S. M. Vinko, O. Ciricosta, B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, H.-K. Chung, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, R. W. Falcone, C. Graves, V. Hajkova, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messerschmidt, C. D. Murphy, Y. Ping, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, P. A. Heimann, B. Nagler, and J. S. Wark, “Creation and diagnosis of a solid-density plasma with an x-ray free-electron laser,” Nature 482, 59–62 (2012).
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S. M. Vinko, O. Ciricosta, B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, H.-K. Chung, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, R. W. Falcone, C. Graves, V. Hajkova, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messerschmidt, C. D. Murphy, Y. Ping, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, P. A. Heimann, B. Nagler, and J. S. Wark, “Creation and diagnosis of a solid-density plasma with an x-ray free-electron laser,” Nature 482, 59–62 (2012).
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S. M. Vinko, O. Ciricosta, B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, H.-K. Chung, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, R. W. Falcone, C. Graves, V. Hajkova, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messerschmidt, C. D. Murphy, Y. Ping, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, P. A. Heimann, B. Nagler, and J. S. Wark, “Creation and diagnosis of a solid-density plasma with an x-ray free-electron laser,” Nature 482, 59–62 (2012).
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Cojocaru, R.

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Ding, Y.

Doak, R. B.

K. Nass, L. Foucar, T. R. M. Barends, E. Hartmann, S. Botha, R. L. Shoeman, R. B. Doak, R. Alonso-Mori, A. Aquila, S. Sa Bajt, A. Barty, R. Bean, K. R. Beyerlein, M. Bublitz, N. Drachmann, J. Gregersen, H. O. Jonsson, W. Kabsch, S. Kassemeyer, J. E. Koglin, M. Krumrey, D. Mattle, M. Messerschmidt, P. Nissen, L. Reinhard, O. Sitsel, D. Sokaras, G. J. Williams, S. Hau-Riege, N. Timneanu, C. Caleman, H. N. Chapman, S. Boutetb, and I. Schlichting, “Indications of radiation damage in ferredoxin microcrystals using high-intensity X-FEL beams,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 225–238 (2015).
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K. Nass, L. Foucar, T. R. M. Barends, E. Hartmann, S. Botha, R. L. Shoeman, R. B. Doak, R. Alonso-Mori, A. Aquila, S. Sa Bajt, A. Barty, R. Bean, K. R. Beyerlein, M. Bublitz, N. Drachmann, J. Gregersen, H. O. Jonsson, W. Kabsch, S. Kassemeyer, J. E. Koglin, M. Krumrey, D. Mattle, M. Messerschmidt, P. Nissen, L. Reinhard, O. Sitsel, D. Sokaras, G. J. Williams, S. Hau-Riege, N. Timneanu, C. Caleman, H. N. Chapman, S. Boutetb, and I. Schlichting, “Indications of radiation damage in ferredoxin microcrystals using high-intensity X-FEL beams,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 225–238 (2015).
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S. M. Vinko, O. Ciricosta, B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, H.-K. Chung, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, R. W. Falcone, C. Graves, V. Hajkova, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messerschmidt, C. D. Murphy, Y. Ping, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, P. A. Heimann, B. Nagler, and J. S. Wark, “Creation and diagnosis of a solid-density plasma with an x-ray free-electron laser,” Nature 482, 59–62 (2012).
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S. M. Vinko, O. Ciricosta, B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, H.-K. Chung, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, R. W. Falcone, C. Graves, V. Hajkova, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messerschmidt, C. D. Murphy, Y. Ping, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, P. A. Heimann, B. Nagler, and J. S. Wark, “Creation and diagnosis of a solid-density plasma with an x-ray free-electron laser,” Nature 482, 59–62 (2012).
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M. Seaberg, R. Cojocaru, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, A. Jaggi, J. Krempasky, F. Seiboth, A. Aquila, Y. Liu, A. Sakdinawat, H. J. Lee, U. Flechsig, L. Patthey, F. Koch, G. Seniutinas, C. David, D. Zhu, L. Mikeš, M. Makita, and P. Vagovic, “Wavefront sensing at x-ray free-electron lasers wavefront sensing at x-ray free-electron lasers,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 26, 1115–1126 (2019).
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M. Seaberg, R. Cojocaru, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, A. Jaggi, J. Krempasky, F. Seiboth, A. Aquila, Y. Liu, A. Sakdinawat, H. J. Lee, U. Flechsig, L. Patthey, F. Koch, G. Seniutinas, C. David, D. Zhu, L. Mikeš, M. Makita, and P. Vagovic, “Wavefront sensing at x-ray free-electron lasers wavefront sensing at x-ray free-electron lasers,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 26, 1115–1126 (2019).
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Liu, Y.

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B. Nagler, A. Aquila, S. Boutet, E. C. Galtier, A. Hashim, M. S. Hunter, M. Liang, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. G. Schroer, A. Schropp, M. H. Seaberg, F. Seiboth, T. van Driel, Z. Xing, Y. Liu, and H. J. Lee, “Focal spot and wavefront sensing of an x-ray free electron laser using Ronchi shearing interferometry,” Sci. Rep. 7, 13698 (2017).
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M. Seaberg, R. Cojocaru, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, A. Jaggi, J. Krempasky, F. Seiboth, A. Aquila, Y. Liu, A. Sakdinawat, H. J. Lee, U. Flechsig, L. Patthey, F. Koch, G. Seniutinas, C. David, D. Zhu, L. Mikeš, M. Makita, and P. Vagovic, “Wavefront sensing at x-ray free-electron lasers wavefront sensing at x-ray free-electron lasers,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 26, 1115–1126 (2019).
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M. Makita, P. Karvinen, V. Guzenko, N. Kujala, P. Vagovic, and C. David, “Fabrication of diamond diffraction gratings for experiments with intense hard x-rays,” Microelectron. Eng. 176, 75–78 (2017).
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Marcus, G.

Marroquin, J. L.

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S. Matsuyama, T. Inoue, J. Yamada, J. Kim, H. Yumoto, Y. Inubushi, T. Osaka, I. Inoue, T. Koyama, K. Tono, H. Ohashi, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Nanofocusing of X-ray free-electron laser using wavefront-corrected multilayer focusing mirrors,” Sci. Rep. 8, 17440 (2018).
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K. Nass, L. Foucar, T. R. M. Barends, E. Hartmann, S. Botha, R. L. Shoeman, R. B. Doak, R. Alonso-Mori, A. Aquila, S. Sa Bajt, A. Barty, R. Bean, K. R. Beyerlein, M. Bublitz, N. Drachmann, J. Gregersen, H. O. Jonsson, W. Kabsch, S. Kassemeyer, J. E. Koglin, M. Krumrey, D. Mattle, M. Messerschmidt, P. Nissen, L. Reinhard, O. Sitsel, D. Sokaras, G. J. Williams, S. Hau-Riege, N. Timneanu, C. Caleman, H. N. Chapman, S. Boutetb, and I. Schlichting, “Indications of radiation damage in ferredoxin microcrystals using high-intensity X-FEL beams,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 225–238 (2015).
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A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, A. Holmberg, H. M. Hertz, A. Schropp, J. Patommel, R. Hoppe, F. Seiboth, V. Meier, C. G. Schroer, E. Galtier, B. Nagler, H. J. Lee, and U. Vogt, “Ronchi test for characterization of nanofocusing optics at a hard x-ray free-electron laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 5046–5048 (2012).
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Messerschmidt, M.

M. Liang, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, M. M. Seibert, P. A. Montanez, M. Hayes, D. Milathianaki, A. Aquila, M. S. Hunter, J. E. Koglin, D. W. Schafer, S. Guillet, A. Busse, R. Bergan, W. Olson, K. Fox, N. Stewart, R. Curtis, A. A. Miahnahri, and S. Boutet, “The coherent x-ray imaging instrument at the Linac coherent light source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22, 514–519 (2015).
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J. Chalupský, P. Boháček, T. Burian, V. Hájková, S. P. Hau-Riege, P. A. Heimann, L. Juha, M. Messerschmidt, S. P. Moeller, B. Nagler, M. Rowen, W. F. Schlotter, M. L. Swiggers, J. J. Turner, and J. Krzywinski, “Imprinting a focused x-ray laser beam to measure its full spatial characteristics,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4, 014004 (2015).
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K. Nass, L. Foucar, T. R. M. Barends, E. Hartmann, S. Botha, R. L. Shoeman, R. B. Doak, R. Alonso-Mori, A. Aquila, S. Sa Bajt, A. Barty, R. Bean, K. R. Beyerlein, M. Bublitz, N. Drachmann, J. Gregersen, H. O. Jonsson, W. Kabsch, S. Kassemeyer, J. E. Koglin, M. Krumrey, D. Mattle, M. Messerschmidt, P. Nissen, L. Reinhard, O. Sitsel, D. Sokaras, G. J. Williams, S. Hau-Riege, N. Timneanu, C. Caleman, H. N. Chapman, S. Boutetb, and I. Schlichting, “Indications of radiation damage in ferredoxin microcrystals using high-intensity X-FEL beams,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 225–238 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Fuchs, M. Trigo, J. Chen, S. Ghimire, S. Shwartz, M. Kozina, M. Jiang, T. Henighan, C. Bray, G. Ndabashimiye, P. H. Bucksbaum, Y. Feng, S. Herrmann, G. A. Carini, J. P. Nad Philip Hart, C. Kenney, S. Guillet, S. Boutet, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, M. M. Seibert, S. Moeller, J. B. Hastings, and D. A. Reis, “Anomalous nonlinear x-ray Compton scattering,” Nat. Phys. 11, 964–971 (2015).
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S. M. Vinko, O. Ciricosta, B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, H.-K. Chung, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, R. W. Falcone, C. Graves, V. Hajkova, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messerschmidt, C. D. Murphy, Y. Ping, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, P. A. Heimann, B. Nagler, and J. S. Wark, “Creation and diagnosis of a solid-density plasma with an x-ray free-electron laser,” Nature 482, 59–62 (2012).
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Miahnahri, A. A.

M. Liang, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, M. M. Seibert, P. A. Montanez, M. Hayes, D. Milathianaki, A. Aquila, M. S. Hunter, J. E. Koglin, D. W. Schafer, S. Guillet, A. Busse, R. Bergan, W. Olson, K. Fox, N. Stewart, R. Curtis, A. A. Miahnahri, and S. Boutet, “The coherent x-ray imaging instrument at the Linac coherent light source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22, 514–519 (2015).
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Mikeš, L.

M. Seaberg, R. Cojocaru, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, A. Jaggi, J. Krempasky, F. Seiboth, A. Aquila, Y. Liu, A. Sakdinawat, H. J. Lee, U. Flechsig, L. Patthey, F. Koch, G. Seniutinas, C. David, D. Zhu, L. Mikeš, M. Makita, and P. Vagovic, “Wavefront sensing at x-ray free-electron lasers wavefront sensing at x-ray free-electron lasers,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 26, 1115–1126 (2019).
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Milathianaki, D.

M. Liang, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, M. M. Seibert, P. A. Montanez, M. Hayes, D. Milathianaki, A. Aquila, M. S. Hunter, J. E. Koglin, D. W. Schafer, S. Guillet, A. Busse, R. Bergan, W. Olson, K. Fox, N. Stewart, R. Curtis, A. A. Miahnahri, and S. Boutet, “The coherent x-ray imaging instrument at the Linac coherent light source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22, 514–519 (2015).
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Mimura, H.

K. Tamasaku, E. Shigemasa, Y. Inubushi, T. Katayama, K. Sawada, H. Yumoto, H. Ohashi, H. Mimura, M. Yabashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “X-ray two-photon absorption competing against single and sequential multiphoton processes,” Nat. Photonics 8, 313–316 (2014).
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Moeller, S.

M. Fuchs, M. Trigo, J. Chen, S. Ghimire, S. Shwartz, M. Kozina, M. Jiang, T. Henighan, C. Bray, G. Ndabashimiye, P. H. Bucksbaum, Y. Feng, S. Herrmann, G. A. Carini, J. P. Nad Philip Hart, C. Kenney, S. Guillet, S. Boutet, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, M. M. Seibert, S. Moeller, J. B. Hastings, and D. A. Reis, “Anomalous nonlinear x-ray Compton scattering,” Nat. Phys. 11, 964–971 (2015).
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M. Fuchs, M. Trigo, J. Chen, S. Ghimire, S. Shwartz, M. Kozina, M. Jiang, T. Henighan, C. Bray, G. Ndabashimiye, P. H. Bucksbaum, Y. Feng, S. Herrmann, G. A. Carini, J. P. Nad Philip Hart, C. Kenney, S. Guillet, S. Boutet, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, M. M. Seibert, S. Moeller, J. B. Hastings, and D. A. Reis, “Anomalous nonlinear x-ray Compton scattering,” Nat. Phys. 11, 964–971 (2015).
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Y. Liu, M. Seaberg, D. Zhu, J. Krzywinski, F. Seiboth, C. Hardin, D. Cocco, A. Aquila, B. Nagler, H. J. Lee, S. Boutet, Y. Feng, Y. Ding, G. Marcus, and A. Sakdinawat, “High-accuracy wavefront sensing for x-ray free electron lasers,” Optica 5, 967–975 (2018).
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A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
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D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, A. Holmberg, H. M. Hertz, A. Schropp, J. Patommel, R. Hoppe, F. Seiboth, V. Meier, C. G. Schroer, E. Galtier, B. Nagler, H. J. Lee, and U. Vogt, “Ronchi test for characterization of nanofocusing optics at a hard x-ray free-electron laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 5046–5048 (2012).
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M. Liang, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, M. M. Seibert, P. A. Montanez, M. Hayes, D. Milathianaki, A. Aquila, M. S. Hunter, J. E. Koglin, D. W. Schafer, S. Guillet, A. Busse, R. Bergan, W. Olson, K. Fox, N. Stewart, R. Curtis, A. A. Miahnahri, and S. Boutet, “The coherent x-ray imaging instrument at the Linac coherent light source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22, 514–519 (2015).
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A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, A. Holmberg, H. M. Hertz, A. Schropp, J. Patommel, R. Hoppe, F. Seiboth, V. Meier, C. G. Schroer, E. Galtier, B. Nagler, H. J. Lee, and U. Vogt, “Ronchi test for characterization of nanofocusing optics at a hard x-ray free-electron laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 5046–5048 (2012).
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M. Seaberg, R. Cojocaru, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, A. Jaggi, J. Krempasky, F. Seiboth, A. Aquila, Y. Liu, A. Sakdinawat, H. J. Lee, U. Flechsig, L. Patthey, F. Koch, G. Seniutinas, C. David, D. Zhu, L. Mikeš, M. Makita, and P. Vagovic, “Wavefront sensing at x-ray free-electron lasers wavefront sensing at x-ray free-electron lasers,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 26, 1115–1126 (2019).
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S. M. Vinko, O. Ciricosta, B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, H.-K. Chung, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, R. W. Falcone, C. Graves, V. Hajkova, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messerschmidt, C. D. Murphy, Y. Ping, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, P. A. Heimann, B. Nagler, and J. S. Wark, “Creation and diagnosis of a solid-density plasma with an x-ray free-electron laser,” Nature 482, 59–62 (2012).
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K. Nass, L. Foucar, T. R. M. Barends, E. Hartmann, S. Botha, R. L. Shoeman, R. B. Doak, R. Alonso-Mori, A. Aquila, S. Sa Bajt, A. Barty, R. Bean, K. R. Beyerlein, M. Bublitz, N. Drachmann, J. Gregersen, H. O. Jonsson, W. Kabsch, S. Kassemeyer, J. E. Koglin, M. Krumrey, D. Mattle, M. Messerschmidt, P. Nissen, L. Reinhard, O. Sitsel, D. Sokaras, G. J. Williams, S. Hau-Riege, N. Timneanu, C. Caleman, H. N. Chapman, S. Boutetb, and I. Schlichting, “Indications of radiation damage in ferredoxin microcrystals using high-intensity X-FEL beams,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 225–238 (2015).
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M. Fuchs, M. Trigo, J. Chen, S. Ghimire, S. Shwartz, M. Kozina, M. Jiang, T. Henighan, C. Bray, G. Ndabashimiye, P. H. Bucksbaum, Y. Feng, S. Herrmann, G. A. Carini, J. P. Nad Philip Hart, C. Kenney, S. Guillet, S. Boutet, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, M. M. Seibert, S. Moeller, J. B. Hastings, and D. A. Reis, “Anomalous nonlinear x-ray Compton scattering,” Nat. Phys. 11, 964–971 (2015).
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J. Chalupský, P. Boháček, T. Burian, V. Hájková, S. P. Hau-Riege, P. A. Heimann, L. Juha, M. Messerschmidt, S. P. Moeller, B. Nagler, M. Rowen, W. F. Schlotter, M. L. Swiggers, J. J. Turner, and J. Krzywinski, “Imprinting a focused x-ray laser beam to measure its full spatial characteristics,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4, 014004 (2015).
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S. Rutishauser, L. Samoylova, J. Krzywinski, O. Bunk, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, and C. David, “Exploring the wavefront of hard X-ray free-electron laser radiation,” Nat. Commun. 3, 947 (2012).
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K. Nass, L. Foucar, T. R. M. Barends, E. Hartmann, S. Botha, R. L. Shoeman, R. B. Doak, R. Alonso-Mori, A. Aquila, S. Sa Bajt, A. Barty, R. Bean, K. R. Beyerlein, M. Bublitz, N. Drachmann, J. Gregersen, H. O. Jonsson, W. Kabsch, S. Kassemeyer, J. E. Koglin, M. Krumrey, D. Mattle, M. Messerschmidt, P. Nissen, L. Reinhard, O. Sitsel, D. Sokaras, G. J. Williams, S. Hau-Riege, N. Timneanu, C. Caleman, H. N. Chapman, S. Boutetb, and I. Schlichting, “Indications of radiation damage in ferredoxin microcrystals using high-intensity X-FEL beams,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 225–238 (2015).
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M. Seaberg, R. Cojocaru, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, A. Jaggi, J. Krempasky, F. Seiboth, A. Aquila, Y. Liu, A. Sakdinawat, H. J. Lee, U. Flechsig, L. Patthey, F. Koch, G. Seniutinas, C. David, D. Zhu, L. Mikeš, M. Makita, and P. Vagovic, “Wavefront sensing at x-ray free-electron lasers wavefront sensing at x-ray free-electron lasers,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 26, 1115–1126 (2019).
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Y. Liu, M. Seaberg, D. Zhu, J. Krzywinski, F. Seiboth, C. Hardin, D. Cocco, A. Aquila, B. Nagler, H. J. Lee, S. Boutet, Y. Feng, Y. Ding, G. Marcus, and A. Sakdinawat, “High-accuracy wavefront sensing for x-ray free electron lasers,” Optica 5, 967–975 (2018).
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Sakdinawat, A. E.

B. Nagler, A. Aquila, S. Boutet, E. C. Galtier, A. Hashim, M. S. Hunter, M. Liang, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. G. Schroer, A. Schropp, M. H. Seaberg, F. Seiboth, T. van Driel, Z. Xing, Y. Liu, and H. J. Lee, “Focal spot and wavefront sensing of an x-ray free electron laser using Ronchi shearing interferometry,” Sci. Rep. 7, 13698 (2017).
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S. Rutishauser, L. Samoylova, J. Krzywinski, O. Bunk, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, and C. David, “Exploring the wavefront of hard X-ray free-electron laser radiation,” Nat. Commun. 3, 947 (2012).
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K. Tamasaku, E. Shigemasa, Y. Inubushi, T. Katayama, K. Sawada, H. Yumoto, H. Ohashi, H. Mimura, M. Yabashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “X-ray two-photon absorption competing against single and sequential multiphoton processes,” Nat. Photonics 8, 313–316 (2014).
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Schafer, D. W.

M. Liang, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, M. M. Seibert, P. A. Montanez, M. Hayes, D. Milathianaki, A. Aquila, M. S. Hunter, J. E. Koglin, D. W. Schafer, S. Guillet, A. Busse, R. Bergan, W. Olson, K. Fox, N. Stewart, R. Curtis, A. A. Miahnahri, and S. Boutet, “The coherent x-ray imaging instrument at the Linac coherent light source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22, 514–519 (2015).
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Scherz, A.

S. M. Vinko, O. Ciricosta, B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, H.-K. Chung, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, R. W. Falcone, C. Graves, V. Hajkova, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messerschmidt, C. D. Murphy, Y. Ping, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, P. A. Heimann, B. Nagler, and J. S. Wark, “Creation and diagnosis of a solid-density plasma with an x-ray free-electron laser,” Nature 482, 59–62 (2012).
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Schlichting, I.

K. Nass, L. Foucar, T. R. M. Barends, E. Hartmann, S. Botha, R. L. Shoeman, R. B. Doak, R. Alonso-Mori, A. Aquila, S. Sa Bajt, A. Barty, R. Bean, K. R. Beyerlein, M. Bublitz, N. Drachmann, J. Gregersen, H. O. Jonsson, W. Kabsch, S. Kassemeyer, J. E. Koglin, M. Krumrey, D. Mattle, M. Messerschmidt, P. Nissen, L. Reinhard, O. Sitsel, D. Sokaras, G. J. Williams, S. Hau-Riege, N. Timneanu, C. Caleman, H. N. Chapman, S. Boutetb, and I. Schlichting, “Indications of radiation damage in ferredoxin microcrystals using high-intensity X-FEL beams,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 225–238 (2015).
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S. M. Vinko, O. Ciricosta, B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, H.-K. Chung, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, R. W. Falcone, C. Graves, V. Hajkova, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messerschmidt, C. D. Murphy, Y. Ping, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, P. A. Heimann, B. Nagler, and J. S. Wark, “Creation and diagnosis of a solid-density plasma with an x-ray free-electron laser,” Nature 482, 59–62 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schlotter, W. F.

J. Chalupský, P. Boháček, T. Burian, V. Hájková, S. P. Hau-Riege, P. A. Heimann, L. Juha, M. Messerschmidt, S. P. Moeller, B. Nagler, M. Rowen, W. F. Schlotter, M. L. Swiggers, J. J. Turner, and J. Krzywinski, “Imprinting a focused x-ray laser beam to measure its full spatial characteristics,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4, 014004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schreiber, H.

Schroer, C. G.

B. Nagler, A. Aquila, S. Boutet, E. C. Galtier, A. Hashim, M. S. Hunter, M. Liang, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. G. Schroer, A. Schropp, M. H. Seaberg, F. Seiboth, T. van Driel, Z. Xing, Y. Liu, and H. J. Lee, “Focal spot and wavefront sensing of an x-ray free electron laser using Ronchi shearing interferometry,” Sci. Rep. 7, 13698 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, A. Holmberg, H. M. Hertz, A. Schropp, J. Patommel, R. Hoppe, F. Seiboth, V. Meier, C. G. Schroer, E. Galtier, B. Nagler, H. J. Lee, and U. Vogt, “Ronchi test for characterization of nanofocusing optics at a hard x-ray free-electron laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 5046–5048 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schropp, A.

B. Nagler, A. Aquila, S. Boutet, E. C. Galtier, A. Hashim, M. S. Hunter, M. Liang, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. G. Schroer, A. Schropp, M. H. Seaberg, F. Seiboth, T. van Driel, Z. Xing, Y. Liu, and H. J. Lee, “Focal spot and wavefront sensing of an x-ray free electron laser using Ronchi shearing interferometry,” Sci. Rep. 7, 13698 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, A. Holmberg, H. M. Hertz, A. Schropp, J. Patommel, R. Hoppe, F. Seiboth, V. Meier, C. G. Schroer, E. Galtier, B. Nagler, H. J. Lee, and U. Vogt, “Ronchi test for characterization of nanofocusing optics at a hard x-ray free-electron laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 5046–5048 (2012).
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Schwider, J.

Seaberg, M.

M. Seaberg, R. Cojocaru, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, A. Jaggi, J. Krempasky, F. Seiboth, A. Aquila, Y. Liu, A. Sakdinawat, H. J. Lee, U. Flechsig, L. Patthey, F. Koch, G. Seniutinas, C. David, D. Zhu, L. Mikeš, M. Makita, and P. Vagovic, “Wavefront sensing at x-ray free-electron lasers wavefront sensing at x-ray free-electron lasers,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 26, 1115–1126 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, M. Seaberg, D. Zhu, J. Krzywinski, F. Seiboth, C. Hardin, D. Cocco, A. Aquila, B. Nagler, H. J. Lee, S. Boutet, Y. Feng, Y. Ding, G. Marcus, and A. Sakdinawat, “High-accuracy wavefront sensing for x-ray free electron lasers,” Optica 5, 967–975 (2018).
[Crossref]

Seaberg, M. H.

B. Nagler, A. Aquila, S. Boutet, E. C. Galtier, A. Hashim, M. S. Hunter, M. Liang, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. G. Schroer, A. Schropp, M. H. Seaberg, F. Seiboth, T. van Driel, Z. Xing, Y. Liu, and H. J. Lee, “Focal spot and wavefront sensing of an x-ray free electron laser using Ronchi shearing interferometry,” Sci. Rep. 7, 13698 (2017).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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» Supplement 1       Supplementary Material

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the setup. Two identical checkerboard gratings, separated by a distance $ \ell $, are placed at distance $ {z_1} $ behind the focal plane of the X-rays. The second grating is rotated around the optical axis by a small angle $ \alpha $ with respect to the first grating (0.31 degrees in the data presented here). At a distance $ {z_2} $ behind the focal plane, an X-ray detector is placed, which captures the transmitted beam and the diffraction orders of the gratings (only the first-order diffractions of each grating are shown for clarity). Due to the rotation $ \alpha $ and the separation $ \ell $, the first orders of different gratings are separated. Interference fringes, which contain the differential phase information of the beam, are seen where the first-order diffractions overlap (figure not to scale).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Images of the X-ray beam on the camera. Due to the rectangular input aperture of the KB-focusing mirrors at CXI, and the rather large difference in the tangential and sagittal focal lengths, the beam shape at the camera position is rectangular. The orientation of the checkerboard was chosen to maximize the separation between the first orders and the transmitted pulse. The transmitted beam was attenuated with 50 µm of Cu taped on the camera scintillator to avoid saturation and keep the intensity levels comparable to those of the first orders.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Reconstructed wavefront of the X-ray beam at the camera position, using two orthogonal differential phase measurements (i.e., top-right and bottom-right interference patterns in Fig. 2, and the algorithm described in Supplement 1. The X-ray beam has an RMS wavefront aberration of 0.16 waves. The residual differential phase errors (b and c), corresponding to the top-right and bottom-right shearograms in Fig. 2, respectively. The RMS of the residual differential phase error over the full-beam aperture is $ \lambda /70 $ for both (b and c).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Top: propagation of the X-ray beam around the focus. There is a 100 µm distance in $z$ between the images. (a) Image of the X-ray beam at the best focus and (b) line-out in the vertical (blue) and horizontal (red) direction, showing a full width at half maximum of 79 and 113 nm, respectively. With typical LCLS operation performance of 3 mJ and 50 fs, the peak intensity would be $ 2.6 \times {10^{20}}\;{{\rm W/cm}^2} $.

Equations (4)

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Δ ϕ = 2 π λ z 2 tan β ( s z 1 α + n ) + S ^ s ¯ ( ϕ 0 ( x , y ) ) ,
S ^ s ¯ ( ϕ 0 ( x , y ) ) = ϕ 0 ( x , y ) ϕ 0 ( x s x , y s y ) ,
s x = α ( z 2 z 1 ) tan β ,
s y = tan β ,

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