Abstract

Quantum key distribution (QKD) relies on quantum communication to allow distant parties to share a secure cryptographic key. Widespread adoption of QKD in current telecommunication networks will require the development of simple, low-cost, and stable systems. However, current QKD implementations usually include additional hardware that perform auxiliary tasks such as temporal synchronization and polarization basis tracking. Here we present a polarization-based QKD system operating at 1550 nm that performs synchronization and polarization compensation by exploiting only the hardware already needed for the quantum communication task. Polarization encoding is performed by a self-compensating Sagnac loop modulator that exhibits high temporal stability and the lowest intrinsic quantum bit error rate reported so far. The QKD system was tested over a fiber-optic link, demonstrating tolerance up to about 40 dB of channel losses. Due to its reduced hardware requirements and the quality of the source, this work represents an important step towards technologically mature QKD systems.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (6)

F. Arute, K. Arya, R. Babbush, D. Bacon, J. C. Bardin, R. Barends, R. Biswas, S. Boixo, F. G. Brandao, D. A. Buell, and B. Burkett, “Quantum supremacy using a programmable superconducting processor,” Nature 574, 505–510 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Agnesi, M. Avesani, A. Stanco, P. Villoresi, and G. Vallone, “All-fiber self-compensating polarization encoder for quantum key distribution,” Opt. Lett. 44, 2398–2401 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, Y.-H. Li, H.-B. Xie, Z.-P. Li, X. Jiang, W.-Q. Cai, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, S.-K. Liao, and C.-Z. Peng, “High-speed robust polarization modulation for quantum key distribution,” Opt. Lett. 44, 5262–5265 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. K. Bochkov and A. S. Trushechkin, “Security of quantum key distribution with detection-efficiency mismatch in the single-photon case: tight bounds,” Phys. Rev. A 99, 032308 (2019).
[Crossref]

X.-B. An, H. Zhang, C.-M. Zhang, W. Chen, S. Wang, Z.-Q. Yin, Q. Wang, D.-Y. He, P.-L. Hao, S.-F. Liu, X.-Y. Zhou, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Practical quantum digital signature with a gigahertz BB84 quantum key distribution system,” Opt. Lett. 44, 139–142 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Jiang, K. Wei, L. Huang, K. Xu, Q.-C. Sun, Y.-Z. Zhang, W. Zhang, H. Li, L. You, Z. Wang, H.-K. Lo, F. Xu, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Remote blind state preparation with weak coherent pulses in the field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 100503 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (12)

M. Avesani, D. G. Marangon, G. Vallone, and P. Villoresi, “Source-device-independent heterodyne-based quantum random number generator at 17 Gbps,” Nat. Commun. 9, 5365 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Boaron, B. Korzh, R. Houlmann, G. Boso, D. Rusca, S. Gray, M.-J. Li, D. Nolan, A. Martin, and H. Zbinden, “Simple 2.5 GHz time-bin quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 171108 (2018).
[Crossref]

D.-D. Li, S. Gao, G.-C. Li, L. Xue, L.-W. Wang, C.-B. Lu, Y. Xiang, Z.-Y. Zhao, L.-C. Yan, Z.-Y. Chen, G. Yu, and J.-H. Liu, “Field implementation of long-distance quantum key distribution over aerial fiber with fast polarization feedback,” Opt. Express 26, 22793–22800 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Calderaro, C. Agnesi, D. Dequal, F. Vedovato, M. Schiavon, A. Santamato, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, G. Vallone, and P. Villoresi, “Towards quantum communication from global navigation satellite system,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 4, 015012 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Agnesi, F. Vedovato, M. Schiavon, D. Dequal, L. Calderaro, M. Tomasin, D. G. Marangon, A. Stanco, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, G. Vallone, and P. Villoresi, “Exploring the boundaries of quantum mechanics: advances in satellite quantum communications,” Philos. Trans. Royal Soc. A 376, 20170461 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, W. Chen, Z.-Q. Yin, D.-Y. He, C. Hui, P.-L. Hao, G.-J. Fan-Yuan, C. Wang, L.-J. Zhang, J. Kuang, S.-F. Liu, Z. Zhou, Y.-G. Wang, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Practical gigahertz quantum key distribution robust against channel disturbance,” Opt. Lett. 43, 2030–2033 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. L. Roberts, M. Pittaluga, M. Minder, M. Lucamarini, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Patterning-effect mitigating intensity modulator for secure decoy-state quantum key distribution,” Opt. Lett. 43, 5110–5113 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Boaron, G. Boso, D. Rusca, C. Vulliez, C. Autebert, M. Caloz, M. Perrenoud, G. Gras, F. Bussières, M.-J. Li, D. Nolan, A. Martin, and H. Zbinden, “Secure quantum key distribution over 421 km of optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 190502 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Bunandar, A. Lentine, C. Lee, H. Cai, C. M. Long, N. Boynton, N. Martinez, C. Derose, C. Chen, M. Grein, D. Trotter, A. Starbuck, A. Pomerene, S. Hamilton, F. N. C. Wong, R. Camacho, P. Davids, J. Urayama, and D. Englund, “Metropolitan quantum key distribution with silicon photonics,” Phys. Rev. X 8, 021009 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Grünenfelder, A. Boaron, D. Rusca, A. Martin, and H. Zbinden, “Simple and high-speed polarization-based QKD,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 051108 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Rusca, A. Boaron, F. Grünenfelder, A. Martin, and H. Zbinden, “Finite-key analysis for the 1-decoy state QKD protocol,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 171104 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Flamini, N. Spagnolo, and F. Sciarrino, “Photonic quantum information processing: a review,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 82, 016001 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (9)

S.-K. Liao, H.-L. Yong, C. Liu, G.-L. Shentu, D.-D. Li, J. Lin, H. Dai, S.-Q. Zhao, B. Li, J.-Y. Guan, W. Chen, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Li, Z.-H. Lin, G.-S. Pan, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, W.-Z. Zhang, W.-Y. Liu, J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, X.-B. Wang, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Long-distance free-space quantum key distribution in daylight towards inter-satellite communication,” Nat. Photonics 11, 509–513 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. T. Islam, C. C. W. Lim, C. Cahall, J. Kim, and D. J. Gauthier, “Provably secure and high-rate quantum key distribution with time-bin qudits,” Sci. Adv. 3, e1701491 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Sibson, J. E. Kennard, S. Stanisic, C. Erven, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Integrated silicon photonics for high-speed quantum key distribution,” Optica 4, 172–177 (2017).
[Crossref]

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549, 43–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Bedington, J. M. Arrazola, and A. Ling, “Progress in satellite quantum key distribution,” npj Quantum Inf. 3, 30 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-Y. Ding, H. Chen, S. Wang, D.-Y. He, Z.-Q. Yin, W. Chen, Z. Zhou, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Polarization variations in installed fibers and their influence on quantum key distribution systems,” Opt. Express 25, 27923–27936 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-Y. Ding, W. Chen, H. Chen, C. Wang, Y.-P. Li, S. Wang, Z.-Q. Yin, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Polarization-basis tracking scheme for quantum key distribution using revealed sifted key bits,” Opt. Lett. 42, 1023–1026 (2017).
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2016 (2)

D. Dequal, G. Vallone, D. Bacco, S. Gaiarin, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, and P. Villoresi, “Experimental single-photon exchange along a space link of 7000 km,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 010301 (2016).
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2015 (5)

G. Vallone, D. G. Marangon, M. Canale, I. Savorgnan, D. Bacco, M. Barbieri, S. Calimani, C. Barbieri, N. Laurenti, and P. Villoresi, “Adaptive real time selection for quantum key distribution in lossy and turbulent free-space channels,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 042320 (2015).
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2014 (3)

G. Vallone, V. D’Ambrosio, A. Sponselli, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, F. Sciarrino, and P. Villoresi, “Free-space quantum key distribution by rotation-invariant twisted photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 060503 (2014).
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2012 (1)

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2010 (2)

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2008 (3)

2007 (1)

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2006 (2)

2004 (2)

T. Honjo, K. Inoue, and H. Takahashi, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution experiment with a planar light-wave circuit Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2797–2799 (2004).
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2002 (1)

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2001 (1)

L. M. K. Vandersypen, M. Steffen, G. Breyta, C. S. Yannoni, M. H. Sherwood, and I. L. Chuang, “Experimental realization of Shor’s quantum factoring algorithm using nuclear magnetic resonance,” Nature 414, 883–887 (2001).
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2000 (1)

H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, B. Huttner, A. Muller, and W. Tittel, “Practical aspects of quantum cryptographic key distribution,” J. Cryptol. 13, 207–220 (2000).
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F. Arute, K. Arya, R. Babbush, D. Bacon, J. C. Bardin, R. Barends, R. Biswas, S. Boixo, F. G. Brandao, D. A. Buell, and B. Burkett, “Quantum supremacy using a programmable superconducting processor,” Nature 574, 505–510 (2019).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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» Supplement 1       Additional information on the intensity modulator and on fine-key security analysis.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup. For a detailed description, see Section 2. Single-mode fibers are indicated in yellow, while polarization-maintaining fibers are in blue.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Intrinsic QBER and temporal stability of the POGNAC polarization encoder. The average QBER measured for the key-generation basis was $ {Q_{\cal Z}} = 0.07 \pm 0.02\% $ (dashed red line), while an average $ {Q_{\cal X}} = 0.02 \pm 0.01\% $ (dashed green line) was measured for the control basis. A close-up between minutes 15–30 can be seen in the inset plot.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. QBER measurement for a 6 h long acquisition along a 26 km optical fiber channel. The average QBER measured for the key-generation basis was $ {Q_{\cal Z}} = 0.3 \pm 0.1\% $ (dashed blue line), while an average $ {Q_{\cal X}} = 0.2 \pm 0.1\% $ (dashed yellow line) was measured for the control basis.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Sifted and secure key rate as a function of channel losses. For the four runs with lower losses, we also include finite-key analysis ($ {{\rm SKR}_{fk}} $), for 90 s of acquisition each. The equivalent fiber distance (upper $ x $-axis) is based on SMF28 losses (0.2 dB/km). The crosses represent the experimental runs, while the lines show the results of our simulation based on the physical parameters of our experiment. Error bars are standard deviations, obtained by simulating 1000 repetitions of the experiment.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Comparison among Intrinsic QBERs Reported in Literaturea

Equations (3)

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| ψ o u t ϕ e , ϕ = 1 2 ( | H + e i ( ϕ e ϕ ) | V ) ,
S K R = [ s Z , 0 + s Z , 1 ( 1 h ( ϕ Z ) ) f n Z h ( Q Z ) ] / t ,
S K R f k = S K R [ 6 log 2 ( 19 / ϵ s e c ) + log 2 ( 2 / ϵ c o n f ) ] / t ,

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