Abstract

In this Letter, we report for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the possibility of visualizing an atomizing spray by simultaneously recording x-ray absorption and two-photon laser-induced fluorescence imaging. This unique illumination/detection scheme is made possible due to the use of soft x rays emitted from a laser-driven x-ray source. An 800 mJ laser pulse of 38 fs duration is used to generate an x-ray beam with up to $ 4 \times {10^8} $ photons ranging from 1 to 10 keV, allowing projection radiography of water jets generated by an automotive port fuel injector. In addition, a fraction of the laser pulse ($ {\sim} 10{\rm mJ} $) is employed to form a light sheet and to induce two-photon fluorescence in a dye added to the water. The resulting high-contrast fluorescence images provide fine details of the spray structure, with reduced blur from multiple light scattering, while the integrated liquid mass is extracted from the x-ray radiography. In this proof of principle, we show that the combination of these two highly complementary techniques, in both the visible and soft x-ray regimes, is very promising for future characterization of challenging spray, as well as for further understanding of the physics of liquid atomization.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (1)

E. Berrocal, J. P. C. Conrad, C. L. Arnold, M. Wensing, M. Linne, and M. Miranda, OSA Contin. 2, 983 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

T. J. Heindel, Atomization Sprays 28, 1029 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Kristensson and E. Berrocal, Sci. Rep. 8, 11751 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Svendsen, I. G. González, M. Hansson, J. B. Svensson, H. Ekerfelt, A. Persson, and O. Lundh, Opt. Express 26, 33930 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Mahieu, N. Jourdain, K. T. Phuoc, F. Dorchies, J.-P. Goddet, A. Lifschitz, P. Renaudin, and L. Lecherbourg, Nat. Commun. 9, 3276 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Döpp, L. Hehn, J. Götzfried, J. Wenz, M. Gilljohann, H. Ding, S. Schindler, F. Pfeiffer, and S. Karsch, Optica 5, 199 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

Y. N. Mishra, E. Kristensson, M. Koegl, J. Jönsson, L. Zigan, and E. Berrocal, Exp. Fluids 58, 110 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. R. Halls, C. D. Radke, B. J. Reuter, A. L. Kastengren, J. R. Gord, and T. R. Meyer, Opt. Express 25, 1605 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

2012 (4)

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, and M. Aldén, Opt. Express 20, 14437 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Berrocal, J. Johnsson, E. Kristensson, and M. Aldén, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publication 7, 12015 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Idlahcen, C. Rozé, L. Méès, T. Girasole, and J.-B. Blaisot, Exp. Fluids 52, 289 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. A. Linne, Exp. Fluids 53, 655 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

A. Pak, K. A. Marsh, S. F. Martins, W. Lu, W. B. Mori, and Joshi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 025003 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. A. Linne, M. Paciaroni, E. Berrocal, and D. Sedarsky, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 2147 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

W. Lu, M. Tzoufras, C. Joshi, F. S. Tsung, W. B. Mori, J. Vieira, R. A. Fonseca, and L. O. Silva, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 061301 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

A. Rousse, K. T. Phuoc, R. Shah, A. Pukhov, E. Lefebvre, V. Malka, S. Kiselev, F. Burgy, J. Rousseau, D. Umstadter, and D. Hulin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 135005 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Paciaroni and M. Linne, Appl. Opt. 43, 5100 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1671 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, M. J. R. Y. Yue, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, Science 295, 1261 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, R. Poola, and J. Wang, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 7, 356 (2000).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

T. Tajima and J. M. Dawson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 267 (1979).
[Crossref]

Albert, F.

F. Albert and A. G. R. Thomas, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 58, 103001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Aldén, M.

Arnold, C. L.

E. Berrocal, J. P. C. Conrad, C. L. Arnold, M. Wensing, M. Linne, and M. Miranda, OSA Contin. 2, 983 (2019).
[Crossref]

Berrocal, E.

E. Berrocal, J. P. C. Conrad, C. L. Arnold, M. Wensing, M. Linne, and M. Miranda, OSA Contin. 2, 983 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Kristensson and E. Berrocal, Sci. Rep. 8, 11751 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. N. Mishra, E. Kristensson, M. Koegl, J. Jönsson, L. Zigan, and E. Berrocal, Exp. Fluids 58, 110 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Berrocal, S.-G. Pettersson, and E. Kristensson, Opt. Lett. 41, 5612 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Berrocal, J. Johnsson, E. Kristensson, and M. Aldén, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publication 7, 12015 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, and M. Aldén, Opt. Express 20, 14437 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. A. Linne, M. Paciaroni, E. Berrocal, and D. Sedarsky, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 2147 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, Opt. Express 16, 17870 (2008).
[Crossref]

Blaisot, J.-B.

S. Idlahcen, C. Rozé, L. Méès, T. Girasole, and J.-B. Blaisot, Exp. Fluids 52, 289 (2012).
[Crossref]

Burgy, F.

A. Rousse, K. T. Phuoc, R. Shah, A. Pukhov, E. Lefebvre, V. Malka, S. Kiselev, F. Burgy, J. Rousseau, D. Umstadter, and D. Hulin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 135005 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1671 (2003).
[Crossref]

Conrad, J. P. C.

E. Berrocal, J. P. C. Conrad, C. L. Arnold, M. Wensing, M. Linne, and M. Miranda, OSA Contin. 2, 983 (2019).
[Crossref]

Dawson, J. M.

T. Tajima and J. M. Dawson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 267 (1979).
[Crossref]

Ding, H.

Döpp, A.

Dorchies, F.

B. Mahieu, N. Jourdain, K. T. Phuoc, F. Dorchies, J.-P. Goddet, A. Lifschitz, P. Renaudin, and L. Lecherbourg, Nat. Commun. 9, 3276 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ekerfelt, H.

Ercan, A.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1671 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, M. J. R. Y. Yue, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, Science 295, 1261 (2002).
[Crossref]

Falgout, Z.

Fonseca, R. A.

W. Lu, M. Tzoufras, C. Joshi, F. S. Tsung, W. B. Mori, J. Vieira, R. A. Fonseca, and L. O. Silva, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 061301 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fontes, E.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1671 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, M. J. R. Y. Yue, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, Science 295, 1261 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gilljohann, M.

Girasole, T.

S. Idlahcen, C. Rozé, L. Méès, T. Girasole, and J.-B. Blaisot, Exp. Fluids 52, 289 (2012).
[Crossref]

Goddet, J.-P.

B. Mahieu, N. Jourdain, K. T. Phuoc, F. Dorchies, J.-P. Goddet, A. Lifschitz, P. Renaudin, and L. Lecherbourg, Nat. Commun. 9, 3276 (2018).
[Crossref]

González, I. G.

Gord, J. R.

Götzfried, J.

Gruner, S. M.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1671 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, M. J. R. Y. Yue, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, Science 295, 1261 (2002).
[Crossref]

Halls, B. R.

Hansson, M.

Hehn, L.

Heindel, T. J.

T. J. Heindel, Atomization Sprays 28, 1029 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hulin, D.

A. Rousse, K. T. Phuoc, R. Shah, A. Pukhov, E. Lefebvre, V. Malka, S. Kiselev, F. Burgy, J. Rousseau, D. Umstadter, and D. Hulin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 135005 (2004).
[Crossref]

Idlahcen, S.

S. Idlahcen, C. Rozé, L. Méès, T. Girasole, and J.-B. Blaisot, Exp. Fluids 52, 289 (2012).
[Crossref]

Johnsson, J.

E. Berrocal, J. Johnsson, E. Kristensson, and M. Aldén, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publication 7, 12015 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jönsson, J.

Y. N. Mishra, E. Kristensson, M. Koegl, J. Jönsson, L. Zigan, and E. Berrocal, Exp. Fluids 58, 110 (2017).
[Crossref]

Joshi,

A. Pak, K. A. Marsh, S. F. Martins, W. Lu, W. B. Mori, and Joshi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 025003 (2010).
[Crossref]

Joshi, C.

W. Lu, M. Tzoufras, C. Joshi, F. S. Tsung, W. B. Mori, J. Vieira, R. A. Fonseca, and L. O. Silva, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 061301 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jourdain, N.

B. Mahieu, N. Jourdain, K. T. Phuoc, F. Dorchies, J.-P. Goddet, A. Lifschitz, P. Renaudin, and L. Lecherbourg, Nat. Commun. 9, 3276 (2018).
[Crossref]

Karsch, S.

Kastengren, A. L.

Kiselev, S.

A. Rousse, K. T. Phuoc, R. Shah, A. Pukhov, E. Lefebvre, V. Malka, S. Kiselev, F. Burgy, J. Rousseau, D. Umstadter, and D. Hulin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 135005 (2004).
[Crossref]

Koegl, M.

Y. N. Mishra, E. Kristensson, M. Koegl, J. Jönsson, L. Zigan, and E. Berrocal, Exp. Fluids 58, 110 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kristensson, E.

E. Kristensson and E. Berrocal, Sci. Rep. 8, 11751 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. N. Mishra, E. Kristensson, M. Koegl, J. Jönsson, L. Zigan, and E. Berrocal, Exp. Fluids 58, 110 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Berrocal, S.-G. Pettersson, and E. Kristensson, Opt. Lett. 41, 5612 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, and M. Aldén, Opt. Express 20, 14437 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Berrocal, J. Johnsson, E. Kristensson, and M. Aldén, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publication 7, 12015 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, Opt. Express 16, 17870 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lecherbourg, L.

B. Mahieu, N. Jourdain, K. T. Phuoc, F. Dorchies, J.-P. Goddet, A. Lifschitz, P. Renaudin, and L. Lecherbourg, Nat. Commun. 9, 3276 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lefebvre, E.

A. Rousse, K. T. Phuoc, R. Shah, A. Pukhov, E. Lefebvre, V. Malka, S. Kiselev, F. Burgy, J. Rousseau, D. Umstadter, and D. Hulin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 135005 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lifschitz, A.

B. Mahieu, N. Jourdain, K. T. Phuoc, F. Dorchies, J.-P. Goddet, A. Lifschitz, P. Renaudin, and L. Lecherbourg, Nat. Commun. 9, 3276 (2018).
[Crossref]

Linne, M.

Linne, M. A.

M. A. Linne, Exp. Fluids 53, 655 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. A. Linne, M. Paciaroni, E. Berrocal, and D. Sedarsky, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 2147 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lu, W.

A. Pak, K. A. Marsh, S. F. Martins, W. Lu, W. B. Mori, and Joshi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 025003 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Lu, M. Tzoufras, C. Joshi, F. S. Tsung, W. B. Mori, J. Vieira, R. A. Fonseca, and L. O. Silva, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 061301 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lundh, O.

MacPhee, A. G.

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, M. J. R. Y. Yue, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, Science 295, 1261 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mahieu, B.

B. Mahieu, N. Jourdain, K. T. Phuoc, F. Dorchies, J.-P. Goddet, A. Lifschitz, P. Renaudin, and L. Lecherbourg, Nat. Commun. 9, 3276 (2018).
[Crossref]

Malka, V.

A. Rousse, K. T. Phuoc, R. Shah, A. Pukhov, E. Lefebvre, V. Malka, S. Kiselev, F. Burgy, J. Rousseau, D. Umstadter, and D. Hulin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 135005 (2004).
[Crossref]

Marsh, K. A.

A. Pak, K. A. Marsh, S. F. Martins, W. Lu, W. B. Mori, and Joshi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 025003 (2010).
[Crossref]

Martins, S. F.

A. Pak, K. A. Marsh, S. F. Martins, W. Lu, W. B. Mori, and Joshi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 025003 (2010).
[Crossref]

Méès, L.

S. Idlahcen, C. Rozé, L. Méès, T. Girasole, and J.-B. Blaisot, Exp. Fluids 52, 289 (2012).
[Crossref]

Meyer, T. R.

Miranda, M.

E. Berrocal, J. P. C. Conrad, C. L. Arnold, M. Wensing, M. Linne, and M. Miranda, OSA Contin. 2, 983 (2019).
[Crossref]

Mishra, Y. N.

Y. N. Mishra, E. Kristensson, M. Koegl, J. Jönsson, L. Zigan, and E. Berrocal, Exp. Fluids 58, 110 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mori, W. B.

A. Pak, K. A. Marsh, S. F. Martins, W. Lu, W. B. Mori, and Joshi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 025003 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Lu, M. Tzoufras, C. Joshi, F. S. Tsung, W. B. Mori, J. Vieira, R. A. Fonseca, and L. O. Silva, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 061301 (2007).
[Crossref]

Narayanan, S.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1671 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, M. J. R. Y. Yue, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, Science 295, 1261 (2002).
[Crossref]

Paciaroni, M.

M. A. Linne, M. Paciaroni, E. Berrocal, and D. Sedarsky, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 2147 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Paciaroni and M. Linne, Appl. Opt. 43, 5100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pak, A.

A. Pak, K. A. Marsh, S. F. Martins, W. Lu, W. B. Mori, and Joshi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 025003 (2010).
[Crossref]

Persson, A.

Pettersson, S.-G.

Pfeiffer, F.

Phuoc, K. T.

B. Mahieu, N. Jourdain, K. T. Phuoc, F. Dorchies, J.-P. Goddet, A. Lifschitz, P. Renaudin, and L. Lecherbourg, Nat. Commun. 9, 3276 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Rousse, K. T. Phuoc, R. Shah, A. Pukhov, E. Lefebvre, V. Malka, S. Kiselev, F. Burgy, J. Rousseau, D. Umstadter, and D. Hulin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 135005 (2004).
[Crossref]

Poola, R.

C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, R. Poola, and J. Wang, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 7, 356 (2000).
[Crossref]

Powell, C. F.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1671 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, M. J. R. Y. Yue, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, Science 295, 1261 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, R. Poola, and J. Wang, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 7, 356 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pukhov, A.

A. Rousse, K. T. Phuoc, R. Shah, A. Pukhov, E. Lefebvre, V. Malka, S. Kiselev, F. Burgy, J. Rousseau, D. Umstadter, and D. Hulin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 135005 (2004).
[Crossref]

Radke, C. D.

Rahm, M.

Renaudin, P.

B. Mahieu, N. Jourdain, K. T. Phuoc, F. Dorchies, J.-P. Goddet, A. Lifschitz, P. Renaudin, and L. Lecherbourg, Nat. Commun. 9, 3276 (2018).
[Crossref]

Renzi, M. J.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1671 (2003).
[Crossref]

Reuter, B. J.

Richter, M.

Rousse, A.

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Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (1)

OSA Contin. (1)

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Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams (1)

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Science (1)

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, M. J. R. Y. Yue, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, Science 295, 1261 (2002).
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Other (1)

“X-ray interactions with matter,” http://henke.lbl.gov/optical_constants/ .

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       X-ray comparison, calibration and additional information

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Illustration of the experimental setup. An x-ray camera detects the transmitted x rays while a sCMOS camera records simultaneously the fluorescence generated from a two-photon excitation process. The zoomed inset illustrates the laser plasma x-ray generation: the background plasma density is shown in blue, the laser pulse is in red, and the x-ray beam is indicated in magenta, while the detected spectrum is shown above the x-ray camera. A small part of the laser pulse is extracted before focusing (not shown here) then redirected towards the spray and focused into a light sheet. The blue curve represents a typical electron trajectory. The emitted electrons are deflected from the x-ray beam using a strong dipole magnet and imaged on a Lanex screen to obtain the electron beam spectra. An aluminum foil + Kapton vacuum window allows blocking the laser radiation while letting the x-ray beam exit the vacuum chamber.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Image results and comparison. In (a), simultaneous recordings of x-ray radiography and planar 2p-LIF are shown. In this case, no KI was added to the injected water. In (b), the injected water contains 10% of KI. In this case, x-ray absorption is significant, increasing image contrast. By averaging and calibrating 50 single-shot images, the liquid equivalent liquid path length is extracted.