Abstract

The ability to measure and control the carrier–envelope phase (CEP) of few-cycle laser pulses is of paramount importance for both frequency metrology and attosecond science. Here, we present a phase meter relying on CEP-dependent photocurrents induced by circularly polarized few-cycle pulses focused between electrodes in ambient air. The new device facilitates compact, single-shot CEP measurements under ambient conditions and promises CEP tagging at repetition rates orders of magnitude higher than most conventional CEP detection schemes, as well as straightforward implementation at longer wavelengths.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  38. M. Kübel, K. J. Betsch, N. G. Johnson, U. Kleineberg, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, G. G. Paulus, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Carrier-envelope-phase tagging in measurements with long acquisition times,” New J. Phys. 14, 093027 (2012).
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    [Crossref]

2019 (2)

2018 (3)

2017 (2)

S. Fukahori, T. Ando, S. Miura, R. Kanya, K. Yamanouchi, T. Rathje, and G. G. Paulus, “Determination of the absolute carrier-envelope phase by angle-resolved photoelectron spectra of Ar by intense circularly polarized few-cycle pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 053410 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, P. Kellner, D. Adolph, D. Zille, P. Wustelt, D. Würzler, S. Skruszewicz, M. Möller, A. M. Sayler, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot, real-time carrier-envelope phase measurement and tagging based on stereographic above-threshold ionization at short-wave infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 42, 5150–5153 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

M. Kübel, C. Burger, N. G. Kling, T. Pischke, L. Beaufore, I. Ben-Itzhak, G. G. Paulus, J. Ullrich, T. Pfeifer, R. Moshammer, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Complete characterization of single-cycle double ionization of argon from the nonsequential to the sequential ionization regime,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 053422 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Kübel, R. Siemering, C. Burger, N. G. Kling, H. Li, A. S. Alnaser, B. Bergues, S. Zherebtsov, A. M. Azzeer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. Moshammer, R. de Vivie-Riedle, and M. F. Kling, “Steering proton migration in hydrocarbons using intense few-cycle laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 193001 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. S. Schöffler, X. Xie, P. Wustelt, M. Möller, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, A. M. Sayler, A. Baltuska, G. G. Paulus, and M. Kitzler, “Laser-subcycle control of sequential double-ionization dynamics of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 063421 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Kling, C. Burger, and M. F. Kling, “Single-cycle non-sequential double ionization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Süßmann, L. Seiffert, S. Zherebtsov, V. Mondes, J. Stierle, M. Arbeiter, J. Plenge, P. Rupp, C. Peltz, A. Kessel, S. A. Trushin, B. Ahn, D. Kim, C. Graf, E. Rühl, M. F. Kling, and T. Fennel, “Field propagation-induced directionality of carrier-envelope phase-controlled photoemission from nanospheres,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7944 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

A. S. Alnaser, M. Kübel, R. Siemering, B. Bergues, N. G. Kling, K. J. Betsch, Y. Deng, J. Schmidt, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, J. Ullrich, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. Moshammer, U. Kleineberg, F. Krausz, R. de Vivie-Riedle, and M. F. Kling, “Subfemtosecond steering of hydrocarbon deprotonation through superposition of vibrational modes,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3800 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Miura, T. Ando, K. Ootaka, A. Iwasaki, H. Xu, T. Okino, K. Yamanouchi, D. Hoff, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, M. Kitzler, A. Baltuška, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Carrier-envelope-phase dependence of asymmetric C–D bond breaking in C2D2 in an intense few-cycle laser field,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 595-596, 61–66 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Paasch-Colberg, A. Schiffrin, N. Karpowicz, S. Kruchinin, Ö. Saglam, S. Keiber, O. Razskazovskaya, S. Mühlbrandt, A. Alnaser, M. Kübel, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, J. Reichert, T. Wittmann, J. V. Barth, M. I. Stockman, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Solid-state light-phase detector,” Nat. Photonics 8, 214–218 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Lücking, V. Crozatier, N. Forget, A. Assion, and F. Krausz, “Approaching the limits of carrier-envelope phase stability in a millijoule-class amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3884–3887 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (6)

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nat. Commun. 3, 813 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Bergues, “The circular-polarization phase-meter,” Opt. Express 20, 25317–25324 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Bai, C. Li, P. Liu, R. X. Li, R. J. Xu, H. Yang, Z. N. Zeng, H. H. Lu, G. Y. Hu, A. L. Lei, Y. X. Leng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Characterizing the polarity of a few-cycle infrared laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 45–49 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Kübel, K. J. Betsch, N. G. Johnson, U. Kleineberg, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, G. G. Paulus, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Carrier-envelope-phase tagging in measurements with long acquisition times,” New J. Phys. 14, 093027 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-L. Liu, X. Lu, J.-L. Ma, L.-B. Feng, X.-L. Ge, Y. Zheng, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Q.-L. Dong, W.-M. Wang, Z.-H. Wang, H. Teng, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Long lifetime air plasma channel generated by femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Opt. Express 20, 5968–5973 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

F. Süßmann, S. Zherebtsov, J. Plenge, N. G. Johnson, M. Kübel, A. M. Sayler, V. Mondes, C. Graf, E. Rühl, G. G. Paulus, D. Schmischke, P. Swrschek, and M. F. Kling, “Single-shot velocity-map imaging of attosecond light-field control at kilohertz rate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093109 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Gu, G. Marcus, Y. Deng, T. Metzger, C. Teisset, N. Ishii, T. Fuji, A. Baltuska, R. Butkus, V. Pervak, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, T. Kobayashi, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Generation of carrier-envelope-phase-stable 2-cycle 740  µj pulses at 2.1  µm carrier wavelength,” Opt. Express 17, 62–69 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

S. Koke, C. Grebing, B. Manschwetus, and G. Steinmeyer, “Fast f-to-2f interferometer for a direct measurement of the carrier-envelope phase drift of ultrashort amplified laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2545–2547 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

P. Dietrich, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Determining the absolute carrier phase of a few-cycle laser pulse,” Opt. Lett. 25, 16–18 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264–2267 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172, 59–68 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

Adolph, D.

Agostini, P.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ahn, B.

F. Süßmann, L. Seiffert, S. Zherebtsov, V. Mondes, J. Stierle, M. Arbeiter, J. Plenge, P. Rupp, C. Peltz, A. Kessel, S. A. Trushin, B. Ahn, D. Kim, C. Graf, E. Rühl, M. F. Kling, and T. Fennel, “Field propagation-induced directionality of carrier-envelope phase-controlled photoemission from nanospheres,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7944 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aladi, M.

D. Kormin, A. Borot, G. Ma, W. Dallari, B. Bergues, M. Aladi, I. B. Földes, and L. Veisz, “Spectral interferometry with waveform-dependent relativistic high-order harmonics from plasma surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 9, 4992 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alahmed, Z. A.

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D. Kormin, A. Borot, G. Ma, W. Dallari, B. Bergues, M. Aladi, I. B. Földes, and L. Veisz, “Spectral interferometry with waveform-dependent relativistic high-order harmonics from plasma surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 9, 4992 (2018).
[Crossref]

Villoresi, P.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

Wadsworth, W. J.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264–2267 (2000).
[Crossref]

Walther, H.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.-M.

Wang, Z.-H.

Wei, Z.-Y.

Wheeler, J.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[Crossref]

Witting, T.

Wittmann, T.

T. Paasch-Colberg, A. Schiffrin, N. Karpowicz, S. Kruchinin, Ö. Saglam, S. Keiber, O. Razskazovskaya, S. Mühlbrandt, A. Alnaser, M. Kübel, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, J. Reichert, T. Wittmann, J. V. Barth, M. I. Stockman, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Solid-state light-phase detector,” Nat. Photonics 8, 214–218 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

Würzler, D.

Wustelt, P.

Y. Zhang, P. Kellner, D. Adolph, D. Zille, P. Wustelt, D. Würzler, S. Skruszewicz, M. Möller, A. M. Sayler, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot, real-time carrier-envelope phase measurement and tagging based on stereographic above-threshold ionization at short-wave infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 42, 5150–5153 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. S. Schöffler, X. Xie, P. Wustelt, M. Möller, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, A. M. Sayler, A. Baltuska, G. G. Paulus, and M. Kitzler, “Laser-subcycle control of sequential double-ionization dynamics of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 063421 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xie, X.

M. S. Schöffler, X. Xie, P. Wustelt, M. Möller, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, A. M. Sayler, A. Baltuska, G. G. Paulus, and M. Kitzler, “Laser-subcycle control of sequential double-ionization dynamics of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 063421 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

S. Miura, T. Ando, K. Ootaka, A. Iwasaki, H. Xu, T. Okino, K. Yamanouchi, D. Hoff, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, M. Kitzler, A. Baltuška, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Carrier-envelope-phase dependence of asymmetric C–D bond breaking in C2D2 in an intense few-cycle laser field,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 595-596, 61–66 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

Xu, R. J.

Y. Bai, C. Li, P. Liu, R. X. Li, R. J. Xu, H. Yang, Z. N. Zeng, H. H. Lu, G. Y. Hu, A. L. Lei, Y. X. Leng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Characterizing the polarity of a few-cycle infrared laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 45–49 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z. Z.

Y. Bai, C. Li, P. Liu, R. X. Li, R. J. Xu, H. Yang, Z. N. Zeng, H. H. Lu, G. Y. Hu, A. L. Lei, Y. X. Leng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Characterizing the polarity of a few-cycle infrared laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 45–49 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yakovlev, V. S.

T. Paasch-Colberg, A. Schiffrin, N. Karpowicz, S. Kruchinin, Ö. Saglam, S. Keiber, O. Razskazovskaya, S. Mühlbrandt, A. Alnaser, M. Kübel, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, J. Reichert, T. Wittmann, J. V. Barth, M. I. Stockman, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Solid-state light-phase detector,” Nat. Photonics 8, 214–218 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yamanouchi, K.

S. Fukahori, T. Ando, S. Miura, R. Kanya, K. Yamanouchi, T. Rathje, and G. G. Paulus, “Determination of the absolute carrier-envelope phase by angle-resolved photoelectron spectra of Ar by intense circularly polarized few-cycle pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 053410 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Miura, T. Ando, K. Ootaka, A. Iwasaki, H. Xu, T. Okino, K. Yamanouchi, D. Hoff, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, M. Kitzler, A. Baltuška, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Carrier-envelope-phase dependence of asymmetric C–D bond breaking in C2D2 in an intense few-cycle laser field,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 595-596, 61–66 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

Y. Bai, C. Li, P. Liu, R. X. Li, R. J. Xu, H. Yang, Z. N. Zeng, H. H. Lu, G. Y. Hu, A. L. Lei, Y. X. Leng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Characterizing the polarity of a few-cycle infrared laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 45–49 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Z. N.

Y. Bai, C. Li, P. Liu, R. X. Li, R. J. Xu, H. Yang, Z. N. Zeng, H. H. Lu, G. Y. Hu, A. L. Lei, Y. X. Leng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Characterizing the polarity of a few-cycle infrared laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 45–49 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, X.-C.

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zheng, Y.

Zherebtsov, S.

M. Kübel, R. Siemering, C. Burger, N. G. Kling, H. Li, A. S. Alnaser, B. Bergues, S. Zherebtsov, A. M. Azzeer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. Moshammer, R. de Vivie-Riedle, and M. F. Kling, “Steering proton migration in hydrocarbons using intense few-cycle laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 193001 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Süßmann, L. Seiffert, S. Zherebtsov, V. Mondes, J. Stierle, M. Arbeiter, J. Plenge, P. Rupp, C. Peltz, A. Kessel, S. A. Trushin, B. Ahn, D. Kim, C. Graf, E. Rühl, M. F. Kling, and T. Fennel, “Field propagation-induced directionality of carrier-envelope phase-controlled photoemission from nanospheres,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7944 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Süßmann, S. Zherebtsov, J. Plenge, N. G. Johnson, M. Kübel, A. M. Sayler, V. Mondes, C. Graf, E. Rühl, G. G. Paulus, D. Schmischke, P. Swrschek, and M. F. Kling, “Single-shot velocity-map imaging of attosecond light-field control at kilohertz rate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zille, D.

Zrost, K.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Bai, C. Li, P. Liu, R. X. Li, R. J. Xu, H. Yang, Z. N. Zeng, H. H. Lu, G. Y. Hu, A. L. Lei, Y. X. Leng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Characterizing the polarity of a few-cycle infrared laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 45–49 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Miura, T. Ando, K. Ootaka, A. Iwasaki, H. Xu, T. Okino, K. Yamanouchi, D. Hoff, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, M. Kitzler, A. Baltuška, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Carrier-envelope-phase dependence of asymmetric C–D bond breaking in C2D2 in an intense few-cycle laser field,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 595-596, 61–66 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Kling, C. Burger, and M. F. Kling, “Single-cycle non-sequential double ionization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (4)

A. S. Alnaser, M. Kübel, R. Siemering, B. Bergues, N. G. Kling, K. J. Betsch, Y. Deng, J. Schmidt, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, J. Ullrich, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. Moshammer, U. Kleineberg, F. Krausz, R. de Vivie-Riedle, and M. F. Kling, “Subfemtosecond steering of hydrocarbon deprotonation through superposition of vibrational modes,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3800 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Süßmann, L. Seiffert, S. Zherebtsov, V. Mondes, J. Stierle, M. Arbeiter, J. Plenge, P. Rupp, C. Peltz, A. Kessel, S. A. Trushin, B. Ahn, D. Kim, C. Graf, E. Rühl, M. F. Kling, and T. Fennel, “Field propagation-induced directionality of carrier-envelope phase-controlled photoemission from nanospheres,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7944 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Kormin, A. Borot, G. Ma, W. Dallari, B. Bergues, M. Aladi, I. B. Földes, and L. Veisz, “Spectral interferometry with waveform-dependent relativistic high-order harmonics from plasma surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 9, 4992 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nat. Commun. 3, 813 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

T. Paasch-Colberg, A. Schiffrin, N. Karpowicz, S. Kruchinin, Ö. Saglam, S. Keiber, O. Razskazovskaya, S. Mühlbrandt, A. Alnaser, M. Kübel, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, J. Reichert, T. Wittmann, J. V. Barth, M. I. Stockman, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Solid-state light-phase detector,” Nat. Photonics 8, 214–218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (3)

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

M. Kübel, K. J. Betsch, N. G. Johnson, U. Kleineberg, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, G. G. Paulus, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Carrier-envelope-phase tagging in measurements with long acquisition times,” New J. Phys. 14, 093027 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172, 59–68 (1999).
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Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (8)

P. Dietrich, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Determining the absolute carrier phase of a few-cycle laser pulse,” Opt. Lett. 25, 16–18 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. Hoff, F. J. Furch, T. Witting, K. Rühle, D. Adolph, A. M. Sayler, M. J. J. Vrakking, G. G. Paulus, and C. P. Schulz, “Continuous every-single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement and control at 100  kHz,” Opt. Lett. 43, 3850–3853 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Nisoli, S. D. Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, C. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5  fs,” Opt. Lett. 22, 522–524 (1997).
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L. Xu, C. Spielmann, A. Poppe, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Route to phase control of ultrashort light pulses,” Opt. Lett. 21, 2008–2010 (1996).
[Crossref]

F. Lücking, V. Crozatier, N. Forget, A. Assion, and F. Krausz, “Approaching the limits of carrier-envelope phase stability in a millijoule-class amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3884–3887 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Koke, C. Grebing, B. Manschwetus, and G. Steinmeyer, “Fast f-to-2f interferometer for a direct measurement of the carrier-envelope phase drift of ultrashort amplified laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2545–2547 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, P. Kellner, D. Adolph, D. Zille, P. Wustelt, D. Würzler, S. Skruszewicz, M. Möller, A. M. Sayler, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot, real-time carrier-envelope phase measurement and tagging based on stereographic above-threshold ionization at short-wave infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 42, 5150–5153 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. A. Debrah, G. A. Stewart, G. Basnayake, J. W. G. Tisch, S. K. Lee, and W. Li, “Direct in-situ single-shot measurements of the absolute carrier-envelope phases of ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Lett. 44, 3582–3585 (2019).
[Crossref]

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

M. Kübel, C. Burger, N. G. Kling, T. Pischke, L. Beaufore, I. Ben-Itzhak, G. G. Paulus, J. Ullrich, T. Pfeifer, R. Moshammer, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Complete characterization of single-cycle double ionization of argon from the nonsequential to the sequential ionization regime,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 053422 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Fukahori, T. Ando, S. Miura, R. Kanya, K. Yamanouchi, T. Rathje, and G. G. Paulus, “Determination of the absolute carrier-envelope phase by angle-resolved photoelectron spectra of Ar by intense circularly polarized few-cycle pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 053410 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. S. Schöffler, X. Xie, P. Wustelt, M. Möller, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, A. M. Sayler, A. Baltuska, G. G. Paulus, and M. Kitzler, “Laser-subcycle control of sequential double-ionization dynamics of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 063421 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264–2267 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Kübel, R. Siemering, C. Burger, N. G. Kling, H. Li, A. S. Alnaser, B. Bergues, S. Zherebtsov, A. M. Azzeer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. Moshammer, R. de Vivie-Riedle, and M. F. Kling, “Steering proton migration in hydrocarbons using intense few-cycle laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 193001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

F. Süßmann, S. Zherebtsov, J. Plenge, N. G. Johnson, M. Kübel, A. M. Sayler, V. Mondes, C. Graf, E. Rühl, G. G. Paulus, D. Schmischke, P. Swrschek, and M. F. Kling, “Single-shot velocity-map imaging of attosecond light-field control at kilohertz rate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       Supplementary information to the main manuscript.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Experimental setup. Few-cycle laser pulses are sent through a quarter-wave plate to convert their linear polarization to near circular, and focused into ambient air in the gap between three metal electrodes: two tip-shaped electrodes and a ground electrode. A movable pair of wedges is used to change the dispersion in the beam path. (b) Detailed view of the focus position in the gap between the electrodes. (c) Single-shot current signal flowing between the tips and ground (GND). The signal is integrated over the yellow region.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Single-shot signal $ {Q_1} $ (blue) and $ {Q_2} $ (red) recorded while linearly scanning the CEP from 0 to $ 2\pi $. (b) Single-shot parametric plot recorded while scanning the CEP from 0 to $ 2\pi $ and back. The standard deviation dr of the radius is indicated by the two red arrows.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Measured CEP while sweeping it with a triangular function from $ - \pi $ to $ \pi $. The dashed red line was obtained by fitting the constant phase of the 3 Hz triangle function to the data points. (b) Difference between the fitted and measured triangular wave. The blue line represents the averaged value over 100 ms.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Lower panels: raw single-shot signals (gray scatter plots) and averaged signal (solid lines) recorded while linearly changing the amount of dispersive material in the beam path. The signals exhibit a phase shift close to 90°, indicated by the dashed lines. Upper panel: Fourier-limited pulse (3.5 fs intensity FWHM) calculated from the measured laser spectrum (center) and simulated pulses after propagation through 200 µm less (left) or 200 µm more (right) fused silica (9.3 fs intensity FWHM).

Equations (1)

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E ( t ) = E 0 e t 2 τ 2 1 + ε 2 [ cos ( ω t + ϕ ) , ε sin ( ω t + ϕ ) , 0 ] ,