Abstract

We combine nanophotonics and cold atom research in a new apparatus enabling the delivery of single-atom tweezer arrays in the vicinity of photonic crystal waveguides.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. D. E. Chang, J. S. Douglas, A. González-Tudela, C. L. Hung, and H. J. Kimble, Rev. Mod. Phys. 90, 031002 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, S. Stobbe, A. Rauschenbeutel, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, H. Pichler, and P. Zoller, Nature 541, 473 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  3. T. Tiecke, J. D. Thompson, N. Pulmones de Leon, L. R. Liu, V. Vuletić, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 508, 241 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. D. Hood, A. Goban, A. Asenjo-Garcia, M. Lu, S.-P. Yu, D. E. Chang, and H. J. Kimble, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 10507 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  5. A.-M. A. van Veggel and C. J. Killow, Adv. Opt. Technol. 3, 293 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. S.-P. Yu, J. D. Hood, J. A. Muniz, M. J. Martin, R. Norte, C.-L. Hung, S. M. Meenehan, J. D. Cohen, O. Painter, and H. J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 111103 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. Refer to Chapter 6 and Fig. 6.4 in J. A. Muniz Silva, Caltech PhD thesis, https://thesis.library.caltech.edu/10174/ .
  8. D.-H. Gwo, “Ultra precision and reliable bonding method,” U. S. patent6284 085 (September4, 2001).
  9. J. Ye, H. J. Kimble, and H. Katori, Science 320, 1734 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  10. C.-L. Hung, S. M. Meenehan, D. E. Chang, O. Painter, and H. J. Kimble, New J. Phys. 15, 083026 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  11. N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 023005 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Endres, H. Bernien, A. Keesling, H. Levine, E. R. Anschuetz, A. Krajenbrink, C. Senko, V. Vuletic, M. Greiner, and M. D. Lukin, Science 354, 1024 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. Barredo, S. De Léséleuc, V. Lienhard, T. Lahaye, and A. Browaeys, Science 354, 1021 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  14. S.-P. Yu, J. A. Muniz, C.-L. Hung, and H. J. Kimble, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 116, 12743 (2019).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

S.-P. Yu, J. A. Muniz, C.-L. Hung, and H. J. Kimble, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 116, 12743 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

D. E. Chang, J. S. Douglas, A. González-Tudela, C. L. Hung, and H. J. Kimble, Rev. Mod. Phys. 90, 031002 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, S. Stobbe, A. Rauschenbeutel, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, H. Pichler, and P. Zoller, Nature 541, 473 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

J. D. Hood, A. Goban, A. Asenjo-Garcia, M. Lu, S.-P. Yu, D. E. Chang, and H. J. Kimble, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 10507 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Endres, H. Bernien, A. Keesling, H. Levine, E. R. Anschuetz, A. Krajenbrink, C. Senko, V. Vuletic, M. Greiner, and M. D. Lukin, Science 354, 1024 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Barredo, S. De Léséleuc, V. Lienhard, T. Lahaye, and A. Browaeys, Science 354, 1021 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

A.-M. A. van Veggel and C. J. Killow, Adv. Opt. Technol. 3, 293 (2014).
[Crossref]

S.-P. Yu, J. D. Hood, J. A. Muniz, M. J. Martin, R. Norte, C.-L. Hung, S. M. Meenehan, J. D. Cohen, O. Painter, and H. J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 111103 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Tiecke, J. D. Thompson, N. Pulmones de Leon, L. R. Liu, V. Vuletić, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 508, 241 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

C.-L. Hung, S. M. Meenehan, D. E. Chang, O. Painter, and H. J. Kimble, New J. Phys. 15, 083026 (2013).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. Ye, H. J. Kimble, and H. Katori, Science 320, 1734 (2008).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 023005 (2002).
[Crossref]

Anschuetz, E. R.

M. Endres, H. Bernien, A. Keesling, H. Levine, E. R. Anschuetz, A. Krajenbrink, C. Senko, V. Vuletic, M. Greiner, and M. D. Lukin, Science 354, 1024 (2016).
[Crossref]

Asenjo-Garcia, A.

J. D. Hood, A. Goban, A. Asenjo-Garcia, M. Lu, S.-P. Yu, D. E. Chang, and H. J. Kimble, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 10507 (2016).
[Crossref]

Barredo, D.

D. Barredo, S. De Léséleuc, V. Lienhard, T. Lahaye, and A. Browaeys, Science 354, 1021 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bernien, H.

M. Endres, H. Bernien, A. Keesling, H. Levine, E. R. Anschuetz, A. Krajenbrink, C. Senko, V. Vuletic, M. Greiner, and M. D. Lukin, Science 354, 1024 (2016).
[Crossref]

Browaeys, A.

D. Barredo, S. De Léséleuc, V. Lienhard, T. Lahaye, and A. Browaeys, Science 354, 1021 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chang, D. E.

D. E. Chang, J. S. Douglas, A. González-Tudela, C. L. Hung, and H. J. Kimble, Rev. Mod. Phys. 90, 031002 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. D. Hood, A. Goban, A. Asenjo-Garcia, M. Lu, S.-P. Yu, D. E. Chang, and H. J. Kimble, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 10507 (2016).
[Crossref]

C.-L. Hung, S. M. Meenehan, D. E. Chang, O. Painter, and H. J. Kimble, New J. Phys. 15, 083026 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cohen, J. D.

S.-P. Yu, J. D. Hood, J. A. Muniz, M. J. Martin, R. Norte, C.-L. Hung, S. M. Meenehan, J. D. Cohen, O. Painter, and H. J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 111103 (2014).
[Crossref]

De Léséleuc, S.

D. Barredo, S. De Léséleuc, V. Lienhard, T. Lahaye, and A. Browaeys, Science 354, 1021 (2016).
[Crossref]

Douglas, J. S.

D. E. Chang, J. S. Douglas, A. González-Tudela, C. L. Hung, and H. J. Kimble, Rev. Mod. Phys. 90, 031002 (2018).
[Crossref]

Endres, M.

M. Endres, H. Bernien, A. Keesling, H. Levine, E. R. Anschuetz, A. Krajenbrink, C. Senko, V. Vuletic, M. Greiner, and M. D. Lukin, Science 354, 1024 (2016).
[Crossref]

Goban, A.

J. D. Hood, A. Goban, A. Asenjo-Garcia, M. Lu, S.-P. Yu, D. E. Chang, and H. J. Kimble, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 10507 (2016).
[Crossref]

González-Tudela, A.

D. E. Chang, J. S. Douglas, A. González-Tudela, C. L. Hung, and H. J. Kimble, Rev. Mod. Phys. 90, 031002 (2018).
[Crossref]

Grangier, P.

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 023005 (2002).
[Crossref]

Greiner, M.

M. Endres, H. Bernien, A. Keesling, H. Levine, E. R. Anschuetz, A. Krajenbrink, C. Senko, V. Vuletic, M. Greiner, and M. D. Lukin, Science 354, 1024 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gwo, D.-H.

D.-H. Gwo, “Ultra precision and reliable bonding method,” U. S. patent6284 085 (September4, 2001).

Hood, J. D.

J. D. Hood, A. Goban, A. Asenjo-Garcia, M. Lu, S.-P. Yu, D. E. Chang, and H. J. Kimble, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 10507 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-P. Yu, J. D. Hood, J. A. Muniz, M. J. Martin, R. Norte, C.-L. Hung, S. M. Meenehan, J. D. Cohen, O. Painter, and H. J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 111103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hung, C. L.

D. E. Chang, J. S. Douglas, A. González-Tudela, C. L. Hung, and H. J. Kimble, Rev. Mod. Phys. 90, 031002 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hung, C.-L.

S.-P. Yu, J. A. Muniz, C.-L. Hung, and H. J. Kimble, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 116, 12743 (2019).
[Crossref]

S.-P. Yu, J. D. Hood, J. A. Muniz, M. J. Martin, R. Norte, C.-L. Hung, S. M. Meenehan, J. D. Cohen, O. Painter, and H. J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 111103 (2014).
[Crossref]

C.-L. Hung, S. M. Meenehan, D. E. Chang, O. Painter, and H. J. Kimble, New J. Phys. 15, 083026 (2013).
[Crossref]

Katori, H.

J. Ye, H. J. Kimble, and H. Katori, Science 320, 1734 (2008).
[Crossref]

Keesling, A.

M. Endres, H. Bernien, A. Keesling, H. Levine, E. R. Anschuetz, A. Krajenbrink, C. Senko, V. Vuletic, M. Greiner, and M. D. Lukin, Science 354, 1024 (2016).
[Crossref]

Killow, C. J.

A.-M. A. van Veggel and C. J. Killow, Adv. Opt. Technol. 3, 293 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kimble, H. J.

S.-P. Yu, J. A. Muniz, C.-L. Hung, and H. J. Kimble, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 116, 12743 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. E. Chang, J. S. Douglas, A. González-Tudela, C. L. Hung, and H. J. Kimble, Rev. Mod. Phys. 90, 031002 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. D. Hood, A. Goban, A. Asenjo-Garcia, M. Lu, S.-P. Yu, D. E. Chang, and H. J. Kimble, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 10507 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-P. Yu, J. D. Hood, J. A. Muniz, M. J. Martin, R. Norte, C.-L. Hung, S. M. Meenehan, J. D. Cohen, O. Painter, and H. J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 111103 (2014).
[Crossref]

C.-L. Hung, S. M. Meenehan, D. E. Chang, O. Painter, and H. J. Kimble, New J. Phys. 15, 083026 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, H. J. Kimble, and H. Katori, Science 320, 1734 (2008).
[Crossref]

Krajenbrink, A.

M. Endres, H. Bernien, A. Keesling, H. Levine, E. R. Anschuetz, A. Krajenbrink, C. Senko, V. Vuletic, M. Greiner, and M. D. Lukin, Science 354, 1024 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lahaye, T.

D. Barredo, S. De Léséleuc, V. Lienhard, T. Lahaye, and A. Browaeys, Science 354, 1021 (2016).
[Crossref]

Levine, H.

M. Endres, H. Bernien, A. Keesling, H. Levine, E. R. Anschuetz, A. Krajenbrink, C. Senko, V. Vuletic, M. Greiner, and M. D. Lukin, Science 354, 1024 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lienhard, V.

D. Barredo, S. De Léséleuc, V. Lienhard, T. Lahaye, and A. Browaeys, Science 354, 1021 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, L. R.

T. Tiecke, J. D. Thompson, N. Pulmones de Leon, L. R. Liu, V. Vuletić, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 508, 241 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lodahl, P.

P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, S. Stobbe, A. Rauschenbeutel, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, H. Pichler, and P. Zoller, Nature 541, 473 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.

J. D. Hood, A. Goban, A. Asenjo-Garcia, M. Lu, S.-P. Yu, D. E. Chang, and H. J. Kimble, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 10507 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lukin, M. D.

M. Endres, H. Bernien, A. Keesling, H. Levine, E. R. Anschuetz, A. Krajenbrink, C. Senko, V. Vuletic, M. Greiner, and M. D. Lukin, Science 354, 1024 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Tiecke, J. D. Thompson, N. Pulmones de Leon, L. R. Liu, V. Vuletić, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 508, 241 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mahmoodian, S.

P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, S. Stobbe, A. Rauschenbeutel, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, H. Pichler, and P. Zoller, Nature 541, 473 (2017).
[Crossref]

Martin, M. J.

S.-P. Yu, J. D. Hood, J. A. Muniz, M. J. Martin, R. Norte, C.-L. Hung, S. M. Meenehan, J. D. Cohen, O. Painter, and H. J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 111103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Meenehan, S. M.

S.-P. Yu, J. D. Hood, J. A. Muniz, M. J. Martin, R. Norte, C.-L. Hung, S. M. Meenehan, J. D. Cohen, O. Painter, and H. J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 111103 (2014).
[Crossref]

C.-L. Hung, S. M. Meenehan, D. E. Chang, O. Painter, and H. J. Kimble, New J. Phys. 15, 083026 (2013).
[Crossref]

Muniz, J. A.

S.-P. Yu, J. A. Muniz, C.-L. Hung, and H. J. Kimble, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 116, 12743 (2019).
[Crossref]

S.-P. Yu, J. D. Hood, J. A. Muniz, M. J. Martin, R. Norte, C.-L. Hung, S. M. Meenehan, J. D. Cohen, O. Painter, and H. J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 111103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Norte, R.

S.-P. Yu, J. D. Hood, J. A. Muniz, M. J. Martin, R. Norte, C.-L. Hung, S. M. Meenehan, J. D. Cohen, O. Painter, and H. J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 111103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Painter, O.

S.-P. Yu, J. D. Hood, J. A. Muniz, M. J. Martin, R. Norte, C.-L. Hung, S. M. Meenehan, J. D. Cohen, O. Painter, and H. J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 111103 (2014).
[Crossref]

C.-L. Hung, S. M. Meenehan, D. E. Chang, O. Painter, and H. J. Kimble, New J. Phys. 15, 083026 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pichler, H.

P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, S. Stobbe, A. Rauschenbeutel, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, H. Pichler, and P. Zoller, Nature 541, 473 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pulmones de Leon, N.

T. Tiecke, J. D. Thompson, N. Pulmones de Leon, L. R. Liu, V. Vuletić, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 508, 241 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rauschenbeutel, A.

P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, S. Stobbe, A. Rauschenbeutel, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, H. Pichler, and P. Zoller, Nature 541, 473 (2017).
[Crossref]

Reymond, G.

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 023005 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schlosser, N.

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 023005 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schneeweiss, P.

P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, S. Stobbe, A. Rauschenbeutel, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, H. Pichler, and P. Zoller, Nature 541, 473 (2017).
[Crossref]

Senko, C.

M. Endres, H. Bernien, A. Keesling, H. Levine, E. R. Anschuetz, A. Krajenbrink, C. Senko, V. Vuletic, M. Greiner, and M. D. Lukin, Science 354, 1024 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stobbe, S.

P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, S. Stobbe, A. Rauschenbeutel, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, H. Pichler, and P. Zoller, Nature 541, 473 (2017).
[Crossref]

Thompson, J. D.

T. Tiecke, J. D. Thompson, N. Pulmones de Leon, L. R. Liu, V. Vuletić, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 508, 241 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tiecke, T.

T. Tiecke, J. D. Thompson, N. Pulmones de Leon, L. R. Liu, V. Vuletić, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 508, 241 (2014).
[Crossref]

van Veggel, A.-M. A.

A.-M. A. van Veggel and C. J. Killow, Adv. Opt. Technol. 3, 293 (2014).
[Crossref]

Volz, J.

P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, S. Stobbe, A. Rauschenbeutel, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, H. Pichler, and P. Zoller, Nature 541, 473 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vuletic, V.

M. Endres, H. Bernien, A. Keesling, H. Levine, E. R. Anschuetz, A. Krajenbrink, C. Senko, V. Vuletic, M. Greiner, and M. D. Lukin, Science 354, 1024 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Tiecke, J. D. Thompson, N. Pulmones de Leon, L. R. Liu, V. Vuletić, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 508, 241 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

J. Ye, H. J. Kimble, and H. Katori, Science 320, 1734 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.-P.

S.-P. Yu, J. A. Muniz, C.-L. Hung, and H. J. Kimble, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 116, 12743 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. D. Hood, A. Goban, A. Asenjo-Garcia, M. Lu, S.-P. Yu, D. E. Chang, and H. J. Kimble, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 10507 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-P. Yu, J. D. Hood, J. A. Muniz, M. J. Martin, R. Norte, C.-L. Hung, S. M. Meenehan, J. D. Cohen, O. Painter, and H. J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 111103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zoller, P.

P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, S. Stobbe, A. Rauschenbeutel, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, H. Pichler, and P. Zoller, Nature 541, 473 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Technol. (1)

A.-M. A. van Veggel and C. J. Killow, Adv. Opt. Technol. 3, 293 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S.-P. Yu, J. D. Hood, J. A. Muniz, M. J. Martin, R. Norte, C.-L. Hung, S. M. Meenehan, J. D. Cohen, O. Painter, and H. J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 111103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, S. Stobbe, A. Rauschenbeutel, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, H. Pichler, and P. Zoller, Nature 541, 473 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Tiecke, J. D. Thompson, N. Pulmones de Leon, L. R. Liu, V. Vuletić, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 508, 241 (2014).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

C.-L. Hung, S. M. Meenehan, D. E. Chang, O. Painter, and H. J. Kimble, New J. Phys. 15, 083026 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 023005 (2002).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2)

S.-P. Yu, J. A. Muniz, C.-L. Hung, and H. J. Kimble, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 116, 12743 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. D. Hood, A. Goban, A. Asenjo-Garcia, M. Lu, S.-P. Yu, D. E. Chang, and H. J. Kimble, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 10507 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

D. E. Chang, J. S. Douglas, A. González-Tudela, C. L. Hung, and H. J. Kimble, Rev. Mod. Phys. 90, 031002 (2018).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

J. Ye, H. J. Kimble, and H. Katori, Science 320, 1734 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Endres, H. Bernien, A. Keesling, H. Levine, E. R. Anschuetz, A. Krajenbrink, C. Senko, V. Vuletic, M. Greiner, and M. D. Lukin, Science 354, 1024 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Barredo, S. De Léséleuc, V. Lienhard, T. Lahaye, and A. Browaeys, Science 354, 1021 (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

Refer to Chapter 6 and Fig. 6.4 in J. A. Muniz Silva, Caltech PhD thesis, https://thesis.library.caltech.edu/10174/ .

D.-H. Gwo, “Ultra precision and reliable bonding method,” U. S. patent6284 085 (September4, 2001).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Advanced apparatus that combines free-space optical coupling to photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs) within the vacuum envelope of an $ {{\rm SiO}_2} $ cell (i.e., the red-ended ``coupling objectives'' $ {{\rm CO}_1} $ and $ {{\rm CO}_2} $ ) and optical tweezers (i.e., the labelled “tweezer objectives” $ {{\rm TO}_1} $ and $ {{\rm TO}_2} $ ) that have large numerical aperture. Inset: A Si chip with 16 PCWs is bonded to a small $ {{\rm SiO}_2} $ “table”, which is in turn mounted inside the $ {{\rm SiO}_2} $ cell, with an inner wall spacing of 1 cm. Cold atoms are delivered to the cell along the vertical axis of the vacuum cell.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) (i) (I) Silicon chip containing the 16 PCWs suspended across a $ 2\;{\rm mm} \times 7\;{\rm mm} $ window is silicate bonded to a polished optical table. (ii) The central region of the SiN waveguide containing the PCW is illuminated by six tweezer spots. The PCW is constrained transversely along y by sets of tethers at either side of the image. (b) (i) Zoomed in scattering of the six tweezer spots on the waveguide. The light from the tweezers is reflected from the PCW and imaged through the tweezer objective. (ii) an SEM image of the PCW that reflects the tweezer light. Cyan ellipses indicate the separation of the tweezer spots and approximate the confinement of an atom trapped with energy 0.5 mK (i.e., half the trap depth). (iii) Free-space atomic fluorescence from loading of the six tweezer sites with a 1.26 µm beam waist for 150 experimental shots 3 mm away from the chip structure. (c) Power handling of the free-space coupler [SEM inset (i)] used to launch guided mode light into the PCW with the 0.5 mW limit of previous devices shown [4,6].