Abstract

The wide range of functions that are possible with lithium niobate (LN) waveguide devices, including phase and intensity modulation, second-harmonic generation, and difference-frequency generation, makes it attractive as a potential microcomb material. LN microcombs would combine essential comb self-referencing and control functions with the pulse generation process in a single microresonator device. Here, we demonstrate a soliton microcomb in a monolithic high-Q LN resonator. Direct frequency doubling of the soliton spectrum is observed inside the same cavity. The LN soliton mode-locking process also self-starts and allows bi-directional switching of soliton states, effects that are shown to result from the LN photorefractive effect. The Kerr solitons exhibit a self-frequency shift resulting from the Raman effect of LN. This microcomb platform can dramatically simplify miniature time keeping, frequency synthesis/division, and spectroscopy systems. Moreover, direct generation of femtosecond timescale pulses within LN microresonators can benefit quantum photonics and signal processing systems.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (6)

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh, X. Yi, Y.-H. Lai, S. Leifer, I. S. Grudinin, G. Vasisht, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, J. Wang, D. Mawet, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, C. Beichman, and K. Vahala, “Searching for exoplanets using a microresonator astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 25–30 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, R. Zhu, H. Hu, and M. Lončar, “Monolithic photonic circuits for Kerr frequency comb generation, filtering and modulation,” Nat. Commun. 10, 978 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Lu, W. Wang, W. Zhang, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, M. Liu, L. Wang, C.-L. Zou, C.-H. Dong, B. Zhao, and W. Zhao, “Deterministic generation and switching of dissipative Kerr soliton in a thermally controlled micro-resonator,” AIP Adv. 9, 025314 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, J. M. Silver, L. Del Bino, F. Copie, M. T. M. Woodley, G. N. Ghalanos, A. Ø. Svela, N. Moroney, and P. Del’Haye, “Sub-milliwatt-level microresonator solitons with extended access range using an auxiliary laser,” Optica 6, 206–212 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, X. Liu, Y. Xu, M. Xu, J. B. Surya, J. Lu, A. Bruch, C. Zou, and H. X. Tang, “Soliton microcomb generation at 2 μm in z-cut lithium niobate microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 44, 3182–3185 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (8)

C. Wang, M. Zhang, B. Stern, M. Lipson, and M. Lončar, “Nanophotonic lithium niobate electro-optic modulators,” Opt. Express 26, 1547–1555 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. O. Weigel, J. Zhao, K. Fang, H. Al-Rubaye, D. Trotter, D. Hood, J. Mudrick, C. Dallo, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, C. T. DeRose, A. L. Lentine, G. Rebeiz, and S. Mookherjea, “Bonded thin film lithium niobate modulator on a silicon photonics platform exceeding 100 GHz 3-dB electrical modulation bandwidth,” Opt. Express 26, 23728–23739(2018).
[Crossref]

X. Guo, C.-L. Zou, H. Jung, Z. Gong, A. Bruch, L. Jiang, and H. X. Tang, “Efficient generation of a near-visible frequency comb via Cherenkov-like radiation from a Kerr microcomb,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 10, 014012(2018).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh and K. J. Vahala, “Soliton microcomb range measurement,” Science 359, 884–887 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359, 887–891 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361, eaan8083 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “On-chip dual-comb source for spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 4, e1701858 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. C. Cole, E. S. Lamb, P. Del’Haye, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Soliton crystals in Kerr resonators,” Nat. Photonics 11, 671–676 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, V. Brasch, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13, 94–102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, T. C. Briles, D. A. Westly, T. E. Drake, J. R. Stone, B. R. Ilic, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Stably accessing octave-spanning microresonator frequency combs in the soliton regime,” Optica 4, 193–203 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Luo, H. Jiang, S. Rogers, H. Liang, Y. He, and Q. Lin, “On-chip second-harmonic generation and broadband parametric down-conversion in a lithium niobate microresonator,” Opt. Express 25, 24531–24539 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Liang, R. Luo, Y. He, H. Jiang, and Q. Lin, “High-quality lithium niobate photonic crystal nanocavities,” Optica 4, 1251–1258 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Wolf, I. Breunig, H. Zappe, and K. Buse, “Cascaded second-order optical nonlinearities in on-chip micro rings,” Opt. Express 25, 29927–29933 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (9)

X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, and K. Vahala, “Active capture and stabilization of temporal solitons in microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2037–2040 (2016).
[Crossref]

P.-H. Wang, J. A. Jaramillo-Villegas, Y. Xuan, X. Xue, C. Bao, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Intracavity characterization of micro-comb generation in the single-soliton regime,” Opt. Express 24, 10890–10897 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, Y. Li, N. Volet, L. Wang, J. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Thin film wavelength converters for photonic integrated circuits,” Optica 3, 531–535 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Joshi, J. K. Jang, K. Luke, X. Ji, S. A. Miller, A. Klenner, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Thermally controlled comb generation and soliton modelocking in microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2565–2568 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, and K. Vahala, “Theory and measurement of the soliton self-frequency shift and efficiency in optical microcavities,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3419–3422 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Yu, Y. Okawachi, A. G. Griffith, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Mode-locked mid-infrared frequency combs in a silicon microresonator,” Optica 3, 854–860 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Karpov, H. Guo, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Raman self-frequency shift of dissipative Kerr solitons in an optical microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 103902 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, and K. J. Vahala, “Microresonator soliton dual-comb spectroscopy,” Science 354, 600–603 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7957 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, M.-G. Suh, and K. Vahala, “Soliton frequency comb at microwave rates in a high-Q silica microresonator,” Optica 2, 1078–1085 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

2010 (1)

F. Leo, S. Coen, P. Kockaert, S.-P. Gorza, P. Emplit, and M. Haelterman, “Temporal cavity solitons in one-dimensional Kerr media as bits in an all-optical buffer,” Nat. Photonics 4, 471–476 (2010).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

L. Moretti, M. Iodice, F. G. D. Corte, and I. Rendina, “Temperature dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient of lithium niobate, from 300 to 515  K in the visible and infrared regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 036101 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Sohler, B. K. Das, D. Dey, S. Reza, H. Suche, and R. Ricken, “Erbium-doped lithium niobate waveguide lasers,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 990–997 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

R. Weis and T. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. A 37, 191–203 (1985).
[Crossref]

Al-Rubaye, H.

Anderson, M.

D. J. Wilson, K. Schneider, S. Hönl, M. Anderson, T. J. Kippenberg, and P. Seidler, “Integrated gallium phosphide nonlinear photonics,” arXiv:1808.03554 (2018).

Anderson, M. H.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

Atikian, H. A.

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D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
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Luo, R.

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W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7957 (2015).
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D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Lithium niobate microresonator and mode-locked Kerr solitons. (a) Conceptual schematic of a lithium niobate nanophotonic circuit that enables all essential functions for a soliton comb system integrated on a single chip. These include soliton pulse generation, frequency doubling for self-referencing, and potential electro–optical control of the pump. (b) Scanning electron microscope image of a z-cut LN microring with a radius of 100 μm. (c) Schematic of the waveguide cross section of the microring. (d) Measured dispersion Dint plotted versus mode number for the soliton-forming mode family. See Supplement 1 for details. (e), (f) Comb power versus frequency tuning when the pump laser frequency is scanned from red to blue (e) and blue to red (f) across the pump resonance. The laser power is 33 mW on chip. The shaded red and blue regions correspond to approximate red-detuned and blue-detuned regions, respectively. (g), (h) Optical spectrum of the single-soliton (g) and two-soliton (h) state, respectively, measured at the first and second steps of the comb power in (e) (indicated by gray arrows). In (g), the red curve is a fitting to the theoretical sech2 soliton spectral envelope. The left inset shows the corresponding FROG trace. The right inset shows the spectrum of a heterodyned beat note.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Second-harmonic generation. (a) Optical spectra and device image before comb generation. (b) As in panel (a) but for a single-soliton state. (c) As in panel (a) but for a soliton crystal state. In all figures: left panel is the optical spectrum in the telecom band, recorded with a resolution of 0.05 nm; middle panel is the optical spectrum of generated second harmonic, recorded with a resolution of 0.15 nm; and right panel is the optical microscope image showing second-harmonic scattering from the resonator. The pump power is 23 mW on chip. In the produced second-harmonic combs (middle panels), the comb line spacing is 200GHz and 800 GHz, respectively, for (b) and (c).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Bi-directional switching of soliton states. (a) Schematic showing the resonance tuning induced by the optical Kerr effect, which shifts the resonance towards the red (red curve) on a short time scale, and the photorefractive effect, which shifts the resonance towards the blue (blue curve) on a much longer time scale. As a result, the stable soliton formation regime (shaded region) resides within the laser detuning regime that is stabilized by the photorefractive effect, thereby enabling self-starting soliton mode locking. The gray curve represents the intrinsic cavity resonance (with a certain photorefractive-induced tuning). The inset is measured power transmission versus pump frequency tuning (red to blue) for a quasi-TE cavity mode at two pump powers. The higher power behavior here results from the photorefractive effect and stabilizes the system for red-detuned operation. (b) Comb power measured as a function of time when the laser frequency is scanned forward and backward across a few soliton steps. The dashed lines give the number of solitons. (c) Temporally resolved waveforms of the power spikes indicated as I-IV in (b). The dashed lines indicate the number of solitons corresponding to those in (b). (d) Comb power measured as in (b) but using a slower laser frequency scanning speed.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Schematic showing the bi-directional switching of soliton states. Each L-shaped colored surface represents the existence frequency tuning range of a soliton state [11,16]. Different colors of L-shaped surfaces represent distinct soliton number states. The photorefractive effect adiabatically blue shifts the cavity resonance (dashed blue curve in the background) and thus disperses the existence tuning ranges of different soliton states over different frequency ranges. The dark blue curve gives the path of increasing soliton number states when the laser frequency is increased, while the red curve gives the path of decreasing soliton number states when the laser frequency is decreased.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Raman-induced soliton-self-frequency-shift. (a) Optical spectra for two single-soliton states with different spectral widths. The pump mode is indicated by the dashed black line, and the red curves are the fitted sech2 envelopes, whose spectral centers are indicated by the green arrows. (b) SSFS as a function of 1/τs4 with experimental points shown as blue dots and theoretical fitting [43] shown in red.