Abstract

The ability to amplify light within silicon waveguides is central to the development of high-performance silicon photonic device technologies. To this end, the large optical nonlinearities made possible through stimulated Brillouin scattering offer a promising avenue for power-efficient all-silicon amplifiers, with recent demonstrations producing several dB of net amplification. However, scaling the degree of amplification to technologically compelling levels (>10dB), necessary for everything from filtering to small signal detection, remains an important goal. Here, we significantly enhance the Brillouin amplification process by harnessing an intermodal Brillouin interaction within a multi-spatial-mode silicon racetrack resonator. Using this approach, we demonstrate more than 20 dB of net Brillouin amplification in silicon, advancing state-of-the-art performance in silicon waveguides by a factor of 30. This level of amplification is achieved with modest (15mW) continuous-wave pump powers and produces low out-of-band noise. Moreover, we show that this same system behaves as a unidirectional amplifier, providing more than 28 dB of optical nonreciprocity without insertion loss in an all-silicon platform. Building on these results, this device concept opens the door to new types of all-silicon injection-locked Brillouin lasers, high-performance photonic filters, and waveguide-compatible distributed optomechanical phenomena.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

2018 (5)

E. Giacoumidis, A. Choudhary, E. Magi, D. Marpaung, K. Vu, P. Ma, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, B. Corcoran, M. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chip-based Brillouin processing for carrier recovery in self-coherent optical communications,” Optica 5, 1191–1199 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. T. Otterstrom, R. O. Behunin, E. A. Kittlaus, Z. Wang, and P. T. Rakich, “A silicon Brillouin laser,” Science 360, 1113–1116 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. T. Otterstrom, R. O. Behunin, E. A. Kittlaus, and P. T. Rakich, “Optomechanical cooling in a continuous system,” Phys. Rev. X 8, 041034 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. B. Sohn, S. Kim, and G. Bahl, “Time-reversal symmetry breaking with acoustic pumping of nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Photonics 12, 91–97 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. A. Kittlaus, N. T. Otterstrom, P. Kharel, S. Gertler, and P. T. Rakich, “Non-reciprocal interband Brillouin modulation,” Nat. Photonics 12, 613–619 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

E. A. Kittlaus, N. T. Otterstrom, and P. T. Rakich, “On-chip inter-modal Brillouin scattering,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15819 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. L. Sounas and A. Alù, “Non-reciprocal photonics based on time modulation,” Nat. Photonics 11, 774–783 (2017).
[Crossref]

M.-A. Miri, F. Ruesink, E. Verhagen, and A. Alù, “Optical nonreciprocity based on optomechanical coupling,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 064014 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Fang, J. Luo, A. Metelmann, M. H. Matheny, F. Marquardt, A. A. Clerk, and O. Painter, “Generalized non-reciprocity in an optomechanical circuit via synthetic magnetism and reservoir engineering,” Nat. Phys. 13, 465–471 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Choudhary, B. Morrison, I. Aryanfar, S. Shahnia, M. Pagani, Y. Liu, K. Vu, S. Madden, D. Marpaung, and B. J. Eggleton, “Advanced integrated microwave signal processing with giant on-chip Brillouin gain,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 846–854 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Morrison, A. Casas-Bedoya, G. Ren, K. Vu, Y. Liu, A. Zarifi, T. G. Nguyen, D.-Y. Choi, D. Marpaung, S. J. Madden, and A. Mitchell, “Compact Brillouin devices through hybrid integration on silicon,” Optica 4, 847–854 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

Y. Souidi, F. Taleb, J. Zheng, M. W. Lee, F. Du Burck, and V. Roncin, “Low-noise and high-gain Brillouin optical amplifier for narrowband active optical filtering based on a pump-to-signal optoelectronic tracking,” Appl. Opt. 55, 248–253 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Shen, Y.-L. Zhang, Y. Chen, C.-L. Zou, Y.-F. Xiao, X.-B. Zou, F.-W. Sun, G.-C. Guo, and C.-H. Dong, “Experimental realization of optomechanically induced non-reciprocity,” Nat. Photonics 10, 657–661 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Ruesink, M.-A. Miri, A. Alu, and E. Verhagen, “Nonreciprocity and magnetic-free isolation based on optomechanical interactions,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13662 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Hua, J. Wen, X. Jiang, Q. Hua, L. Jiang, and M. Xiao, “Demonstration of a chip-based optical isolator with parametric amplification,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13657 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, P. Pintus, C. Zhang, Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically driven and thermally tunable integrated optical isolators for silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 4403408 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. A. Kittlaus, H. Shin, and P. T. Rakich, “Large Brillouin amplification in silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10, 463–467 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

R. Van Laer, B. Kuyken, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Interaction between light and highly confined hypersound in a silicon photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 9, 199–203 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Van Laer, A. Bazin, B. Kuyken, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, “Net on-chip Brillouin gain based on suspended silicon nanowires,” New J. Phys. 17, 115005 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, M. C. Kuzyk, K. Han, H. Wang, and G. Bahl, “Non-reciprocal Brillouin scattering induced transparency,” Nat. Phys. 11, 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Dong, Z. Shen, C.-L. Zou, Y.-L. Zhang, W. Fu, and G.-C. Guo, “Brillouin-scattering-induced transparency and non-reciprocal light storage,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6193 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Wolff, P. Gutsche, M. J. Steel, B. J. Eggleton, and C. G. Poulton, “Power limits and a figure of merit for stimulated Brillouin scattering in the presence of third and fifth order loss,” Opt. Express 23, 26628–26638 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

R. Pant, D. Marpaung, I. V. Kabakova, B. Morrison, C. G. Poulton, and B. J. Eggleton, “On-chip stimulated Brillouin scattering for microwave signal processing and generation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 653–666 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

H. Shin, W. Qiu, R. Jarecki, J. A. Cox, R. H. Olsson, A. Starbuck, Z. Wang, and P. T. Rakich, “Tailorable stimulated Brillouin scattering in nanoscale silicon waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1944 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (5)

B. Kuyken, X. Liu, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, R. M. Osgood, and W. M. Green, “50  dB parametric on-chip gain in silicon photonic wires,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4401–4403 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. J. Heck, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. N. Sysak, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 333–346(2011).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kang, A. Butsch, and P. St.J. Russell, “Reconfigurable light-driven opto-acoustic isolators in photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photonics 5, 549–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472, 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5, 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 535–544 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4, 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4, 557–560 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Agazzi, J. D. Bradley, M. Dijkstra, F. Ay, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Monolithic integration of erbium-doped amplifiers with silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 27703–27711 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071117 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A hybrid AlGaInAs–silicon evanescent amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230–232 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441, 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kozlovskiĭ, “Detection of weak optical signals with a laser amplifier,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 102, 24–33 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Song, M. G. Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, “Observation of pulse delaying and advancement in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Express 13, 82–88 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 12, 4261–4268 (2004).
[Crossref]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of 11  dB fiber-to-fiber gain in a silicon Raman amplifier,” IEICE Electron. Express 1, 429–434 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Liang and H. Tsang, “Efficient Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3343–3345 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

Absil, P.

A. Masood, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, “Comparison of heater architectures for thermal control of silicon photonic circuits,” in 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 83–84.

Agazzi, L.

Alegre, T. M.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472, 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alu, A.

F. Ruesink, M.-A. Miri, A. Alu, and E. Verhagen, “Nonreciprocity and magnetic-free isolation based on optomechanical interactions,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13662 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

D. L. Sounas and A. Alù, “Non-reciprocal photonics based on time modulation,” Nat. Photonics 11, 774–783 (2017).
[Crossref]

M.-A. Miri, F. Ruesink, E. Verhagen, and A. Alù, “Optical nonreciprocity based on optomechanical coupling,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 064014 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aryanfar, I.

Ay, F.

Baets, R.

R. Van Laer, B. Kuyken, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Interaction between light and highly confined hypersound in a silicon photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 9, 199–203 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Van Laer, A. Bazin, B. Kuyken, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, “Net on-chip Brillouin gain based on suspended silicon nanowires,” New J. Phys. 17, 115005 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Kuyken, X. Liu, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, R. M. Osgood, and W. M. Green, “50  dB parametric on-chip gain in silicon photonic wires,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4401–4403 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Agazzi, J. D. Bradley, M. Dijkstra, F. Ay, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Monolithic integration of erbium-doped amplifiers with silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 27703–27711 (2010).
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Bahl, G.

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Supplementary Material (1)

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» Supplement 1       Supplemental document

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Resonantly enhanced Brillouin amplifier device concept and operation scheme. The amplifier is composed of a multi-spatial-mode racetrack resonator with two Brillouin-active regions. Using the frequency selectivity of the cavity, pump ( ω p ) and signal waves ( ω s ) are coupled into the antisymmetric and symmetric cavity modes, respectively, via a multimode coupler. As the pump and signal waves traverse the Brillouin-active segments, the pump wave resonantly amplifies the signal wave through stimulated intermodal Brillouin scattering. The signal wave exits the system through a mode-selective coupler (drop port), which is designed to couple strongly to the symmetric mode and weakly to the antisymmetric mode. (b) Schematic illustrating the cross-sectional geometry of the Brillouin-active regions. This suspended multimode silicon waveguide supports two transverse electric (TE)-like optical spatial modes and a 6 GHz antisymmetric Lamb-like elastic wave, which mediates intermodal Brillouin amplification. (c) Idealized optical transmission spectra at the through and drop ports. Coupling into the racetrack resonator via a multimode coupler yields a characteristic multimode transmission spectrum at the through port, with broad (centered at ω 2 m ) and narrow (centered at ω 1 n ) resonances corresponding to the antisymmetric and symmetric optical spatial modes, respectively. The mode-selective drop port is designed to couple out only the symmetric cavity modes. Resonantly enhanced Brillouin amplification measurements are performed by coupling the pump wave ( ω p ) to an antisymmetric cavity mode ( ω 2 m ) and sweeping the signal wave ( ω s ) through a symmetric cavity mode ( ω 1 n ) that is redshifted from by the Brillouin frequency ( Ω B ). (d) Zoomed-in transmission spectrum for the signal wave exiting the drop port when ω s ω 1 n with (active) and without (passive) the Brillouin gain supplied by the pump wave.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Diagram of the experimental apparatus used to characterize the resonantly enhanced Brillouin amplifier. Laser light is split along two paths. One path is used to synthesize an optical local oscillator (LO) using an acousto-optic modulator (AOM), which blueshifts the light by Δ = 2 π × 44 MHz . The other arm synthesizes pump and signal waves with the desired frequency detuning ( Ω = ω p ω s ) and powers using an intensity modulator (IM), erbium-doped-fiber amplifier (EDFA), and variable optical attenuator (VOA); the light is subsequently coupled on-chip for nonlinear amplification measurements. After passing through the device, the signal wave is coupled through the drop port and off-chip, where it is combined with the blueshifted LO and measured on a high-speed photodetector (PD 1). The RF spectrum analyzer sweeps the detuning ( Ω ) and measures the microwave power at ( Ω + Δ ), permitting single-sideband measurements of ω s = ω p Ω (without cross talk from light at ω p + Ω ). (b) Optical micrograph (in gray scale) showing a top-down view of part of the device. (c) Gain spectra as a function of signal wave detuning around the Brillouin resonance, showing more than 30 dB of gain and 20 dB of net amplification. Each trace represents a different estimated detuning of the optical cavity mode relative to the Brillouin frequency (see zoomed-out inset). Large optical cavity detunings relative to the Brillouin resonance result in lower amplification and characteristic asymmetric line shapes. (d) Measured and theoretical signal wave amplification produced over a range of intracavity powers. As the pump power approaches the laser threshold power, the resonantly enhanced Brillouin amplification increases dramatically. Data are compiled from a series of power, microwave frequency detuning, and wavelength sweeps (for more details see Supplement 1, Section 3.B). (e) Linewidth narrowing of the gain bandwidth as a function of signal wave amplification.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Demonstration of unidirectional optical amplification and nonreciprocity (for experimental apparatus, see Supplement 1, Section 3.A) (a) Experimental arrangement for directional amplification. Pump and signal waves are injected through respective multimode (top) and mode-specific (bottom) couplers such that they copropagate (forward direction) within the resonator. This configuration allows pump and signal waves to nonlinearly couple through a stimulated forward intermodal Brillouin process, yielding net amplification of the signal wave. (b) By contrast, a signal wave propagating in the opposite (backward) direction does not experience Brillouin gain as a result of phase matching; the elastic wave that mediates forward intermodal scattering is not phase-matched to the backward-scattering process. Thus, in this backward configuration, the signal wave experiences net loss resulting from linear transmission through the resonator. (c) Experimental demonstration of unidirectional amplification. Signal transmission through the system in the forward (red, copropagating with the pump) and backward (gray; counterpropagating with the pump) directions as a function of signal frequency detuning Ω / 2 π . This system yields a maximum 28 dB of nonreciprocity (with a FWHM of 350 kHz) and provides > 10 dB of isolation over a 2.5 MHz bandwidth.

Equations (1)

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| S out [ ω s ] | 2 | S in [ ω s ] | 2 = | γ A , 1 γ B , 1 i ( ω s ω 1 n ) + γ tot , 1 2 G B P v g , 1 Γ / 4 i ( ω p ω s Ω B ) + Γ / 2 | 2 ,

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