Abstract

Fast-responding detector arrays are commonly used for imaging rapidly changing scenes. Besides array detectors, a single-pixel detector combined with a broadband optical spectrum can also be used for rapid imaging by mapping the spectrum into a spatial coordinate grid and then rapidly measuring the spectrum. Here, optical frequency combs generated from high-Q silica microresonators are used to implement this method. The microcomb is dispersed in two spatial dimensions to measure a test target. The target-encoded spectrum is then measured by multi-heterodyne beating with another microcomb having a slightly different repetition rate, enabling an imaging frame rate up to 200 kHz and fill rates as high as 48 megapixels/s. The system is used to monitor the flow of microparticles in a fluid cell. Microcombs in combination with a monolithic waveguide grating array imager could greatly magnify these results by combining the spatial parallelism of detector arrays with spectral parallelism of optics.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (5)

N. Picqué and T. W. Hänsch, “Frequency comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 13, 149–157 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Hase, T. Minamikawa, S. Miyamoto, R. Ichikawa, Y.-D. Hsieh, Y. Mizutani, T. Iwata, H. Yamamoto, and T. Yasui, “Scan-less, kilo-pixel, line-field confocal phase imaging with spectrally encoded dual-comb microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 6801408 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic-chip-based frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 13, 158–169 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–39 (2019).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh, X. Yi, Y.-H. Lai, S. Leifer, I. S. Grudinin, G. Vasisht, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, J. Wang, D. Mawet, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, C. Beichman, and K. Vahala, “Searching for exoplanets using a microresonator astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 25–30 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (15)

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, K. Vahala, K. A. Srinivasan, N. R. Newbury, L. Theogarajan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An integrated-photonics optical-frequency synthesizer,” Nature 557, 81–89 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “On-chip dual-comb source for spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 4, e1701858 (2018).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh and K. J. Vahala, “Soliton microcomb range measurement,” Science 359, 884–887 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359, 887–891 (2018).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh and K. Vahala, “Gigahertz-repetition-rate soliton microcombs,” Optica 5, 65–66 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Yang, D. Y. Oh, S. H. Lee, Q.-F. Yang, X. Yi, B. Shen, H. Wang, and K. Vahala, “Bridging ultrahigh-Q devices and photonic circuits,” Nat. Photonics 12, 297–302 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Stern, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Battery-operated integrated frequency comb generator,” Nature 562, 401–405 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Joshi, A. Klenner, Y. Okawachi, M. Yu, K. Luke, X. Ji, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Counter-rotating cavity solitons in a silicon nitride microresonator,” Opt. Lett. 43, 547–550 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Lucas, G. Lihachev, R. Bouchand, N. G. Pavlov, A. S. Raja, M. Karpov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Spatial multiplexing of soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 12, 699–705 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361, eaan8083 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, Z. Deng, C. Gu, Y. Liu, D. Luo, Z. Zhu, W. Li, and H. Zeng, “Line-scan spectrum-encoded imaging by dual-comb interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 43, 1606–1609 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Dong, X. Zhou, J. Kang, L. Chen, Z. Lei, C. Zhang, K. K. Wong, and X. Zhang, “Ultrafast time-stretch microscopy based on dual-comb asynchronous optical sampling,” Opt. Lett. 43, 2118–2121 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Hase, T. Minamikawa, T. Mizuno, S. Miyamoto, R. Ichikawa, Y.-D. Hsieh, K. Shibuya, K. Sato, Y. Nakajima, A. Asahara, K. Minoshima, Y. Mizutani, T. Iwata, H. Yamamoto, and T. Yasui, “Scan-less confocal phase imaging based on dual-comb microscopy,” Optica 5, 634–643 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. S. Lamb, D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, J. R. Stone, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Optical-frequency measurements with a Kerr microcomb and photonic-chip supercontinuum,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9, 024030 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Karpov, M. H. Pfeiffer, J. Liu, A. Lukashchuk, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based soliton frequency combs covering the biological imaging window,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1146 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

E. Obrzud, S. Lecomte, and T. Herr, “Temporal solitons in microresonators driven by optical pulses,” Nat. Photonics 11, 600–607 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, Q.-F. Yang, B. Shen, H. Wang, K. Y. Yang, Y.-H. Lai, X. Yi, X. Li, and K. Vahala, “Towards visible soliton microcomb generation,” Nat. Commun. 8, 1295 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Bao, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, S. Wabnitz, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Spatial mode-interaction induced single soliton generation in microresonators,” Optica 4, 1011–1015 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q.-F. Yang, X. Yi, K. Y. Yang, and K. Vahala, “Counter-propagating solitons in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 11, 560–564 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493, 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Kondo, K. Takubo, H. Tominaga, R. Hirose, N. Tokuoka, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Takaie, A. Ozaki, S. Nakaya, F. Yano, and T. Daigen, “Development of ‘hypervision hpv-x’ high-speed video camera,” Shimadzu Rev. 69, 285–291 (2012).

2011 (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

K. Goda, K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature 458, 1145–1149 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445, 627–630 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ideality in a fiber-taper-coupled microresonator system for application to cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902(2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929–1960 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77 (2000).
[Crossref]

Anderson, M.

M. Anderson, R. Bouchand, E. Obrzud, J. Liu, S. Karlen, S. Lecomte, T. Herr, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Broadband efficient soliton microcombs in pulse-driven photonic microresonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper STu3J–3.

Anderson, M. H.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–39 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

Asahara, A.

Bao, C.

Beichman, C.

M.-G. Suh, X. Yi, Y.-H. Lai, S. Leifer, I. S. Grudinin, G. Vasisht, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, J. Wang, D. Mawet, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, C. Beichman, and K. Vahala, “Searching for exoplanets using a microresonator astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 25–30 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bluestone, A.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, K. Vahala, K. A. Srinivasan, N. R. Newbury, L. Theogarajan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An integrated-photonics optical-frequency synthesizer,” Nature 557, 81–89 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bouchand, R.

E. Lucas, G. Lihachev, R. Bouchand, N. G. Pavlov, A. S. Raja, M. Karpov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Spatial multiplexing of soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 12, 699–705 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Anderson, R. Bouchand, E. Obrzud, J. Liu, S. Karlen, S. Lecomte, T. Herr, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Broadband efficient soliton microcombs in pulse-driven photonic microresonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper STu3J–3.

Bouchy, F.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–39 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, K. Vahala, K. A. Srinivasan, N. R. Newbury, L. Theogarajan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An integrated-photonics optical-frequency synthesizer,” Nature 557, 81–89 (2018).
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Brasch, V.

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[Crossref]

X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, M.-G. Suh, and K. Vahala, “Soliton frequency comb at microwave rates in a high-Q silica microresonator,” Optica 2, 1078–1085 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q.-F.

K. Y. Yang, D. Y. Oh, S. H. Lee, Q.-F. Yang, X. Yi, B. Shen, H. Wang, and K. Vahala, “Bridging ultrahigh-Q devices and photonic circuits,” Nat. Photonics 12, 297–302 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q.-F. Yang, X. Yi, K. Y. Yang, and K. Vahala, “Counter-propagating solitons in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 11, 560–564 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, Q.-F. Yang, B. Shen, H. Wang, K. Y. Yang, Y.-H. Lai, X. Yi, X. Li, and K. Vahala, “Towards visible soliton microcomb generation,” Nat. Commun. 8, 1295 (2017).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, and K. J. Vahala, “Microresonator soliton dual-comb spectroscopy,” Science 354, 600–603 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, and K. Vahala, “Theory and measurement of the soliton self-frequency shift and efficiency in optical microcavities,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3419–3422 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, M.-G. Suh, and K. Vahala, “Soliton frequency comb at microwave rates in a high-Q silica microresonator,” Optica 2, 1078–1085 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yano, F.

Y. Kondo, K. Takubo, H. Tominaga, R. Hirose, N. Tokuoka, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Takaie, A. Ozaki, S. Nakaya, F. Yano, and T. Daigen, “Development of ‘hypervision hpv-x’ high-speed video camera,” Shimadzu Rev. 69, 285–291 (2012).

Yasui, T.

E. Hase, T. Minamikawa, S. Miyamoto, R. Ichikawa, Y.-D. Hsieh, Y. Mizutani, T. Iwata, H. Yamamoto, and T. Yasui, “Scan-less, kilo-pixel, line-field confocal phase imaging with spectrally encoded dual-comb microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 6801408 (2019).
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[Crossref]

Q.-F. Yang, X. Yi, K. Y. Yang, and K. Vahala, “Counter-propagating solitons in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 11, 560–564 (2017).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, and K. J. Vahala, “Microresonator soliton dual-comb spectroscopy,” Science 354, 600–603 (2016).
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X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, and K. Vahala, “Theory and measurement of the soliton self-frequency shift and efficiency in optical microcavities,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3419–3422 (2016).
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[Crossref]

Yu, M.

Zeng, H.

Zhang, C.

Zhang, X.

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Zhu, Z.

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E. Hase, T. Minamikawa, S. Miyamoto, R. Ichikawa, Y.-D. Hsieh, Y. Mizutani, T. Iwata, H. Yamamoto, and T. Yasui, “Scan-less, kilo-pixel, line-field confocal phase imaging with spectrally encoded dual-comb microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 6801408 (2019).
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Nat. Commun. (2)

S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, Q.-F. Yang, B. Shen, H. Wang, K. Y. Yang, Y.-H. Lai, X. Yi, X. Li, and K. Vahala, “Towards visible soliton microcomb generation,” Nat. Commun. 8, 1295 (2017).
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Q.-F. Yang, X. Yi, K. Y. Yang, and K. Vahala, “Counter-propagating solitons in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 11, 560–564 (2017).
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E. Lucas, G. Lihachev, R. Bouchand, N. G. Pavlov, A. S. Raja, M. Karpov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Spatial multiplexing of soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 12, 699–705 (2018).
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E. Obrzud, S. Lecomte, and T. Herr, “Temporal solitons in microresonators driven by optical pulses,” Nat. Photonics 11, 600–607 (2017).
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T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
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M.-G. Suh, X. Yi, Y.-H. Lai, S. Leifer, I. S. Grudinin, G. Vasisht, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, J. Wang, D. Mawet, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, C. Beichman, and K. Vahala, “Searching for exoplanets using a microresonator astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 25–30 (2019).
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H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 369–373 (2012).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Dual-comb imaging using microresonator solitons. (a) A conceptual diagram showing the operational principle for spectral-spatial-mapping and dual-microcomb imaging. Two soliton microcombs (signal and reference) having slightly different repetition rates are generated using two on-chip microresonators. A 2D disperser (VIPA+grating) maps frequencies from the signal microcomb into a 2D grid of spatial locations (spectral shower) that are reflected by a target. The reflected signal spectrum is measured by multi-heterodyne detection with the reference microcomb. The chip is shown with small (high rate) and larger (low rate) comb pairs in both the signal and reference arms. These can enable different operational modes for the imaging system. (b) Dual-comb imaging proceeds by illuminating the target (right panel) with the 2D spectral shower formed as shown in panel (a). As shown in the left panel, the target reflection amplitude is encoded onto the signal comb (Optical comb II). The signal comb is then heterodyned with the reference comb (Optical comb I) to generate the RF comb. f rep 1 , f rep 2 , and Δ f rep are the frequency line spacing of the reference comb, the signal comb, and the signal RF comb. (c) Dual-comb imaging concept based on integrated waveguide grating antennas. Microcomb outputs are divided into multiple waveguides that drive the grating antennas. Comb light is dispersed by a corresponding waveguide grating antenna (eliminates VIPA and grating) to create one imaging dimension in the spectral shower (right). The second imaging dimension is provided by the spatial location of each grating antenna. This approach combines spectral parallelism of photonics with spatial parallelism of detector arrays to greatly magnify performance. A single (shared) pump is shown, but the microcombs could also be individually pumped so as to create frequency combs that are spectrally displaced. Receiver combs and antennas are not shown.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Dual-microcomb imaging of static targets. (a) Typical optical spectrum of the 9.39 GHz soliton microcombs showing sech 2 spectral envelope fit (red) with 3 dB bandwidth of 1.2 THz. The inset is the electrical spectrum of the photodetected soliton pulse stream and gives the repetition rate. (b) An example of the measured interferogram in a 5 μs time window from the reference arm and the signal arm [see Fig. 1(a)]. (c) RF spectrum of the 5 μs signal interferogram in panel (b). (d) Image of three vertical bars constructed from the measured interferogram in panel (b). (e) Typical optical spectrum of the 1.86 GHz soliton microcombs showing sech 2 spectral envelope fit (red) with 3 dB bandwidth of 0.44 THz. A notch near the spectral maximum is produced by narrowband filtering of the optical pump. The inset is the electrical spectrum of the photodetected soliton pulse stream. (f) Examples of the recorded interferograms for reference and signal arms using the 1.86 GHz microcombs. (g) RF spectrum of the signal interferogram in panel (f). The spectral hole around 380 MHz results from the notch filter used to suppress the optical pump. (h) Image of three horizontal bars constructed from the measured 10 μs interferogram in panel (f). (i) Image of number “4” on the USAF target produced using the 1.86 GHz microcombs. The dark discontinuities shown by the arrows in panels (h), (i) result from the spectral notch produced by filtering the optical pump [see panel (e)]. As an aside, a similar discontinuity is located within a dark region of the image in panel (d) and is therefore not visible.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Monitoring flowing particles. (a) An illustration of the microparticle monitoring experiment. Microparticles are suspended in water and flow inside the cell. When a particle passes through the 2D spectral shower, the particle can be imaged using the dual-comb interferogram. (b) Measured interferogram shows varying amplitude when the microparticle flows through the 2D spectral shower. (c) A snapshot of the measured microparticle, which is constructed from a 5 μs duration interferogram [shaded bar in panel (b)]. The dashed circle suggests the microparticle size ( 100 μm ). The dark vertical band results from filtering of comb lines around the pump. (d) Center position of the microparticle plotted versus time. A linear fit gives a flow velocity of 0.21 m/s in reasonable agreement with the set water flow velocity of 0.25 m/s.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Toward Optimal Design of Dual-Microcomb Imaging Systems

Equations (3)

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M 1 × M 2 = B / f rep ,
F 1 M 1 × M 2 × f frame = f rep / ( 2 C ) ,
f frame < f rep 2 / ( 2 BC ) .

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