Abstract

Terahertz-based electron acceleration has recently emerged as a promising candidate for driving next-generation high-brightness electron sources. Although initial demonstrations have proven the feasibility of this technology for accelerating and manipulating the phase space of electrons, further demonstrations of exquisite timing control are required to make use of terahertz acceleration for demanding applications such as light sources and ultrafast electron diffraction. In this paper, we use a two-stage segmented-terahertz-electron-accelerator-and-manipulator (STEAM) setup to demonstrate control over the electron beam energy, energy spread, and emittance. The first rebunching stage is used to tune the duration of 55 keV electron bunches from a DC electron gun that enables femtosecond phase control at the second accelerating stage. For optimized parameters, energy spread and emittance are reduced by 4× and 6×, respectively, relative to operation with the first stage off. A record energy gain of 70keV was achieved at a peak accelerating field of 200 MV/m, resulting in a >100% energy boost in a terahertz-powered accelerator for the first time. These results represent a critical step forward for the practical implementation of terahertz-powered devices in ultrafast electron sources.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (4)

J. Yang, X. Zhu, T. J. A. Wolf, Z. Li, J. P. F. Nunes, R. Coffee, J. P. Cryan, M. Gühr, K. Hegazy, T. F. Heinz, K. Jobe, R. Li, X. Shen, T. Veccione, S. Weathersby, K. J. Wilkin, C. Yoneda, Q. Zheng, T. J. Martinez, M. Centurion, and X. Wang, “Imaging CF 3 I conical intersection and photodissociation dynamics with ultrafast electron diffraction,” Science 361, 64–67 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Zhang, A. Fallahi, M. Hemmer, X. Wu, M. Fakhari, Y. Hua, H. Cankaya, A. L. Calendron, L. E. Zapata, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kärtner, “Segmented terahertz electron accelerator and manipulator (STEAM),” Nat. Photonics 12, 336–342 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Curry, S. Fabbri, J. Maxson, P. Musumeci, and A. Gover, “Meter-scale terahertz-driven acceleration of a relativistic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 094801 (2018).
[Crossref]

A.-L. Calendron, J. Meier, M. Hemmer, L. E. Zapata, F. Reichert, H. Cankaya, D. N. Schimpf, Y. Hua, G. Chang, A. Kalaydzhyan, A. Fallahi, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kärtner, “Laser system design for table-top x-ray light source,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 6, e12(2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

D. Guénot, D. Gustas, A. Vernier, B. Beaurepaire, F. Böhle, M. Bocoum, M. Lozano, A. Jullien, R. Lopez-Martens, A. Lifschitz, and J. Faure, “Relativistic electron beams driven by kHz single-cycle light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 11, 293–296 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. A. Walsh, D. S. Lake, E. W. Snedden, M. J. Cliffe, D. M. Graham, and S. P. Jamison, “Demonstration of sub-luminal propagation of single-cycle terahertz pulses for particle acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 8, 421 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Fakhari, A. Fallahi, and F. X. Kärtner, “THz cavities and injectors for compact electron acceleration using laser-driven THz sources,” Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 20, 041302 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, B. Han, J. Shin, D. Hou, H. Chung, I. H. Baek, Y. U. Jeong, and J. Kim, “10-fs-level synchronization of photocathode laser with RF-oscillator for ultrafast electron and X-ray sources,” Sci. Rep. 7, 39966 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

M. Dal Forno, V. Dolgashev, G. Bowden, C. Clarke, M. Hogan, D. McCormick, A. Novokhatski, B. Spataro, S. Weathersby, and S. G. Tantawi, “Experimental measurements of RF breakdowns and deflecting gradients in mm-wave metallic accelerating structures,” Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 19, 051302 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Fallahi, M. Fakhari, A. Yahaghi, M. Arrieta, and F. X. Kärtner, “Short electron bunch generation using single-cycle ultrafast electron guns,” Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 19, 081302 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Ryabov, W. Schneider, P. Baum, D. Ehberger, C. Kealhofer, and F. Krausz, “All-optical control and metrology of electron pulses,” Science 352, 429–433 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Hachmann and K. Flöttmann, “Measurement of ultra low transverse emittance at REGAE,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 829, 318–320 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-C. Zhong, J. J. Li, Z.-H. Zhai, L.-G. Zhu, J. J. Li, P.-W. Zhou, J.-H. Zhao, and Z.-R. Li, “Generation of 019-mJ THz pulses in LiNbO_3 driven by 800-nm femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 24, 14828–14835(2016).
[Crossref]

W. Ronny Huang, A. Fallahi, X. Wu, H. Cankaya, A.-L. Calendron, K. Ravi, D. Zhang, E. A. Nanni, K.-H. Hong, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven, all-optical electron gun,” Optica 3, 1209–1212 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

C. Vicario, M. Jazbinsek, A. V. Ovchinnikov, O. V. Chefonov, S. I. Ashitkov, M. B. Agranat, and C. P. Hauri, “High efficiency THz generation in DSTMS, DAST and OH1 pumped by Cr:forsterite laser,” Opt. Express 23, 4573–4580 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. Dwayne Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8486 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Ishikawa, S. A. Hayes, S. Keskin, G. Corthey, M. Hada, K. Pichugin, A. Marx, J. Hirscht, K. Shionuma, K. Onda, Y. Okimoto, S.-Y. Koshihara, T. Yamamoto, H. Cui, M. Nomura, Y. Oshima, M. Abdel-Jawad, R. Kato, and R. J. D. Miller, “Direct observation of collective modes coupled to molecular orbital-driven charge transfer,” Science 350, 1501–1505 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Manz, A. Casandruc, D. Zhang, Y. Zhong, R. A. Loch, A. Marx, T. Hasegawa, L. C. Liu, S. Bayesteh, H. Delsim-Hashemi, M. Hoffmann, M. Felber, M. Hachmann, F. Mayet, J. Hirscht, S. Keskin, M. Hada, S. W. Epp, K. Flöttmann, and R. J. D. Miller, “Mapping atomic motions with ultrabright electrons: towards fundamental limits in space-time resolution,” Faraday Discuss. 177, 467–491 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. R. Huang, E. A. Nanni, K. Ravi, K. H. Hong, A. Fallahi, L. J. Wong, P. D. Keathley, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kartner, “Toward a terahertz-driven electron gun,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14899 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

J. C. H. Spence and H. N. Chapman, “The birth of a new field,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 369, 20130309 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fülöp, Z. Ollmann, C. Lombosi, C. Skrobol, S. Klingebiel, L. Pálfalvi, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, and J. Hebling, “Efficient generation of THz pulses with 0.4 mJ energy,” Opt. Express 22, 20155–20163 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Fallahi and F. Kärtner, “Field-based DGTD/PIC technique for general and stable simulation of interaction between light and electron bunches,” J. Phys. B 47, 234015 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Fabiańska, G. Kassier, and T. Feurer, “Split ring resonator based THz-driven electron streak camera featuring femtosecond resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5645 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

S.-W. Huang, E. Granados, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “High conversion efficiency, high energy terahertz pulses by optical rectification in cryogenically cooled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 38, 796–798 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. A. Peralta, K. Soong, R. J. England, E. R. Colby, Z. Wu, B. Montazeri, C. McGuinness, J. McNeur, K. J. Leedle, D. Walz, E. B. Sozer, B. Cowan, B. Schwartz, G. Travish, and R. L. Byer, “Demonstration of electron acceleration in a laser-driven dielectric microstructure,” Nature 503, 91–94 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Breuer and P. Hommelhoff, “Laser-based acceleration of nonrelativistic electrons at a dielectric structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 134803 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

M. Durante and J. S. Loeffler, “Charged particles in radiation oncology,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 7, 37–43 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

W. Leemans and E. Esarey, “Laser-driven plasma-wave electron accelerators,” Phys. Today 62(3), 44–49 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Geuzaine and J. F. Remacle, “Gmsh: A 3-D finite element mesh generator with built-in pre- and post-processing facilities,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 79, 1309–1331 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

V. Malka, J. Faure, Y. A. Gauduel, E. Lefebvre, A. Rousse, and K. T. Phuoc, “Principles and applications of compact laser-plasma accelerators,” Nat. Phys. 4, 447–453 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1, 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

J. Hebling, G. Almasi, I. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10, 1161–1166 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

U. Amaldi, “Cancer therapy with particle accelerators,” Nucl. Phys. A 654, C375–C399 (1999).
[Crossref]

Abdel-Jawad, M.

T. Ishikawa, S. A. Hayes, S. Keskin, G. Corthey, M. Hada, K. Pichugin, A. Marx, J. Hirscht, K. Shionuma, K. Onda, Y. Okimoto, S.-Y. Koshihara, T. Yamamoto, H. Cui, M. Nomura, Y. Oshima, M. Abdel-Jawad, R. Kato, and R. J. D. Miller, “Direct observation of collective modes coupled to molecular orbital-driven charge transfer,” Science 350, 1501–1505 (2015).
[Crossref]

Agranat, M. B.

Almasi, G.

Almási, G.

J. Hebling, J. A. Fülöp, M. I. Mechler, L. Pálfalvi, C. Tőke, and G. Almási, “Optical manipulation of relativistic electron beams using THz pulses,” arXiv:1109.6852 (2011), pp. 1–4.

Amaldi, U.

U. Amaldi, “Cancer therapy with particle accelerators,” Nucl. Phys. A 654, C375–C399 (1999).
[Crossref]

Antipov, S.

J. Shao, C. Jing, S. Antipov, M. Conde, W. Gai, Q. Gao, G. Ha, W. Liu, N. Neveu, J. G. Power, J. Qiu, D. Wang, Y. Wang, E. Wisniewski, L. Zheng, and J. Shi, “Recent two-beam acceleration activities at Argonne wakefield accelerator facility,” in IPAC (2017), pp. 3305–3307.

Arrieta, M.

A. Fallahi, M. Fakhari, A. Yahaghi, M. Arrieta, and F. X. Kärtner, “Short electron bunch generation using single-cycle ultrafast electron guns,” Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 19, 081302 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ashitkov, S. I.

Baek, I. H.

H. Yang, B. Han, J. Shin, D. Hou, H. Chung, I. H. Baek, Y. U. Jeong, and J. Kim, “10-fs-level synchronization of photocathode laser with RF-oscillator for ultrafast electron and X-ray sources,” Sci. Rep. 7, 39966 (2017).
[Crossref]

Baum, P.

A. Ryabov, W. Schneider, P. Baum, D. Ehberger, C. Kealhofer, and F. Krausz, “All-optical control and metrology of electron pulses,” Science 352, 429–433 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bayesteh, S.

S. Manz, A. Casandruc, D. Zhang, Y. Zhong, R. A. Loch, A. Marx, T. Hasegawa, L. C. Liu, S. Bayesteh, H. Delsim-Hashemi, M. Hoffmann, M. Felber, M. Hachmann, F. Mayet, J. Hirscht, S. Keskin, M. Hada, S. W. Epp, K. Flöttmann, and R. J. D. Miller, “Mapping atomic motions with ultrabright electrons: towards fundamental limits in space-time resolution,” Faraday Discuss. 177, 467–491 (2015).
[Crossref]

Beaurepaire, B.

D. Guénot, D. Gustas, A. Vernier, B. Beaurepaire, F. Böhle, M. Bocoum, M. Lozano, A. Jullien, R. Lopez-Martens, A. Lifschitz, and J. Faure, “Relativistic electron beams driven by kHz single-cycle light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 11, 293–296 (2017).
[Crossref]

Beere, H. E.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
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M. Dal Forno, V. Dolgashev, G. Bowden, C. Clarke, M. Hogan, D. McCormick, A. Novokhatski, B. Spataro, S. Weathersby, and S. G. Tantawi, “Experimental measurements of RF breakdowns and deflecting gradients in mm-wave metallic accelerating structures,” Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 19, 051302 (2016).
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Toke, C.

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[Crossref]

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E. A. Peralta, K. Soong, R. J. England, E. R. Colby, Z. Wu, B. Montazeri, C. McGuinness, J. McNeur, K. J. Leedle, D. Walz, E. B. Sozer, B. Cowan, B. Schwartz, G. Travish, and R. L. Byer, “Demonstration of electron acceleration in a laser-driven dielectric microstructure,” Nature 503, 91–94 (2013).
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Tredicucci, A.

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[Crossref]

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Weathersby, S.

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Zhang, D.

D. Zhang, A. Fallahi, M. Hemmer, X. Wu, M. Fakhari, Y. Hua, H. Cankaya, A. L. Calendron, L. E. Zapata, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kärtner, “Segmented terahertz electron accelerator and manipulator (STEAM),” Nat. Photonics 12, 336–342 (2018).
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J. Yang, X. Zhu, T. J. A. Wolf, Z. Li, J. P. F. Nunes, R. Coffee, J. P. Cryan, M. Gühr, K. Hegazy, T. F. Heinz, K. Jobe, R. Li, X. Shen, T. Veccione, S. Weathersby, K. J. Wilkin, C. Yoneda, Q. Zheng, T. J. Martinez, M. Centurion, and X. Wang, “Imaging CF 3 I conical intersection and photodissociation dynamics with ultrafast electron diffraction,” Science 361, 64–67 (2018).
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S. Manz, A. Casandruc, D. Zhang, Y. Zhong, R. A. Loch, A. Marx, T. Hasegawa, L. C. Liu, S. Bayesteh, H. Delsim-Hashemi, M. Hoffmann, M. Felber, M. Hachmann, F. Mayet, J. Hirscht, S. Keskin, M. Hada, S. W. Epp, K. Flöttmann, and R. J. D. Miller, “Mapping atomic motions with ultrabright electrons: towards fundamental limits in space-time resolution,” Faraday Discuss. 177, 467–491 (2015).
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D. Zhang, A. Fallahi, M. Hemmer, X. Wu, M. Fakhari, Y. Hua, H. Cankaya, A. L. Calendron, L. E. Zapata, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kärtner, “Segmented terahertz electron accelerator and manipulator (STEAM),” Nat. Photonics 12, 336–342 (2018).
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D. Guénot, D. Gustas, A. Vernier, B. Beaurepaire, F. Böhle, M. Bocoum, M. Lozano, A. Jullien, R. Lopez-Martens, A. Lifschitz, and J. Faure, “Relativistic electron beams driven by kHz single-cycle light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 11, 293–296 (2017).
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M. Dal Forno, V. Dolgashev, G. Bowden, C. Clarke, M. Hogan, D. McCormick, A. Novokhatski, B. Spataro, S. Weathersby, and S. G. Tantawi, “Experimental measurements of RF breakdowns and deflecting gradients in mm-wave metallic accelerating structures,” Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 19, 051302 (2016).
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M. Blatt, A. Burchardt, A. Dedner, C. Engwer, J. Fahlke, B. Flemisch, C. Gersbacher, C. Gräser, F. Gruber, C. Grüninger, D. Kempf, R. Klöfkorn, T. Malkmus, S. Müthing, M. Nolte, M. Piatkowski, and O. Sander, The Distributed and Unified Numerics Environment, Version 2.4 (2016), Vol. 4.

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic illustration of the experimental setup. 55 keV electron bunches are generated by a DC electron gun. The UV pulses are produced from a part of the Yb:YLF laser pulses by two SHG stages and directed onto a gold photocathode generating photoelectrons, which are further accelerated to 55 keV by the DC electric field between the photocathode and anode plate. This Yb:YLF laser also drives four synchronized optical-rectification stages, each generating single-cycle terahertz pulses. The STEAM-buncher is driven by two counterpropagating terahertz beams with energy 2 × 50 nJ for electron compression. The STEAM-linac is driven by 2 × 15 μJ terahertz radiation for electron acceleration.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Design of the segmented waveguide structure. Schematic illustration for (a) buncher and (b) linac. Temporal signature of the electric fields affecting the electron bunch for (c) compression and (d) acceleration. In each layer the electron-terahertz interaction is marked with thick blue, red, and yellow colors.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Acceleration performance. (a) Measured electron energy spectra for input electron beam (blue-shaded curve) and accelerated electron beam (red-shaded curve) with maximum terahertz energy with the buncher turned off. The energy distribution is normalized to the 55 keV input electron beam with around 1 fC bunch charge. An increased energy spread is observed due to the long length of the injected electron bunch and the slippage between the terahertz pulse and the electron bunch. (b) Calculated energy gain along the electron propagation direction for different electron injection times. (c) Accelerating field in the middle of each layer versus time for the designed acceleration condition. The interaction is marked with thick blue, black, and red colors for each layer. (d) Simulated energy gain as a function of the electron injection time. Simulation is performed based on 2 × 15 μJ terahertz energy.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Energy spread compensation. (a) Measured electron energy spectra for input beam (blue-shaded curve), accelerated beam without buncher (gray-shaded curve) and with buncher ( 2 × 7 μJ terahertz—green-shaded curve and 2 × 15 μJ terahertz—red-shaded curve). The energy distribution is normalized to the 55 keV input electron beam with around 1 fC bunch charge. (b) Measured input electron pulse duration with (red-shaded curve) and without buncher (gray-shaded curve).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Emittance measurement. (a) Measured root-mean-square beam size ( σ ) as a function of solenoid current for the uncompressed (hollow markers) and compressed (solid markers) electron bunches in the x-horizontal (red squares) and y-vertical (blue dots) directions. The transverse emittance was determined using parabolic fits to the data. For the uncompressed bunch the fits (dashed lines) yielded emittances of ε x , n = 1.703 mm mrad and ε y , n = 1.491 mm mrad for horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, and similarly for the compressed bunch, the fits (solid lines) yielded ε x , n = 0.285 mm mrad and ε y , n = 0.246 mm mrad , respectively. (Inset) Snapshot of the simulated magnetic field distribution in the first layer of the STEAM device. (b) Electric field of the first layer as a function of time. The thick blue line represents the optimized interaction window, and the black lines are detuned ones. (c) Magnetic field of the first layer as a function of time at the top middle part marked by the magenta dot in the (a) inset. The thick red line represents the optimized interaction window, and the black lines are detuned windows.