Abstract

Hyperspectral imaging is a spectroscopic imaging technique that allows for the creation of images with pixels containing information from multiple spectral bands. At terahertz wavelengths, it has emerged as a prominent tool for a number of applications, ranging from nonionizing cancer diagnosis and pharmaceutical characterization to nondestructive artifact testing. Contemporary terahertz imaging systems typically rely on nonlinear optical downconversion of a fiber-based near-infrared femtosecond laser, requiring complex optical systems. Here, we demonstrate hyperspectral imaging with chip-scale frequency combs based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers. The dual combs are free-running and emit coherent terahertz radiation that covers a bandwidth of 220 GHz at 3.4 THz with 10μW per line. The combination of the fast acquisition rate of dual-comb spectroscopy with the monolithic design, scalability, and chip-scale size of the combs is highly appealing for future imaging applications in biomedicine and the pharmaceutical industry.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (1)

2018 (7)

M. Yu, Y. Okawachi, A. G. Griffith, N. Picqué, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1869 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. V. Muraviev, V. O. Smolski, Z. E. Loparo, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Massively parallel sensing of trace molecules and their isotopologues with broadband subharmonic mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 12, 209–214 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2  μm,” Nat. Photonics 12, 202–208 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. L. Klocke, M. Mangold, P. Allmendinger, A. Hugi, M. Geiser, P. Jouy, J. Faist, and T. Kottke, “Single-shot submicrosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy on protein reactions with quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Anal. Chem. 90, 10494–10500 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Zong, G. Ren, S. Li, B. Zhang, J. Zhang, W. Qi, J. Han, and H. Zhao, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of L-histidine hydrochloride monohydrate,” J. Mol. Struct. 1157, 486–491 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, A. Paulsen, D. Burghoff, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Lateral heterogeneous integration of quantum cascade lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 2742–2747 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. M. Mittleman, “Twenty years of terahertz imaging [invited],” Opt. Express 26, 9417–9431 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

Q. Sun, Y. He, K. Liu, S. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Recent advances in terahertz technology for biomedical applications,” Quant. Imag. Med. Surg. 7, 345–355 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Westberg, L. A. Sterczewski, and G. Wysocki, “Mid-infrared multiheterodyne spectroscopy with phase-locked quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 141108 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. A. Sterczewski, J. Westberg, C. L. Patrick, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and G. Wysocki, “Multiheterodyne spectroscopy using interband cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 57, 011014 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Jouy, J. M. Wolf, Y. Bidaux, P. Allmendinger, M. Mangold, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Dual comb operation of λ–8.2  μm quantum cascade laser frequency comb with 1  W optical power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 141102 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (2)

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scalari, B. Williams, and P. D. Natale, “Quantum cascade lasers: 20 years of challenges,” Opt. Express 23, 5167–5182 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Yasui, R. Ichikawa, Y.-D. Hsieh, K. Hayashi, H. Cahyadi, F. Hindle, Y. Sakaguchi, T. Iwata, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, K. Minoshima, and H. Inaba, “Adaptive sampling dual terahertz comb spectroscopy using dual free-running femtosecond lasers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10786 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5192 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” Nat. Photonics 9, 42–47 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492, 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: a review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imag. Med. Surg. 2, 33–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

E. Abraham, A. Younus, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, “Non-invasive investigation of art paintings by terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. A 100, 585–590 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281, 527–532 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Sartorius, H. Roehle, H. Künzel, J. Böttcher, M. Schlak, D. Stanze, H. Venghaus, and M. Schell, “All-fiber terahertz time-domain spectrometer operating at 1.5  μm telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 16, 9565–9570 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1, 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, D. C. Oakley, C. J. Vineis, and G. W. Turner, “Terahertz quantum-cascade-laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Nat. Photonics 1, 288–292 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1, 517–525 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. A. Zeitler, Y. Shen, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Analysis of coating structures and interfaces in solid oral dosage forms by three dimensional terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 96, 330–340 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239, 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415–1417 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

J. A. Zeitler, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, C. J. Strachan, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Temperature dependent terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of carbamazepine,” Thermochim. Acta 436, 71–77 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 177–183 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

1993 (1)

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

S. Jacobsson, “Optically pumped far infrared lasers,” Infrared Phys. 29, 853–874 (1989).
[Crossref]

Abraham, E.

E. Abraham, A. Younus, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, “Non-invasive investigation of art paintings by terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. A 100, 585–590 (2010).
[Crossref]

Allmendinger, P.

J. L. Klocke, M. Mangold, P. Allmendinger, A. Hugi, M. Geiser, P. Jouy, J. Faist, and T. Kottke, “Single-shot submicrosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy on protein reactions with quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Anal. Chem. 90, 10494–10500 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Jouy, J. M. Wolf, Y. Bidaux, P. Allmendinger, M. Mangold, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Dual comb operation of λ–8.2  μm quantum cascade laser frequency comb with 1  W optical power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 141102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Arnone, D. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239, 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref]

Auwera, J. V.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Baker, C.

J. A. Zeitler, Y. Shen, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Analysis of coating structures and interfaces in solid oral dosage forms by three dimensional terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 96, 330–340 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Baumann, E.

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, K. C. Cossel, E. M. Waxman, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy of volatile organic compounds across long open-air paths,” Optica 6, 165–168 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2  μm,” Nat. Photonics 12, 202–208 (2018).
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

P. Jouy, J. M. Wolf, Y. Bidaux, P. Allmendinger, M. Mangold, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Dual comb operation of λ–8.2  μm quantum cascade laser frequency comb with 1  W optical power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 141102 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” Nat. Photonics 9, 42–47 (2014).
[Crossref]

Belkin, M. A.

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Waxman, E. M.

Wcislo, P.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[Crossref]

Westberg, J.

J. Westberg, L. A. Sterczewski, and G. Wysocki, “Mid-infrared multiheterodyne spectroscopy with phase-locked quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 141108 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. A. Sterczewski, J. Westberg, C. L. Patrick, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and G. Wysocki, “Multiheterodyne spectroscopy using interband cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 57, 011014 (2017).
[Crossref]

Whitaker, J. F.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281, 527–532 (2008).
[Crossref]

Williams, B.

Williams, B. S.

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1, 517–525 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415–1417 (2006).
[Crossref]

Williamson, S. L.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281, 527–532 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wilzewski, J.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wolf, J. M.

P. Jouy, J. M. Wolf, Y. Bidaux, P. Allmendinger, M. Mangold, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Dual comb operation of λ–8.2  μm quantum cascade laser frequency comb with 1  W optical power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 141102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wysocki, G.

J. Westberg, L. A. Sterczewski, and G. Wysocki, “Mid-infrared multiheterodyne spectroscopy with phase-locked quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 141108 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. A. Sterczewski, J. Westberg, C. L. Patrick, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and G. Wysocki, “Multiheterodyne spectroscopy using interband cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 57, 011014 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, H.

T. Yasui, R. Ichikawa, Y.-D. Hsieh, K. Hayashi, H. Cahyadi, F. Hindle, Y. Sakaguchi, T. Iwata, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, K. Minoshima, and H. Inaba, “Adaptive sampling dual terahertz comb spectroscopy using dual free-running femtosecond lasers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10786 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, A. Paulsen, D. Burghoff, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Lateral heterogeneous integration of quantum cascade lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 2742–2747 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, D. Burghoff, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz multiheterodyne spectroscopy using laser frequency combs,” Optica 3, 499–502 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yasui, T.

T. Yasui, R. Ichikawa, Y.-D. Hsieh, K. Hayashi, H. Cahyadi, F. Hindle, Y. Sakaguchi, T. Iwata, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, K. Minoshima, and H. Inaba, “Adaptive sampling dual terahertz comb spectroscopy using dual free-running femtosecond lasers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10786 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ycas, G.

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, K. C. Cossel, E. M. Waxman, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy of volatile organic compounds across long open-air paths,” Optica 6, 165–168 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2  μm,” Nat. Photonics 12, 202–208 (2018).
[Crossref]

Younus, A.

E. Abraham, A. Younus, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, “Non-invasive investigation of art paintings by terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. A 100, 585–590 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: a review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imag. Med. Surg. 2, 33–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, M.

M. Yu, Y. Okawachi, A. G. Griffith, N. Picqué, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1869 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zak, E. J.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zeitler, J. A.

J. A. Zeitler, Y. Shen, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Analysis of coating structures and interfaces in solid oral dosage forms by three dimensional terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 96, 330–340 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. A. Zeitler, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, C. J. Strachan, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Temperature dependent terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of carbamazepine,” Thermochim. Acta 436, 71–77 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

S. Zong, G. Ren, S. Li, B. Zhang, J. Zhang, W. Qi, J. Han, and H. Zhao, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of L-histidine hydrochloride monohydrate,” J. Mol. Struct. 1157, 486–491 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

S. Zong, G. Ren, S. Li, B. Zhang, J. Zhang, W. Qi, J. Han, and H. Zhao, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of L-histidine hydrochloride monohydrate,” J. Mol. Struct. 1157, 486–491 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

S. Zong, G. Ren, S. Li, B. Zhang, J. Zhang, W. Qi, J. Han, and H. Zhao, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of L-histidine hydrochloride monohydrate,” J. Mol. Struct. 1157, 486–491 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zong, S.

S. Zong, G. Ren, S. Li, B. Zhang, J. Zhang, W. Qi, J. Han, and H. Zhao, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of L-histidine hydrochloride monohydrate,” J. Mol. Struct. 1157, 486–491 (2018).
[Crossref]

ACS Photon. (1)

Y. Yang, A. Paulsen, D. Burghoff, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Lateral heterogeneous integration of quantum cascade lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 2742–2747 (2018).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (1)

J. L. Klocke, M. Mangold, P. Allmendinger, A. Hugi, M. Geiser, P. Jouy, J. Faist, and T. Kottke, “Single-shot submicrosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy on protein reactions with quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Anal. Chem. 90, 10494–10500 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

E. Abraham, A. Younus, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, “Non-invasive investigation of art paintings by terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. A 100, 585–590 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. Jouy, J. M. Wolf, Y. Bidaux, P. Allmendinger, M. Mangold, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Dual comb operation of λ–8.2  μm quantum cascade laser frequency comb with 1  W optical power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 141102 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Westberg, L. A. Sterczewski, and G. Wysocki, “Mid-infrared multiheterodyne spectroscopy with phase-locked quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 141108 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415–1417 (2006).
[Crossref]

Infrared Phys. (1)

S. Jacobsson, “Optically pumped far infrared lasers,” Infrared Phys. 29, 853–874 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Mol. Struct. (1)

S. Zong, G. Ren, S. Li, B. Zhang, J. Zhang, W. Qi, J. Han, and H. Zhao, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of L-histidine hydrochloride monohydrate,” J. Mol. Struct. 1157, 486–491 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Pharm. Sci. (2)

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 177–183 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. A. Zeitler, Y. Shen, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Analysis of coating structures and interfaces in solid oral dosage forms by three dimensional terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 96, 330–340 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

M. Yu, Y. Okawachi, A. G. Griffith, N. Picqué, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1869 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5192 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (7)

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” Nat. Photonics 9, 42–47 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. V. Muraviev, V. O. Smolski, Z. E. Loparo, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Massively parallel sensing of trace molecules and their isotopologues with broadband subharmonic mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 12, 209–214 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2  μm,” Nat. Photonics 12, 202–208 (2018).
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M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1, 97–105 (2007).
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M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, D. C. Oakley, C. J. Vineis, and G. W. Turner, “Terahertz quantum-cascade-laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Nat. Photonics 1, 288–292 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1, 517–525 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492, 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281, 527–532 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

L. A. Sterczewski, J. Westberg, C. L. Patrick, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and G. Wysocki, “Multiheterodyne spectroscopy using interband cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 57, 011014 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (3)

Quant. Imag. Med. Surg. (2)

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: a review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imag. Med. Surg. 2, 33–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Sun, Y. He, K. Liu, S. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Recent advances in terahertz technology for biomedical applications,” Quant. Imag. Med. Surg. 7, 345–355 (2017).
[Crossref]

Radiology (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239, 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

T. Yasui, R. Ichikawa, Y.-D. Hsieh, K. Hayashi, H. Cahyadi, F. Hindle, Y. Sakaguchi, T. Iwata, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, K. Minoshima, and H. Inaba, “Adaptive sampling dual terahertz comb spectroscopy using dual free-running femtosecond lasers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10786 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thermochim. Acta (1)

J. A. Zeitler, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, C. J. Strachan, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Temperature dependent terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of carbamazepine,” Thermochim. Acta 436, 71–77 (2005).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

P. R. Griffiths and J. A. D. Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Wiley, 2007).

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Dual-comb hyperspectral imaging system. Two THz-QCL OFCs are aligned antiparallel, and their outputs are collected by two off-axis parabolic gold-coated mirrors. The signal OFC is focused on a sample (solid disk) placed on an XYZ translation stage. The transmitted light is collected and combined with the local oscillator comb on a hot electron bolometer with a bandwidth of 5 GHz. (b) Photo of the two chip-scale THz-QCLs mounted on a copper submount; (c) optical mode spectra for the two THz combs centered at around 3.4 THz; (d) interferograms (IFGs) corresponding to the spectra shown in (c), measured with a THz Fourier transform spectrometer (see Supplement 1); (e) and (f) intermode beat notes from the two THz-QCL OFCs. The center frequencies are 16.988 and 17.027 GHz for (e) and (f), respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Beat note spectra acquired for 10 ms with (red) or without (blue) a tilted silicon wafer inserted in the beam path. The beat note amplitude attenuation is clearly observed. (b) Transmission spectra calculated from the beat note spectra in (a). A nearly flat transmission can be observed with a cleared beam path (blue), and the etalon structure originating from the 525 μm Si wafer is shown in red. The shaded areas correspond to a 95% confidence interval. (c) Beat note spectra acquired for 20 ms with zero gas (blue) or atmospheric water vapor at 23% relative humidity (red); (d) transmission spectrum (red) together with a simulation based on parameters from the HITRAN 2016 database [34] (blue). The mode spacings and optical frequencies were determined from Figs. 1(c) and 1(e).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Allan deviation plot showing the relative stability of the multiheterodyne beat note amplitudes as a function of integration time. The shaded yellow area represents the range of beat note SNRs of the system. (b) and (c) Histograms of transmission values for the strong and weak beat notes of (a).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Individual mean-normalized absorbance hyperspectral slices corresponding to the beat notes shown in Fig. 2(a). False colored R, G, and B show zoomed slices at three selected frequencies: 3.30, 3.35, and 3.45 THz, respectively. The three zones are clearly identifiable. (b) False color RGB composite image composed from slices R, G, and B in transmission mode without mean removal (see Supplement 1). The inset shows a backlit photo of the pressed sample disk. (c) Reference spectroscopic data of α -d-GMH and α -d-LMH from Ref. [36], and LHHM from Ref. [37] showing the frequency-dependent attenuation of the absorbers responsible for the different zone colors in (b); the vertical dashed lines and circles indicate the sampling points of the composite image channels. (d)  111 × 111 - pixel reflective intensity imaging of a U.S. quarter to demonstrate the resolution capabilities of the system at this wavelength. The inset shows a finer scan of the details of the eagle’s wing.

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