Abstract

Waveguide superlattices with a subwavelength pitch and low crosstalk can significantly increase the waveguide integration density and are beneficial for many chip-scale applications. Bending of such high-density waveguide superlattices is necessary for flexible signal routing. However, tight bending tends to induce high crosstalk between guided modes, as witnessed in multimode waveguide bends. Here we explore the mechanisms of light guiding and coupling in a subwavelength-pitch waveguide superlattice bend and analyze how bending further modifies the already “renormalized” parameters of superlattice modes via various physical effects. Particularly, bending can skew the phase mismatch in a waveguide superlattice, sometimes producing a near phase-matching condition and causing salient crosstalk spikes among non-first-nearest neighbors. Interestingly, a waveguide superlattice with less pristine phase mismatch may be more robust against such skew of phase mismatch and can suppress crosstalk spikes by 10dB. Bending with 5–15 μm radii and subwavelength pitches has been demonstrated with crosstalk lower than 19.5dB. The scaling of the footprint of waveguide superlattice bending is analyzed, and significant footprint reduction can be achieved for chip-scale applications. The rationale for footprint reduction of superlattice bending under crosstalk constraint differs markedly from that of a single waveguide bend.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (2)

L. Yang, T. Zhou, H. Jia, S. Yang, J. Ding, X. Fu, and L. Zhang, “General architectures for on-chip optical space and mode switching,” Optica 5, 180–187 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Jahani, S. Kim, J. Atkinson, J. C. Wirth, F. Kalhor, A. Al Noman, W. D. Newman, P. Shekhar, K. Han, V. Van, R. G. DeCorby, L. Chrostowski, M. Qi, and Z. Jacob, “Controlling evanescent waves using silicon photonic all-dielectric metamaterials for dense integration,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1893 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

2016 (2)

C. Zhang, S. Zhang, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “8 × 8 × 40  Gbps fully integrated silicon photonic network on chip,” Optica 3, 785–786 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Shen, R. Polson, and R. Menon, “Increasing the density of passive photonic-integrated circuits via nanophotonic cloaking,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13126 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

K. Chen, S. Wang, S. Chen, C. Wang, C. Zhang, D. Dai, and L. Liu, “Experimental demonstration of simultaneous mode and polarization-division multiplexing based on silicon densely packed waveguide array,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4655–4658 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Song, R. Gatdula, S. Abbaslou, M. Lu, A. Stein, Y.-C. Lai, J. Provine, R. F. W. Pease, D. N. Christodoulides, and W. Jiang, “High-density waveguide superlattices with low crosstalk,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7027 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Mrejen, H. Suchowski, T. Hatakeyama, C. Wu, L. Feng, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Adiabatic elimination-based coupling control in densely packed subwavelength waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7565 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Ip, G. Milione, M.-J. Li, N. Cvijetic, K. Kanonakis, J. Stone, G. Peng, X. Prieto, C. Montero, V. Moreno, and J. Liñares, “SDM transmission of real-time 10  GbE traffic using commercial SFP + transceivers over 05  km elliptical-core few-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 23, 17120–17126 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

P. J. Winzer, “Making spatial multiplexing a reality,” Nat. Photonics 8, 345–348 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

M. Smit, J. van der Tol, and M. Hill, “Moore’s law in photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 1–13 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Li, J. Yao, H. Thacker, A. Mekis, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Lee, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-loss, high-density SOI optical waveguide routing for macrochip interconnects,” Opt. Express 20, 12035–12039 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

1987 (1)

Abbaslou, S.

W. Song, R. Gatdula, S. Abbaslou, M. Lu, A. Stein, Y.-C. Lai, J. Provine, R. F. W. Pease, D. N. Christodoulides, and W. Jiang, “High-density waveguide superlattices with low crosstalk,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J.

R. G. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. M. Santori, R. S. S. Schreiber, S. M. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008), pp. 182–189.

Al Noman, A.

S. Jahani, S. Kim, J. Atkinson, J. C. Wirth, F. Kalhor, A. Al Noman, W. D. Newman, P. Shekhar, K. Han, V. Van, R. G. DeCorby, L. Chrostowski, M. Qi, and Z. Jacob, “Controlling evanescent waves using silicon photonic all-dielectric metamaterials for dense integration,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1893 (2018).
[Crossref]

Atkinson, J.

S. Jahani, S. Kim, J. Atkinson, J. C. Wirth, F. Kalhor, A. Al Noman, W. D. Newman, P. Shekhar, K. Han, V. Van, R. G. DeCorby, L. Chrostowski, M. Qi, and Z. Jacob, “Controlling evanescent waves using silicon photonic all-dielectric metamaterials for dense integration,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1893 (2018).
[Crossref]

Beausoleil, R. G. G.

R. G. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. M. Santori, R. S. S. Schreiber, S. M. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008), pp. 182–189.

Bian, Y.

Y. Bian, Q. Ren, L. Kang, Y. Qin, P. L. Werner, and D. H. Werner, “Efficient cross-talk reduction of nanophotonic circuits enabled by fabrication friendly periodic silicon strip arrays,” Sci. Rep. 7, 15827 (2017).
[Crossref]

Binkert, N.

R. G. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. M. Santori, R. S. S. Schreiber, S. M. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008), pp. 182–189.

Bowers, J.

X. Wu, W. Zhou, D. Huang, Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. Bowers, and H. K. Tsang, “Low crosstalk bent multimode waveguide for on-chip mode-division multiplexing interconnects,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2018), paper JW2A.66.

Bowers, J. E.

Chen, G.

Chen, K.

Chen, S.

Chen, Y.-K. Y.

Chen, Y.-K. Y.-K.

Chen, Z.

F. Zhang, H. Yun, V. Donzella, Z. Lu, Y. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Sinusoidal anti-coupling SOI strip waveguides,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), pp. 7–8.

Christodoulides, D. N.

W. Song, R. Gatdula, S. Abbaslou, M. Lu, A. Stein, Y.-C. Lai, J. Provine, R. F. W. Pease, D. N. Christodoulides, and W. Jiang, “High-density waveguide superlattices with low crosstalk,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chrostowski, L.

S. Jahani, S. Kim, J. Atkinson, J. C. Wirth, F. Kalhor, A. Al Noman, W. D. Newman, P. Shekhar, K. Han, V. Van, R. G. DeCorby, L. Chrostowski, M. Qi, and Z. Jacob, “Controlling evanescent waves using silicon photonic all-dielectric metamaterials for dense integration,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1893 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, H. Yun, V. Donzella, Z. Lu, Y. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Sinusoidal anti-coupling SOI strip waveguides,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), pp. 7–8.

Cunningham, J. E.

Cvijetic, N.

Dai, D.

Davis, A.

R. G. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. M. Santori, R. S. S. Schreiber, S. M. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008), pp. 182–189.

De Valicourt, G.

DeCorby, R. G.

S. Jahani, S. Kim, J. Atkinson, J. C. Wirth, F. Kalhor, A. Al Noman, W. D. Newman, P. Shekhar, K. Han, V. Van, R. G. DeCorby, L. Chrostowski, M. Qi, and Z. Jacob, “Controlling evanescent waves using silicon photonic all-dielectric metamaterials for dense integration,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1893 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ding, D.

Ding, J.

Dong, A. P. O.

Dong, P.

Donzella, V.

F. Zhang, H. Yun, V. Donzella, Z. Lu, Y. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Sinusoidal anti-coupling SOI strip waveguides,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), pp. 7–8.

Fattal, D.

R. G. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. M. Santori, R. S. S. Schreiber, S. M. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008), pp. 182–189.

Feng, L.

M. Mrejen, H. Suchowski, T. Hatakeyama, C. Wu, L. Feng, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Adiabatic elimination-based coupling control in densely packed subwavelength waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7565 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fini, J. M.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fiorentino, M.

R. G. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. M. Santori, R. S. S. Schreiber, S. M. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008), pp. 182–189.

Fu, X.

Gabrielli, L. H.

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gatdula, R.

Ghatak, A. K.

Gill, D. M.

Han, K.

S. Jahani, S. Kim, J. Atkinson, J. C. Wirth, F. Kalhor, A. Al Noman, W. D. Newman, P. Shekhar, K. Han, V. Van, R. G. DeCorby, L. Chrostowski, M. Qi, and Z. Jacob, “Controlling evanescent waves using silicon photonic all-dielectric metamaterials for dense integration,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1893 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hatakeyama, T.

M. Mrejen, H. Suchowski, T. Hatakeyama, C. Wu, L. Feng, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Adiabatic elimination-based coupling control in densely packed subwavelength waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7565 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hill, M.

M. Smit, J. van der Tol, and M. Hill, “Moore’s law in photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 1–13 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, D.

X. Wu, W. Zhou, D. Huang, Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. Bowers, and H. K. Tsang, “Low crosstalk bent multimode waveguide for on-chip mode-division multiplexing interconnects,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2018), paper JW2A.66.

Integlia, R. A.

Ip, E.

Jacob, Z.

S. Jahani, S. Kim, J. Atkinson, J. C. Wirth, F. Kalhor, A. Al Noman, W. D. Newman, P. Shekhar, K. Han, V. Van, R. G. DeCorby, L. Chrostowski, M. Qi, and Z. Jacob, “Controlling evanescent waves using silicon photonic all-dielectric metamaterials for dense integration,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1893 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jaeger, N. A. F.

F. Zhang, H. Yun, V. Donzella, Z. Lu, Y. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Sinusoidal anti-coupling SOI strip waveguides,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), pp. 7–8.

Jahani, S.

S. Jahani, S. Kim, J. Atkinson, J. C. Wirth, F. Kalhor, A. Al Noman, W. D. Newman, P. Shekhar, K. Han, V. Van, R. G. DeCorby, L. Chrostowski, M. Qi, and Z. Jacob, “Controlling evanescent waves using silicon photonic all-dielectric metamaterials for dense integration,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1893 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jia, H.

Jiang, W.

W. Song, R. Gatdula, S. Abbaslou, M. Lu, A. Stein, Y.-C. Lai, J. Provine, R. F. W. Pease, D. N. Christodoulides, and W. Jiang, “High-density waveguide superlattices with low crosstalk,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7027 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. A. Integlia, L. Yin, D. Ding, D. Z. Pan, D. M. Gill, and W. Jiang, “Parallel-coupled dual racetrack silicon micro-resonators for quadrature amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 19, 14892–14902 (2011).
[Crossref]

Johnson, S. G.

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jouppi, N. P. P.

R. G. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. M. Santori, R. S. S. Schreiber, S. M. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008), pp. 182–189.

Kalhor, F.

S. Jahani, S. Kim, J. Atkinson, J. C. Wirth, F. Kalhor, A. Al Noman, W. D. Newman, P. Shekhar, K. Han, V. Van, R. G. DeCorby, L. Chrostowski, M. Qi, and Z. Jacob, “Controlling evanescent waves using silicon photonic all-dielectric metamaterials for dense integration,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1893 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kang, L.

Y. Bian, Q. Ren, L. Kang, Y. Qin, P. L. Werner, and D. H. Werner, “Efficient cross-talk reduction of nanophotonic circuits enabled by fabrication friendly periodic silicon strip arrays,” Sci. Rep. 7, 15827 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kanonakis, K.

Kim, K.

Kim, S.

S. Jahani, S. Kim, J. Atkinson, J. C. Wirth, F. Kalhor, A. Al Noman, W. D. Newman, P. Shekhar, K. Han, V. Van, R. G. DeCorby, L. Chrostowski, M. Qi, and Z. Jacob, “Controlling evanescent waves using silicon photonic all-dielectric metamaterials for dense integration,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1893 (2018).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kwangwoong, K. I. M.

Lai, Y.-C.

W. Song, R. Gatdula, S. Abbaslou, M. Lu, A. Stein, Y.-C. Lai, J. Provine, R. F. W. Pease, D. N. Christodoulides, and W. Jiang, “High-density waveguide superlattices with low crosstalk,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

Li, G.

Li, M.-J.

Liñares, J.

Lipson, M.

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, D.

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

Lu, M.

W. Song, R. Gatdula, S. Abbaslou, M. Lu, A. Stein, Y.-C. Lai, J. Provine, R. F. W. Pease, D. N. Christodoulides, and W. Jiang, “High-density waveguide superlattices with low crosstalk,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, Z.

F. Zhang, H. Yun, V. Donzella, Z. Lu, Y. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Sinusoidal anti-coupling SOI strip waveguides,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), pp. 7–8.

Luo, Y.

McLaren, M.

R. G. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. M. Santori, R. S. S. Schreiber, S. M. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008), pp. 182–189.

Mekis, A.

Melikyan, A.

Menon, R.

B. Shen, R. Polson, and R. Menon, “Increasing the density of passive photonic-integrated circuits via nanophotonic cloaking,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13126 (2016).
[Crossref]

Milione, G.

Montero, C.

Moreno, V.

Mrejen, M.

M. Mrejen, H. Suchowski, T. Hatakeyama, C. Wu, L. Feng, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Adiabatic elimination-based coupling control in densely packed subwavelength waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7565 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Newman, W. D.

S. Jahani, S. Kim, J. Atkinson, J. C. Wirth, F. Kalhor, A. Al Noman, W. D. Newman, P. Shekhar, K. Han, V. Van, R. G. DeCorby, L. Chrostowski, M. Qi, and Z. Jacob, “Controlling evanescent waves using silicon photonic all-dielectric metamaterials for dense integration,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1893 (2018).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, K.

M. Mrejen, H. Suchowski, T. Hatakeyama, C. Wu, L. Feng, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Adiabatic elimination-based coupling control in densely packed subwavelength waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7565 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pan, D. Z.

Pease, R. F. W.

W. Song, R. Gatdula, S. Abbaslou, M. Lu, A. Stein, Y.-C. Lai, J. Provine, R. F. W. Pease, D. N. Christodoulides, and W. Jiang, “High-density waveguide superlattices with low crosstalk,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Peng, G.

Peters, J. D.

Polson, R.

B. Shen, R. Polson, and R. Menon, “Increasing the density of passive photonic-integrated circuits via nanophotonic cloaking,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13126 (2016).
[Crossref]

Prieto, X.

Provine, J.

W. Song, R. Gatdula, S. Abbaslou, M. Lu, A. Stein, Y.-C. Lai, J. Provine, R. F. W. Pease, D. N. Christodoulides, and W. Jiang, “High-density waveguide superlattices with low crosstalk,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7027 (2015).
[Crossref]

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S. Jahani, S. Kim, J. Atkinson, J. C. Wirth, F. Kalhor, A. Al Noman, W. D. Newman, P. Shekhar, K. Han, V. Van, R. G. DeCorby, L. Chrostowski, M. Qi, and Z. Jacob, “Controlling evanescent waves using silicon photonic all-dielectric metamaterials for dense integration,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1893 (2018).
[Crossref]

Qin, Y.

Y. Bian, Q. Ren, L. Kang, Y. Qin, P. L. Werner, and D. H. Werner, “Efficient cross-talk reduction of nanophotonic circuits enabled by fabrication friendly periodic silicon strip arrays,” Sci. Rep. 7, 15827 (2017).
[Crossref]

Raj, K.

Ren, Q.

Y. Bian, Q. Ren, L. Kang, Y. Qin, P. L. Werner, and D. H. Werner, “Efficient cross-talk reduction of nanophotonic circuits enabled by fabrication friendly periodic silicon strip arrays,” Sci. Rep. 7, 15827 (2017).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2007).

Santori, C. M. M.

R. G. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. M. Santori, R. S. S. Schreiber, S. M. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008), pp. 182–189.

Schreiber, R. S. S.

R. G. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. M. Santori, R. S. S. Schreiber, S. M. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008), pp. 182–189.

Shekhar, P.

S. Jahani, S. Kim, J. Atkinson, J. C. Wirth, F. Kalhor, A. Al Noman, W. D. Newman, P. Shekhar, K. Han, V. Van, R. G. DeCorby, L. Chrostowski, M. Qi, and Z. Jacob, “Controlling evanescent waves using silicon photonic all-dielectric metamaterials for dense integration,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1893 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shen, B.

B. Shen, R. Polson, and R. Menon, “Increasing the density of passive photonic-integrated circuits via nanophotonic cloaking,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13126 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shenoy, M. R.

Shubin, I.

Sinsky, J. H. J. H.

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M. Smit, J. van der Tol, and M. Hill, “Moore’s law in photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 1–13 (2012).
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Song, W.

W. Song, R. Gatdula, S. Abbaslou, M. Lu, A. Stein, Y.-C. Lai, J. Provine, R. F. W. Pease, D. N. Christodoulides, and W. Jiang, “High-density waveguide superlattices with low crosstalk,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Spillane, S. M. M.

R. G. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. M. Santori, R. S. S. Schreiber, S. M. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008), pp. 182–189.

Stein, A.

W. Song, R. Gatdula, S. Abbaslou, M. Lu, A. Stein, Y.-C. Lai, J. Provine, R. F. W. Pease, D. N. Christodoulides, and W. Jiang, “High-density waveguide superlattices with low crosstalk,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stone, J.

Suchowski, H.

M. Mrejen, H. Suchowski, T. Hatakeyama, C. Wu, L. Feng, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Adiabatic elimination-based coupling control in densely packed subwavelength waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7565 (2015).
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B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2007).

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Thyagarajan, K.

Tsang, H. K.

X. Wu, W. Zhou, D. Huang, Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. Bowers, and H. K. Tsang, “Low crosstalk bent multimode waveguide for on-chip mode-division multiplexing interconnects,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2018), paper JW2A.66.

Van, V.

S. Jahani, S. Kim, J. Atkinson, J. C. Wirth, F. Kalhor, A. Al Noman, W. D. Newman, P. Shekhar, K. Han, V. Van, R. G. DeCorby, L. Chrostowski, M. Qi, and Z. Jacob, “Controlling evanescent waves using silicon photonic all-dielectric metamaterials for dense integration,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1893 (2018).
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M. Smit, J. van der Tol, and M. Hill, “Moore’s law in photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 1–13 (2012).
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R. G. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. M. Santori, R. S. S. Schreiber, S. M. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008), pp. 182–189.

Wang, C.

Wang, S.

Wang, Y.

M. Mrejen, H. Suchowski, T. Hatakeyama, C. Wu, L. Feng, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Adiabatic elimination-based coupling control in densely packed subwavelength waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7565 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, H. Yun, V. Donzella, Z. Lu, Y. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Sinusoidal anti-coupling SOI strip waveguides,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), pp. 7–8.

X. Wu, W. Zhou, D. Huang, Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. Bowers, and H. K. Tsang, “Low crosstalk bent multimode waveguide for on-chip mode-division multiplexing interconnects,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2018), paper JW2A.66.

Werner, D. H.

Y. Bian, Q. Ren, L. Kang, Y. Qin, P. L. Werner, and D. H. Werner, “Efficient cross-talk reduction of nanophotonic circuits enabled by fabrication friendly periodic silicon strip arrays,” Sci. Rep. 7, 15827 (2017).
[Crossref]

Werner, P. L.

Y. Bian, Q. Ren, L. Kang, Y. Qin, P. L. Werner, and D. H. Werner, “Efficient cross-talk reduction of nanophotonic circuits enabled by fabrication friendly periodic silicon strip arrays,” Sci. Rep. 7, 15827 (2017).
[Crossref]

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P. J. Winzer, “Making spatial multiplexing a reality,” Nat. Photonics 8, 345–348 (2014).
[Crossref]

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S. Jahani, S. Kim, J. Atkinson, J. C. Wirth, F. Kalhor, A. Al Noman, W. D. Newman, P. Shekhar, K. Han, V. Van, R. G. DeCorby, L. Chrostowski, M. Qi, and Z. Jacob, “Controlling evanescent waves using silicon photonic all-dielectric metamaterials for dense integration,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1893 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.

M. Mrejen, H. Suchowski, T. Hatakeyama, C. Wu, L. Feng, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Adiabatic elimination-based coupling control in densely packed subwavelength waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7565 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

X. Wu, W. Zhou, D. Huang, Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. Bowers, and H. K. Tsang, “Low crosstalk bent multimode waveguide for on-chip mode-division multiplexing interconnects,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2018), paper JW2A.66.

Xu, Q.

R. G. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. M. Santori, R. S. S. Schreiber, S. M. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008), pp. 182–189.

Yang, L.

Yang, S.

Yao, J.

Yin, L.

Yu, Y.

Yun, H.

F. Zhang, H. Yun, V. Donzella, Z. Lu, Y. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Sinusoidal anti-coupling SOI strip waveguides,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), pp. 7–8.

Zhang, C.

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, H. Yun, V. Donzella, Z. Lu, Y. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Sinusoidal anti-coupling SOI strip waveguides,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), pp. 7–8.

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C. Sun, Y. Yu, G. Chen, and X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact bent multimode silicon waveguide with ultralow inter-mode crosstalk,” Opt. Lett. 42, 3004–3007 (2017).
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M. Mrejen, H. Suchowski, T. Hatakeyama, C. Wu, L. Feng, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Adiabatic elimination-based coupling control in densely packed subwavelength waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7565 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

X. Wu, W. Zhou, D. Huang, Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. Bowers, and H. K. Tsang, “Low crosstalk bent multimode waveguide for on-chip mode-division multiplexing interconnects,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2018), paper JW2A.66.

Zheng, X.

Zhou, T.

Zhou, W.

X. Wu, W. Zhou, D. Huang, Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. Bowers, and H. K. Tsang, “Low crosstalk bent multimode waveguide for on-chip mode-division multiplexing interconnects,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2018), paper JW2A.66.

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

M. Smit, J. van der Tol, and M. Hill, “Moore’s law in photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 1–13 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (5)

W. Song, R. Gatdula, S. Abbaslou, M. Lu, A. Stein, Y.-C. Lai, J. Provine, R. F. W. Pease, D. N. Christodoulides, and W. Jiang, “High-density waveguide superlattices with low crosstalk,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7027 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Mrejen, H. Suchowski, T. Hatakeyama, C. Wu, L. Feng, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Adiabatic elimination-based coupling control in densely packed subwavelength waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7565 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Shen, R. Polson, and R. Menon, “Increasing the density of passive photonic-integrated circuits via nanophotonic cloaking,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13126 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Jahani, S. Kim, J. Atkinson, J. C. Wirth, F. Kalhor, A. Al Noman, W. D. Newman, P. Shekhar, K. Han, V. Van, R. G. DeCorby, L. Chrostowski, M. Qi, and Z. Jacob, “Controlling evanescent waves using silicon photonic all-dielectric metamaterials for dense integration,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1893 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

P. J. Winzer, “Making spatial multiplexing a reality,” Nat. Photonics 8, 345–348 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optica (2)

Sci. Rep. (1)

Y. Bian, Q. Ren, L. Kang, Y. Qin, P. L. Werner, and D. H. Werner, “Efficient cross-talk reduction of nanophotonic circuits enabled by fabrication friendly periodic silicon strip arrays,” Sci. Rep. 7, 15827 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

R. G. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. M. Santori, R. S. S. Schreiber, S. M. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008), pp. 182–189.

F. Zhang, H. Yun, V. Donzella, Z. Lu, Y. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Sinusoidal anti-coupling SOI strip waveguides,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), pp. 7–8.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2007).

X. Wu, W. Zhou, D. Huang, Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. Bowers, and H. K. Tsang, “Low crosstalk bent multimode waveguide for on-chip mode-division multiplexing interconnects,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2018), paper JW2A.66.

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       Fabrication methods, detailed measurements, and variation analysis.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Dielectric constant profile of a waveguide superlattice for straight and bend cases. For the bend, the bending effect is accounted by the effective index method (R=10μm). Straight superlattice, blue dotted line; bend, orange line.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Bending-induced crosstalk effects: illustrative simulation of the case of two waveguides (with varying parameters). (a) Skewed linear phase mismatch at λ=1550nm with varying w1 and varying center-to-center waveguide distance. Here w2 and R2 are set at a constant 360 nm and 19.68 μm, respectively. (Inset) Schematic of a waveguide pair in a bend. (b) FDTD-simulated crosstalk results show that the trajectory of high crosstalk follows that of small phase mismatch. (c) Conceptual illustration of bending-induced skew of the linear phase mismatch. Waveguide bends are effectively transformed into straight waveguides after the propagation constants are transformed by the terms defined in the right-hand side of Eq. (6). The transformation is dependent on the observer (marked by an eye)—i.e., reference waveguide channel m. The dotted red line indicates that two adjacent waveguides are nearly phase-matched after transformation and may cause crosstalk spike.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Design and simulation results. (a) Schematic of an SC5 WGSL bend at inter-waveguide pitch a=0.78μm. The design corresponds to five different widths in an interlacing-recombination configuration, where w1>w4>w2>w5>w3. Simulated results for inter-waveguide pitch 0.78 μm at Rmin=15μm for (b) Δw=30nm and (c) Δw=25nm, showing maximum relative crosstalk for channels 4 to 8 and their first- and second-nearest neighbors with gray plane marking 20dB (all 11 channels in Fig. S1 of Supplement 1). (d) Expected change in crosstalk when Δw is reduced to 25 nm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimental results for inter-waveguide pitch 0.78 μm at Rmin=15μm when Δw=30nm (left column) and Δw=25nm (right column). (a) and (b) Statistics over channel number m for all direct channels and their first- and second-nearest neighbors representing the average for each wavelength and standard deviation as the shaded regions. (c) and (d) Maximum relative crosstalk for channels 4 to 8 and their first- and second-nearest neighbors with gray plane marking 20dB (all 11 channels in Fig. S2 of Supplement 1). (e) Actual change in crosstalk when Δw is reduced to 25 nm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Trend analysis. (a) Measured trends of maximum relative crosstalk with minimum bending radius for inter-waveguide pitch a=0.78μm and a=1.0μm. (b) Footprint scaling of various 11-channel array U-bends as a function of pitch and minimum bending radius. (c) SEM image of a fabricated WGSL bend. White bar represents 2 μm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Selected Designs of a WGSL U-Bend

Equations (8)

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|KmmKnn|km|Kmk|+kn|Knk|,
d2udz2+d2udρ2+[k02εb(ρ)β2]u=0,
εb(ρ)=ε(ρ)+14k02ρ2+β2k02(1R2ρ2).
d2udx˜2+d2udy˜2+[k02εb(x˜)β2]u=0.
ρleakRβnoxk0,
Iexp(iβbRnϕiβmRmϕ)m|ΔAc|n,
(KmmKnn)bend(Δβnm)bend=βn(RnRm)βm,
Abend(θ2)[(Na)2+2(Na)Rmin]