Abstract

Optical-phased arrays (OPAs) enable complex beamforming, random-access beam pointing, and simultaneous scan and tracking of multiple targets by controlling the phases of two-dimensional (2D) coherent emitters. So far, no OPA can achieve all desirable features including large 2D arrays, high optical efficiency, wideband operation in wavelengths, fast response time, and large steering angles at the same time. Here, we report on a large-scale 2D OPA with novel microelectro-mechanical-system (MEMS)-actuated phase shifters. Wavelength-independent phase shifts are realized by physically moving a grating element in the lateral direction. The OPA has 160×160 independent phase shifters across an aperture of 3.1mm×3.2mm. It has a measured beam divergence of 0.042°×0.031°, a field of view (FOV) of 6.6°×4.4°, and a response time of 5.7 μs. It is capable of providing about 25,600 rapidly steerable spots within its FOV. The grating phase shifters are optimized for the near-infrared telecom wavelength bands from 1200 to 1700 nm with 85% optical efficiency.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (4)

C. V. Poulton, A. Yaacobi, D. B. Cole, M. J. Byrd, M. Raval, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Coherent solid-state LIDAR with silicon photonic optical phased arrays,” Opt. Lett. 42, 4091–4094 (2017).
[Crossref]

P.-A. Blanche, L. LaComb, Y. Wang, and M. C. Wu, “Diffraction-based optical switching with MEMS,” Appl. Sci. 7, 411 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. C. Pégard, A. R. Mardinly, I. A. Oldenburg, S. Sridharan, L. Waller, and H. Adesnik, “Three-dimensional scanless holographic optogenetics with temporal focusing (3D-SHOT),” Nat. Commun. 8, 1228 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, M. Raval, Z. Su, N. Li, E. Timurdogan, D. Coolbaugh, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale silicon nitride nanophotonic phased arrays at infrared and visible wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 42, 21–24 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

2014 (6)

2013 (2)

2009 (1)

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2005 (1)

S. Hashimoto, O. Akimoto, H. Ishikawa, T. Kiyomiya, T. Togawa, T. Isozaki, H. Abe, M. Nakai, H. Terakawa, H. Horikiri, T. Ishii, and M. Kogure, “39.2: SXRD (Silicon X-tal reflective display); a new display device for projection displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 36, 1362–1365 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, R. Sauerbrey, T. Buckup, M. Motzkus, M. Wildenhain, and A. Gehner, “Micromirror SLM for femtosecond pulse shaping in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 711–714 (2003).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, and T. A. Dorschner, “High-efficiency liquid-crystal optical phased-array beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 21, 689–691 (1996).
[Crossref]

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

W. M. Neubert, K. H. Kudielka, W. R. Leeb, and A. L. Scholtz, “Experimental demonstration of an optical phased array antenna for laser space communications,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3820–3830 (1994).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Lin, “Implementation and characterization of a flexure-beam micromechanical spatial light modulator,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3643–3648 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1989 (1)

W. C. Tang, T.-C. H. Nguyen, and R. T. Howe, “Laterally driven polysilicon resonant microstructures,” Sens. Actuators 20, 25–32 (1989).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

Abakoumov, D.

S. Frisken, G. Baxter, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, and S. Poole, “Flexible and grid-less wavelength selective switch using LCOS technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2011), pp. 1–3.

Abe, H.

S. Hashimoto, O. Akimoto, H. Ishikawa, T. Kiyomiya, T. Togawa, T. Isozaki, H. Abe, M. Nakai, H. Terakawa, H. Horikiri, T. Ishii, and M. Kogure, “39.2: SXRD (Silicon X-tal reflective display); a new display device for projection displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 36, 1362–1365 (2005).
[Crossref]

Abediasl, H.

Abiri, B.

R. Fatemi, B. Abiri, and A. Hajimiri, “An 8 × 8 heterodyne lens-less OPA camera,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San Jose, California, 2017, p. JW2A.9.

Adesnik, H.

N. C. Pégard, A. R. Mardinly, I. A. Oldenburg, S. Sridharan, L. Waller, and H. Adesnik, “Three-dimensional scanless holographic optogenetics with temporal focusing (3D-SHOT),” Nat. Commun. 8, 1228 (2017).
[Crossref]

Akimoto, O.

S. Hashimoto, O. Akimoto, H. Ishikawa, T. Kiyomiya, T. Togawa, T. Isozaki, H. Abe, M. Nakai, H. Terakawa, H. Horikiri, T. Ishii, and M. Kogure, “39.2: SXRD (Silicon X-tal reflective display); a new display device for projection displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 36, 1362–1365 (2005).
[Crossref]

Aksyuk, V.

D. Lopez, V. Aksyuk, G. Watson, M. E. Simon, W. Mansfield, F. Klemens, R. Cirelli, E. Ferry, A. Papazian, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, N. Basavanhally, J. Bower, J. Miner, T. Sorsch, and D. Tennan, Two-Dimensional MEMS Piston Array for DUV Optical Pattern Generation (IEEE, 2006), pp. 148–149.

Ameer-Beg, S. M.

Askeland, J.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, and M. Sokolsky, “Towards fully autonomous driving: systems and algorithms,” in IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV) (2011), pp. 163–168.

Basavanhally, N.

D. Lopez, V. Aksyuk, G. Watson, M. E. Simon, W. Mansfield, F. Klemens, R. Cirelli, E. Ferry, A. Papazian, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, N. Basavanhally, J. Bower, J. Miner, T. Sorsch, and D. Tennan, Two-Dimensional MEMS Piston Array for DUV Optical Pattern Generation (IEEE, 2006), pp. 148–149.

Baxter, G.

S. Frisken, G. Baxter, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, and S. Poole, “Flexible and grid-less wavelength selective switch using LCOS technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2011), pp. 1–3.

Becker, J.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, and M. Sokolsky, “Towards fully autonomous driving: systems and algorithms,” in IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV) (2011), pp. 163–168.

Bilic, D.

A. E. Franke, D. Bilic, D. T. Chang, P. T. Jones, T.-J. King, R. T. Howe, and G. C. Johnson, “Post-CMOS integration of germanium microstructures,” in 12th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Technical Digest, Orlando, Florida, USA, (IEEE, 1999), pp. 630–637.

Blanche, P.-A.

P.-A. Blanche, L. LaComb, Y. Wang, and M. C. Wu, “Diffraction-based optical switching with MEMS,” Appl. Sci. 7, 411 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bolle, C.

D. Lopez, V. Aksyuk, G. Watson, M. E. Simon, W. Mansfield, F. Klemens, R. Cirelli, E. Ferry, A. Papazian, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, N. Basavanhally, J. Bower, J. Miner, T. Sorsch, and D. Tennan, Two-Dimensional MEMS Piston Array for DUV Optical Pattern Generation (IEEE, 2006), pp. 148–149.

Bos, P. J.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bower, J.

D. Lopez, V. Aksyuk, G. Watson, M. E. Simon, W. Mansfield, F. Klemens, R. Cirelli, E. Ferry, A. Papazian, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, N. Basavanhally, J. Bower, J. Miner, T. Sorsch, and D. Tennan, Two-Dimensional MEMS Piston Array for DUV Optical Pattern Generation (IEEE, 2006), pp. 148–149.

Brosnihan, T.

T. Brosnihan, R. Payne, J. Gandhi, S. Lewis, L. Steyn, M. Halfman, and N. Hagood, “Pixtronix digital micro-shutter display technology: a MEMS display for low power mobile multimedia displays,” presented at the MOEMS-MEMS, San Francisco, California, 2010, p. 759408.

Buckup, T.

M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, R. Sauerbrey, T. Buckup, M. Motzkus, M. Wildenhain, and A. Gehner, “Micromirror SLM for femtosecond pulse shaping in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 711–714 (2003).
[Crossref]

Byrd, M. J.

Cameron, C. D.

M. Stanley, M. A. G. Smith, A. P. Smith, P. J. Watson, S. D. Coomber, C. D. Cameron, C. W. Slinger, and A. Wood, “3D electronic holography display system using a 100-megapixel spatial light modulator,” presented at the Optical Systems Design, St. Etienne, France, 2004, p. 297.

Chan, T.

Chan, T. K.

Chang, D. T.

A. E. Franke, D. Bilic, D. T. Chang, P. T. Jones, T.-J. King, R. T. Howe, and G. C. Johnson, “Post-CMOS integration of germanium microstructures,” in 12th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Technical Digest, Orlando, Florida, USA, (IEEE, 1999), pp. 630–637.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

Chau, F. S.

Chu, D.

Z. Zhang, Z. You, and D. Chu, “Fundamentals of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) devices,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cirelli, R.

D. Lopez, V. Aksyuk, G. Watson, M. E. Simon, W. Mansfield, F. Klemens, R. Cirelli, E. Ferry, A. Papazian, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, N. Basavanhally, J. Bower, J. Miner, T. Sorsch, and D. Tennan, Two-Dimensional MEMS Piston Array for DUV Optical Pattern Generation (IEEE, 2006), pp. 148–149.

Clarke, I.

S. Frisken, G. Baxter, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, and S. Poole, “Flexible and grid-less wavelength selective switch using LCOS technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2011), pp. 1–3.

Cole, D. B.

Coolbaugh, D.

Coomber, S. D.

M. Stanley, M. A. G. Smith, A. P. Smith, P. J. Watson, S. D. Coomber, C. D. Cameron, C. W. Slinger, and A. Wood, “3D electronic holography display system using a 100-megapixel spatial light modulator,” presented at the Optical Systems Design, St. Etienne, France, 2004, p. 297.

Corkum, D. L.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dolson, J.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, and M. Sokolsky, “Towards fully autonomous driving: systems and algorithms,” in IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV) (2011), pp. 163–168.

Döring, S.

A. Gehner, P. Durr, D. Kunze, D. Rudloff, A. Elgner, J. Heber, S. Frances, C. Skupsch, H. Torlee, M. Eckert, M. Friedrichs, J. U. Schmidt, W. Pufe, S. Döring, C. Hohle, M. Schulze, and M. Wagner, “Novel 512 × 320 tip-tilt micro mirror array in a CMOS-integrated, scalable process technology,” in International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN), 2018, pp. 1–2.

Dorschner, T. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, and T. A. Dorschner, “High-efficiency liquid-crystal optical phased-array beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 21, 689–691 (1996).
[Crossref]

Doylend, J. K.

Durr, P.

A. Gehner, P. Durr, D. Kunze, D. Rudloff, A. Elgner, J. Heber, S. Frances, C. Skupsch, H. Torlee, M. Eckert, M. Friedrichs, J. U. Schmidt, W. Pufe, S. Döring, C. Hohle, M. Schulze, and M. Wagner, “Novel 512 × 320 tip-tilt micro mirror array in a CMOS-integrated, scalable process technology,” in International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN), 2018, pp. 1–2.

Eckert, M.

A. Gehner, P. Durr, D. Kunze, D. Rudloff, A. Elgner, J. Heber, S. Frances, C. Skupsch, H. Torlee, M. Eckert, M. Friedrichs, J. U. Schmidt, W. Pufe, S. Döring, C. Hohle, M. Schulze, and M. Wagner, “Novel 512 × 320 tip-tilt micro mirror array in a CMOS-integrated, scalable process technology,” in International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN), 2018, pp. 1–2.

Elgner, A.

A. Gehner, P. Durr, D. Kunze, D. Rudloff, A. Elgner, J. Heber, S. Frances, C. Skupsch, H. Torlee, M. Eckert, M. Friedrichs, J. U. Schmidt, W. Pufe, S. Döring, C. Hohle, M. Schulze, and M. Wagner, “Novel 512 × 320 tip-tilt micro mirror array in a CMOS-integrated, scalable process technology,” in International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN), 2018, pp. 1–2.

Escuti, M. J.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fatemi, R.

R. Fatemi, B. Abiri, and A. Hajimiri, “An 8 × 8 heterodyne lens-less OPA camera,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San Jose, California, 2017, p. JW2A.9.

Ferry, E.

D. Lopez, V. Aksyuk, G. Watson, M. E. Simon, W. Mansfield, F. Klemens, R. Cirelli, E. Ferry, A. Papazian, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, N. Basavanhally, J. Bower, J. Miner, T. Sorsch, and D. Tennan, Two-Dimensional MEMS Piston Array for DUV Optical Pattern Generation (IEEE, 2006), pp. 148–149.

Feshali, A.

Frances, S.

A. Gehner, P. Durr, D. Kunze, D. Rudloff, A. Elgner, J. Heber, S. Frances, C. Skupsch, H. Torlee, M. Eckert, M. Friedrichs, J. U. Schmidt, W. Pufe, S. Döring, C. Hohle, M. Schulze, and M. Wagner, “Novel 512 × 320 tip-tilt micro mirror array in a CMOS-integrated, scalable process technology,” in International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN), 2018, pp. 1–2.

Franke, A. E.

A. E. Franke, D. Bilic, D. T. Chang, P. T. Jones, T.-J. King, R. T. Howe, and G. C. Johnson, “Post-CMOS integration of germanium microstructures,” in 12th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Technical Digest, Orlando, Florida, USA, (IEEE, 1999), pp. 630–637.

Friedman, L. J.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, and T. A. Dorschner, “High-efficiency liquid-crystal optical phased-array beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 21, 689–691 (1996).
[Crossref]

Friedrichs, M.

A. Gehner, P. Durr, D. Kunze, D. Rudloff, A. Elgner, J. Heber, S. Frances, C. Skupsch, H. Torlee, M. Eckert, M. Friedrichs, J. U. Schmidt, W. Pufe, S. Döring, C. Hohle, M. Schulze, and M. Wagner, “Novel 512 × 320 tip-tilt micro mirror array in a CMOS-integrated, scalable process technology,” in International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN), 2018, pp. 1–2.

Frisken, S.

S. Frisken, G. Baxter, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, and S. Poole, “Flexible and grid-less wavelength selective switch using LCOS technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2011), pp. 1–3.

Gandhi, J.

T. Brosnihan, R. Payne, J. Gandhi, S. Lewis, L. Steyn, M. Halfman, and N. Hagood, “Pixtronix digital micro-shutter display technology: a MEMS display for low power mobile multimedia displays,” presented at the MOEMS-MEMS, San Francisco, California, 2010, p. 759408.

Gehner, A.

M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, R. Sauerbrey, T. Buckup, M. Motzkus, M. Wildenhain, and A. Gehner, “Micromirror SLM for femtosecond pulse shaping in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 711–714 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Gehner, P. Durr, D. Kunze, D. Rudloff, A. Elgner, J. Heber, S. Frances, C. Skupsch, H. Torlee, M. Eckert, M. Friedrichs, J. U. Schmidt, W. Pufe, S. Döring, C. Hohle, M. Schulze, and M. Wagner, “Novel 512 × 320 tip-tilt micro mirror array in a CMOS-integrated, scalable process technology,” in International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN), 2018, pp. 1–2.

Hacker, M.

M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, R. Sauerbrey, T. Buckup, M. Motzkus, M. Wildenhain, and A. Gehner, “Micromirror SLM for femtosecond pulse shaping in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 711–714 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hagood, N.

T. Brosnihan, R. Payne, J. Gandhi, S. Lewis, L. Steyn, M. Halfman, and N. Hagood, “Pixtronix digital micro-shutter display technology: a MEMS display for low power mobile multimedia displays,” presented at the MOEMS-MEMS, San Francisco, California, 2010, p. 759408.

Hajimiri, A.

R. Fatemi, B. Abiri, and A. Hajimiri, “An 8 × 8 heterodyne lens-less OPA camera,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San Jose, California, 2017, p. JW2A.9.

Halfman, M.

T. Brosnihan, R. Payne, J. Gandhi, S. Lewis, L. Steyn, M. Halfman, and N. Hagood, “Pixtronix digital micro-shutter display technology: a MEMS display for low power mobile multimedia displays,” presented at the MOEMS-MEMS, San Francisco, California, 2010, p. 759408.

Hashemi, H.

Hashimoto, S.

S. Hashimoto, O. Akimoto, H. Ishikawa, T. Kiyomiya, T. Togawa, T. Isozaki, H. Abe, M. Nakai, H. Terakawa, H. Horikiri, T. Ishii, and M. Kogure, “39.2: SXRD (Silicon X-tal reflective display); a new display device for projection displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 36, 1362–1365 (2005).
[Crossref]

Heber, J.

A. Gehner, P. Durr, D. Kunze, D. Rudloff, A. Elgner, J. Heber, S. Frances, C. Skupsch, H. Torlee, M. Eckert, M. Friedrichs, J. U. Schmidt, W. Pufe, S. Döring, C. Hohle, M. Schulze, and M. Wagner, “Novel 512 × 320 tip-tilt micro mirror array in a CMOS-integrated, scalable process technology,” in International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN), 2018, pp. 1–2.

Heck, J.

Heikenfeld, J.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

Held, D.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, and M. Sokolsky, “Towards fully autonomous driving: systems and algorithms,” in IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV) (2011), pp. 163–168.

Henderson, R. K.

Hobbs, D. S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, and T. A. Dorschner, “High-efficiency liquid-crystal optical phased-array beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 21, 689–691 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hohle, C.

A. Gehner, P. Durr, D. Kunze, D. Rudloff, A. Elgner, J. Heber, S. Frances, C. Skupsch, H. Torlee, M. Eckert, M. Friedrichs, J. U. Schmidt, W. Pufe, S. Döring, C. Hohle, M. Schulze, and M. Wagner, “Novel 512 × 320 tip-tilt micro mirror array in a CMOS-integrated, scalable process technology,” in International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN), 2018, pp. 1–2.

Holz, M.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Horikiri, H.

S. Hashimoto, O. Akimoto, H. Ishikawa, T. Kiyomiya, T. Togawa, T. Isozaki, H. Abe, M. Nakai, H. Terakawa, H. Horikiri, T. Ishii, and M. Kogure, “39.2: SXRD (Silicon X-tal reflective display); a new display device for projection displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 36, 1362–1365 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hornbeck, L. J.

L. J. Hornbeck, “Digital light processing for high-brightness high-resolution applications,” presented at the Electronic Imaging, San Jose, CA, 1997, pp. 27–40.

Horsley, D. A.

Hosseini, E. S.

Houdré, R.

Howe, R. T.

W. C. Tang, T.-C. H. Nguyen, and R. T. Howe, “Laterally driven polysilicon resonant microstructures,” Sens. Actuators 20, 25–32 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. E. Franke, D. Bilic, D. T. Chang, P. T. Jones, T.-J. King, R. T. Howe, and G. C. Johnson, “Post-CMOS integration of germanium microstructures,” in 12th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Technical Digest, Orlando, Florida, USA, (IEEE, 1999), pp. 630–637.

Hutchison, D. N.

Ianni, F.

Ishii, T.

S. Hashimoto, O. Akimoto, H. Ishikawa, T. Kiyomiya, T. Togawa, T. Isozaki, H. Abe, M. Nakai, H. Terakawa, H. Horikiri, T. Ishii, and M. Kogure, “39.2: SXRD (Silicon X-tal reflective display); a new display device for projection displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 36, 1362–1365 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, H.

S. Hashimoto, O. Akimoto, H. Ishikawa, T. Kiyomiya, T. Togawa, T. Isozaki, H. Abe, M. Nakai, H. Terakawa, H. Horikiri, T. Ishii, and M. Kogure, “39.2: SXRD (Silicon X-tal reflective display); a new display device for projection displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 36, 1362–1365 (2005).
[Crossref]

Isozaki, T.

S. Hashimoto, O. Akimoto, H. Ishikawa, T. Kiyomiya, T. Togawa, T. Isozaki, H. Abe, M. Nakai, H. Terakawa, H. Horikiri, T. Ishii, and M. Kogure, “39.2: SXRD (Silicon X-tal reflective display); a new display device for projection displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 36, 1362–1365 (2005).
[Crossref]

Johnson, G. C.

A. E. Franke, D. Bilic, D. T. Chang, P. T. Jones, T.-J. King, R. T. Howe, and G. C. Johnson, “Post-CMOS integration of germanium microstructures,” in 12th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Technical Digest, Orlando, Florida, USA, (IEEE, 1999), pp. 630–637.

Jones, P. T.

A. E. Franke, D. Bilic, D. T. Chang, P. T. Jones, T.-J. King, R. T. Howe, and G. C. Johnson, “Post-CMOS integration of germanium microstructures,” in 12th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Technical Digest, Orlando, Florida, USA, (IEEE, 1999), pp. 630–637.

Kammel, S.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, and M. Sokolsky, “Towards fully autonomous driving: systems and algorithms,” in IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV) (2011), pp. 163–168.

Kim, W.

King, T.-J.

A. E. Franke, D. Bilic, D. T. Chang, P. T. Jones, T.-J. King, R. T. Howe, and G. C. Johnson, “Post-CMOS integration of germanium microstructures,” in 12th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Technical Digest, Orlando, Florida, USA, (IEEE, 1999), pp. 630–637.

Kiyomiya, T.

S. Hashimoto, O. Akimoto, H. Ishikawa, T. Kiyomiya, T. Togawa, T. Isozaki, H. Abe, M. Nakai, H. Terakawa, H. Horikiri, T. Ishii, and M. Kogure, “39.2: SXRD (Silicon X-tal reflective display); a new display device for projection displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 36, 1362–1365 (2005).
[Crossref]

Klemens, F.

D. Lopez, V. Aksyuk, G. Watson, M. E. Simon, W. Mansfield, F. Klemens, R. Cirelli, E. Ferry, A. Papazian, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, N. Basavanhally, J. Bower, J. Miner, T. Sorsch, and D. Tennan, Two-Dimensional MEMS Piston Array for DUV Optical Pattern Generation (IEEE, 2006), pp. 148–149.

Knight, R. D.

Kogure, M.

S. Hashimoto, O. Akimoto, H. Ishikawa, T. Kiyomiya, T. Togawa, T. Isozaki, H. Abe, M. Nakai, H. Terakawa, H. Horikiri, T. Ishii, and M. Kogure, “39.2: SXRD (Silicon X-tal reflective display); a new display device for projection displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 36, 1362–1365 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kolter, J. Z.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, and M. Sokolsky, “Towards fully autonomous driving: systems and algorithms,” in IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV) (2011), pp. 163–168.

Krstajic, N.

Kudielka, K. H.

Kumar, R.

Kunze, D.

A. Gehner, P. Durr, D. Kunze, D. Rudloff, A. Elgner, J. Heber, S. Frances, C. Skupsch, H. Torlee, M. Eckert, M. Friedrichs, J. U. Schmidt, W. Pufe, S. Döring, C. Hohle, M. Schulze, and M. Wagner, “Novel 512 × 320 tip-tilt micro mirror array in a CMOS-integrated, scalable process technology,” in International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN), 2018, pp. 1–2.

LaComb, L.

P.-A. Blanche, L. LaComb, Y. Wang, and M. C. Wu, “Diffraction-based optical switching with MEMS,” Appl. Sci. 7, 411 (2017).
[Crossref]

Langer, D.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, and M. Sokolsky, “Towards fully autonomous driving: systems and algorithms,” in IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV) (2011), pp. 163–168.

Leake, G.

Leeb, W. R.

Leonardo, R. D.

Levinson, J.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, and M. Sokolsky, “Towards fully autonomous driving: systems and algorithms,” in IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV) (2011), pp. 163–168.

Lewis, S.

T. Brosnihan, R. Payne, J. Gandhi, S. Lewis, L. Steyn, M. Halfman, and N. Hagood, “Pixtronix digital micro-shutter display technology: a MEMS display for low power mobile multimedia displays,” presented at the MOEMS-MEMS, San Francisco, California, 2010, p. 759408.

Li, N.

Liberman, S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lin, T.-H.

T.-H. Lin, “Implementation and characterization of a flexure-beam micromechanical spatial light modulator,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3643–3648 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lopez, D.

D. Lopez, V. Aksyuk, G. Watson, M. E. Simon, W. Mansfield, F. Klemens, R. Cirelli, E. Ferry, A. Papazian, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, N. Basavanhally, J. Bower, J. Miner, T. Sorsch, and D. Tennan, Two-Dimensional MEMS Piston Array for DUV Optical Pattern Generation (IEEE, 2006), pp. 148–149.

Mansfield, W.

D. Lopez, V. Aksyuk, G. Watson, M. E. Simon, W. Mansfield, F. Klemens, R. Cirelli, E. Ferry, A. Papazian, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, N. Basavanhally, J. Bower, J. Miner, T. Sorsch, and D. Tennan, Two-Dimensional MEMS Piston Array for DUV Optical Pattern Generation (IEEE, 2006), pp. 148–149.

Mardinly, A. R.

N. C. Pégard, A. R. Mardinly, I. A. Oldenburg, S. Sridharan, L. Waller, and H. Adesnik, “Three-dimensional scanless holographic optogenetics with temporal focusing (3D-SHOT),” Nat. Commun. 8, 1228 (2017).
[Crossref]

McManamon, P. F.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Megens, M.

Meng, G.

W.-M. Zhang, H. Yan, Z.-K. Peng, and G. Meng, “Electrostatic pull-in instability in MEMS/NEMS: a review,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 214, 187–218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Meyer, R. A.

Miner, J.

D. Lopez, V. Aksyuk, G. Watson, M. E. Simon, W. Mansfield, F. Klemens, R. Cirelli, E. Ferry, A. Papazian, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, N. Basavanhally, J. Bower, J. Miner, T. Sorsch, and D. Tennan, Two-Dimensional MEMS Piston Array for DUV Optical Pattern Generation (IEEE, 2006), pp. 148–149.

Motzkus, M.

M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, R. Sauerbrey, T. Buckup, M. Motzkus, M. Wildenhain, and A. Gehner, “Micromirror SLM for femtosecond pulse shaping in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 711–714 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nakai, M.

S. Hashimoto, O. Akimoto, H. Ishikawa, T. Kiyomiya, T. Togawa, T. Isozaki, H. Abe, M. Nakai, H. Terakawa, H. Horikiri, T. Ishii, and M. Kogure, “39.2: SXRD (Silicon X-tal reflective display); a new display device for projection displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 36, 1362–1365 (2005).
[Crossref]

Neubert, W. M.

Nguyen, H. Q.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, T.-C. H.

W. C. Tang, T.-C. H. Nguyen, and R. T. Howe, “Laterally driven polysilicon resonant microstructures,” Sens. Actuators 20, 25–32 (1989).
[Crossref]

Oldenburg, I. A.

N. C. Pégard, A. R. Mardinly, I. A. Oldenburg, S. Sridharan, L. Waller, and H. Adesnik, “Three-dimensional scanless holographic optogenetics with temporal focusing (3D-SHOT),” Nat. Commun. 8, 1228 (2017).
[Crossref]

Papazian, A.

D. Lopez, V. Aksyuk, G. Watson, M. E. Simon, W. Mansfield, F. Klemens, R. Cirelli, E. Ferry, A. Papazian, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, N. Basavanhally, J. Bower, J. Miner, T. Sorsch, and D. Tennan, Two-Dimensional MEMS Piston Array for DUV Optical Pattern Generation (IEEE, 2006), pp. 148–149.

Pardo, F.

D. Lopez, V. Aksyuk, G. Watson, M. E. Simon, W. Mansfield, F. Klemens, R. Cirelli, E. Ferry, A. Papazian, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, N. Basavanhally, J. Bower, J. Miner, T. Sorsch, and D. Tennan, Two-Dimensional MEMS Piston Array for DUV Optical Pattern Generation (IEEE, 2006), pp. 148–149.

Payne, R.

T. Brosnihan, R. Payne, J. Gandhi, S. Lewis, L. Steyn, M. Halfman, and N. Hagood, “Pixtronix digital micro-shutter display technology: a MEMS display for low power mobile multimedia displays,” presented at the MOEMS-MEMS, San Francisco, California, 2010, p. 759408.

Pearson, E. L.

E. L. Pearson, “MEMS spatial light modulator for holographic displays,” Thesis (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2001).

Pégard, N. C.

N. C. Pégard, A. R. Mardinly, I. A. Oldenburg, S. Sridharan, L. Waller, and H. Adesnik, “Three-dimensional scanless holographic optogenetics with temporal focusing (3D-SHOT),” Nat. Commun. 8, 1228 (2017).
[Crossref]

Peng, Z.-K.

W.-M. Zhang, H. Yan, Z.-K. Peng, and G. Meng, “Electrostatic pull-in instability in MEMS/NEMS: a review,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 214, 187–218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phare, C. T.

Pink, O.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, and M. Sokolsky, “Towards fully autonomous driving: systems and algorithms,” in IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV) (2011), pp. 163–168.

Poland, S. P.

Poole, S.

S. Frisken, G. Baxter, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, and S. Poole, “Flexible and grid-less wavelength selective switch using LCOS technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2011), pp. 1–3.

Poulton, C. V.

Pratt, V.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, and M. Sokolsky, “Towards fully autonomous driving: systems and algorithms,” in IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV) (2011), pp. 163–168.

Pufe, W.

A. Gehner, P. Durr, D. Kunze, D. Rudloff, A. Elgner, J. Heber, S. Frances, C. Skupsch, H. Torlee, M. Eckert, M. Friedrichs, J. U. Schmidt, W. Pufe, S. Döring, C. Hohle, M. Schulze, and M. Wagner, “Novel 512 × 320 tip-tilt micro mirror array in a CMOS-integrated, scalable process technology,” in International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN), 2018, pp. 1–2.

Rao, Y.

Raval, M.

Reinhart, F. K.

Resler, D. P.

D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, and T. A. Dorschner, “High-efficiency liquid-crystal optical phased-array beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 21, 689–691 (1996).
[Crossref]

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Rong, H.

Rudloff, D.

A. Gehner, P. Durr, D. Kunze, D. Rudloff, A. Elgner, J. Heber, S. Frances, C. Skupsch, H. Torlee, M. Eckert, M. Friedrichs, J. U. Schmidt, W. Pufe, S. Döring, C. Hohle, M. Schulze, and M. Wagner, “Novel 512 × 320 tip-tilt micro mirror array in a CMOS-integrated, scalable process technology,” in International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN), 2018, pp. 1–2.

Ruocco, G.

Sauerbrey, R.

M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, R. Sauerbrey, T. Buckup, M. Motzkus, M. Wildenhain, and A. Gehner, “Micromirror SLM for femtosecond pulse shaping in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 711–714 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, J. U.

A. Gehner, P. Durr, D. Kunze, D. Rudloff, A. Elgner, J. Heber, S. Frances, C. Skupsch, H. Torlee, M. Eckert, M. Friedrichs, J. U. Schmidt, W. Pufe, S. Döring, C. Hohle, M. Schulze, and M. Wagner, “Novel 512 × 320 tip-tilt micro mirror array in a CMOS-integrated, scalable process technology,” in International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN), 2018, pp. 1–2.

Scholtz, A. L.

Schulze, M.

A. Gehner, P. Durr, D. Kunze, D. Rudloff, A. Elgner, J. Heber, S. Frances, C. Skupsch, H. Torlee, M. Eckert, M. Friedrichs, J. U. Schmidt, W. Pufe, S. Döring, C. Hohle, M. Schulze, and M. Wagner, “Novel 512 × 320 tip-tilt micro mirror array in a CMOS-integrated, scalable process technology,” in International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN), 2018, pp. 1–2.

Serati, S.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sharp, R. C.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, and T. A. Dorschner, “High-efficiency liquid-crystal optical phased-array beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 21, 689–691 (1996).
[Crossref]

Simon, M. E.

D. Lopez, V. Aksyuk, G. Watson, M. E. Simon, W. Mansfield, F. Klemens, R. Cirelli, E. Ferry, A. Papazian, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, N. Basavanhally, J. Bower, J. Miner, T. Sorsch, and D. Tennan, Two-Dimensional MEMS Piston Array for DUV Optical Pattern Generation (IEEE, 2006), pp. 148–149.

Skupsch, C.

A. Gehner, P. Durr, D. Kunze, D. Rudloff, A. Elgner, J. Heber, S. Frances, C. Skupsch, H. Torlee, M. Eckert, M. Friedrichs, J. U. Schmidt, W. Pufe, S. Döring, C. Hohle, M. Schulze, and M. Wagner, “Novel 512 × 320 tip-tilt micro mirror array in a CMOS-integrated, scalable process technology,” in International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN), 2018, pp. 1–2.

Slinger, C. W.

M. Stanley, M. A. G. Smith, A. P. Smith, P. J. Watson, S. D. Coomber, C. D. Cameron, C. W. Slinger, and A. Wood, “3D electronic holography display system using a 100-megapixel spatial light modulator,” presented at the Optical Systems Design, St. Etienne, France, 2004, p. 297.

Smith, A. P.

M. Stanley, M. A. G. Smith, A. P. Smith, P. J. Watson, S. D. Coomber, C. D. Cameron, C. W. Slinger, and A. Wood, “3D electronic holography display system using a 100-megapixel spatial light modulator,” presented at the Optical Systems Design, St. Etienne, France, 2004, p. 297.

Smith, M. A. G.

M. Stanley, M. A. G. Smith, A. P. Smith, P. J. Watson, S. D. Coomber, C. D. Cameron, C. W. Slinger, and A. Wood, “3D electronic holography display system using a 100-megapixel spatial light modulator,” presented at the Optical Systems Design, St. Etienne, France, 2004, p. 297.

Sokolsky, M.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, and M. Sokolsky, “Towards fully autonomous driving: systems and algorithms,” in IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV) (2011), pp. 163–168.

Sorsch, T.

D. Lopez, V. Aksyuk, G. Watson, M. E. Simon, W. Mansfield, F. Klemens, R. Cirelli, E. Ferry, A. Papazian, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, N. Basavanhally, J. Bower, J. Miner, T. Sorsch, and D. Tennan, Two-Dimensional MEMS Piston Array for DUV Optical Pattern Generation (IEEE, 2006), pp. 148–149.

Sridharan, S.

N. C. Pégard, A. R. Mardinly, I. A. Oldenburg, S. Sridharan, L. Waller, and H. Adesnik, “Three-dimensional scanless holographic optogenetics with temporal focusing (3D-SHOT),” Nat. Commun. 8, 1228 (2017).
[Crossref]

Stanley, M.

M. Stanley, M. A. G. Smith, A. P. Smith, P. J. Watson, S. D. Coomber, C. D. Cameron, C. W. Slinger, and A. Wood, “3D electronic holography display system using a 100-megapixel spatial light modulator,” presented at the Optical Systems Design, St. Etienne, France, 2004, p. 297.

Stauffer, J. M.

Steyn, L.

T. Brosnihan, R. Payne, J. Gandhi, S. Lewis, L. Steyn, M. Halfman, and N. Hagood, “Pixtronix digital micro-shutter display technology: a MEMS display for low power mobile multimedia displays,” presented at the MOEMS-MEMS, San Francisco, California, 2010, p. 759408.

Stobrawa, G.

M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, R. Sauerbrey, T. Buckup, M. Motzkus, M. Wildenhain, and A. Gehner, “Micromirror SLM for femtosecond pulse shaping in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 711–714 (2003).
[Crossref]

Su, Z.

Sun, J.

Sun, T.

Tang, W. C.

W. C. Tang, T.-C. H. Nguyen, and R. T. Howe, “Laterally driven polysilicon resonant microstructures,” Sens. Actuators 20, 25–32 (1989).
[Crossref]

Tennan, D.

D. Lopez, V. Aksyuk, G. Watson, M. E. Simon, W. Mansfield, F. Klemens, R. Cirelli, E. Ferry, A. Papazian, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, N. Basavanhally, J. Bower, J. Miner, T. Sorsch, and D. Tennan, Two-Dimensional MEMS Piston Array for DUV Optical Pattern Generation (IEEE, 2006), pp. 148–149.

Terakawa, H.

S. Hashimoto, O. Akimoto, H. Ishikawa, T. Kiyomiya, T. Togawa, T. Isozaki, H. Abe, M. Nakai, H. Terakawa, H. Horikiri, T. Ishii, and M. Kogure, “39.2: SXRD (Silicon X-tal reflective display); a new display device for projection displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 36, 1362–1365 (2005).
[Crossref]

Timurdogan, E.

Togawa, T.

S. Hashimoto, O. Akimoto, H. Ishikawa, T. Kiyomiya, T. Togawa, T. Isozaki, H. Abe, M. Nakai, H. Terakawa, H. Horikiri, T. Ishii, and M. Kogure, “39.2: SXRD (Silicon X-tal reflective display); a new display device for projection displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 36, 1362–1365 (2005).
[Crossref]

Torlee, H.

A. Gehner, P. Durr, D. Kunze, D. Rudloff, A. Elgner, J. Heber, S. Frances, C. Skupsch, H. Torlee, M. Eckert, M. Friedrichs, J. U. Schmidt, W. Pufe, S. Döring, C. Hohle, M. Schulze, and M. Wagner, “Novel 512 × 320 tip-tilt micro mirror array in a CMOS-integrated, scalable process technology,” in International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN), 2018, pp. 1–2.

Vasey, F.

Vermeulen, D.

Wagner, M.

A. Gehner, P. Durr, D. Kunze, D. Rudloff, A. Elgner, J. Heber, S. Frances, C. Skupsch, H. Torlee, M. Eckert, M. Friedrichs, J. U. Schmidt, W. Pufe, S. Döring, C. Hohle, M. Schulze, and M. Wagner, “Novel 512 × 320 tip-tilt micro mirror array in a CMOS-integrated, scalable process technology,” in International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN), 2018, pp. 1–2.

Waller, L.

N. C. Pégard, A. R. Mardinly, I. A. Oldenburg, S. Sridharan, L. Waller, and H. Adesnik, “Three-dimensional scanless holographic optogenetics with temporal focusing (3D-SHOT),” Nat. Commun. 8, 1228 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

P.-A. Blanche, L. LaComb, Y. Wang, and M. C. Wu, “Diffraction-based optical switching with MEMS,” Appl. Sci. 7, 411 (2017).
[Crossref]

Watson, E. A.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Watson, G.

D. Lopez, V. Aksyuk, G. Watson, M. E. Simon, W. Mansfield, F. Klemens, R. Cirelli, E. Ferry, A. Papazian, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, N. Basavanhally, J. Bower, J. Miner, T. Sorsch, and D. Tennan, Two-Dimensional MEMS Piston Array for DUV Optical Pattern Generation (IEEE, 2006), pp. 148–149.

Watson, P. J.

M. Stanley, M. A. G. Smith, A. P. Smith, P. J. Watson, S. D. Coomber, C. D. Cameron, C. W. Slinger, and A. Wood, “3D electronic holography display system using a 100-megapixel spatial light modulator,” presented at the Optical Systems Design, St. Etienne, France, 2004, p. 297.

Watts, M. R.

Wildenhain, M.

M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, R. Sauerbrey, T. Buckup, M. Motzkus, M. Wildenhain, and A. Gehner, “Micromirror SLM for femtosecond pulse shaping in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 711–714 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wood, A.

M. Stanley, M. A. G. Smith, A. P. Smith, P. J. Watson, S. D. Coomber, C. D. Cameron, C. W. Slinger, and A. Wood, “3D electronic holography display system using a 100-megapixel spatial light modulator,” presented at the Optical Systems Design, St. Etienne, France, 2004, p. 297.

Wu, M. C.

Wyras, J.

Xie, H.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yaacobi, A.

Yan, H.

W.-M. Zhang, H. Yan, Z.-K. Peng, and G. Meng, “Electrostatic pull-in instability in MEMS/NEMS: a review,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 214, 187–218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.

Yoo, B.-W.

You, Z.

Z. Zhang, Z. You, and D. Chu, “Fundamentals of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) devices,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.-M.

W.-M. Zhang, H. Yan, Z.-K. Peng, and G. Meng, “Electrostatic pull-in instability in MEMS/NEMS: a review,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 214, 187–218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, Z. You, and D. Chu, “Fundamentals of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) devices,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, G.

Zhou, H.

S. Frisken, G. Baxter, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, and S. Poole, “Flexible and grid-less wavelength selective switch using LCOS technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2011), pp. 1–3.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, R. Sauerbrey, T. Buckup, M. Motzkus, M. Wildenhain, and A. Gehner, “Micromirror SLM for femtosecond pulse shaping in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 711–714 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Sci. (1)

P.-A. Blanche, L. LaComb, Y. Wang, and M. C. Wu, “Diffraction-based optical switching with MEMS,” Appl. Sci. 7, 411 (2017).
[Crossref]

Light: Sci. Appl. (1)

Z. Zhang, Z. You, and D. Chu, “Fundamentals of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) devices,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

N. C. Pégard, A. R. Mardinly, I. A. Oldenburg, S. Sridharan, L. Waller, and H. Adesnik, “Three-dimensional scanless holographic optogenetics with temporal focusing (3D-SHOT),” Nat. Commun. 8, 1228 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

T.-H. Lin, “Implementation and characterization of a flexure-beam micromechanical spatial light modulator,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3643–3648 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Optica (1)

Proc. IEEE (2)

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators (1)

W. C. Tang, T.-C. H. Nguyen, and R. T. Howe, “Laterally driven polysilicon resonant microstructures,” Sens. Actuators 20, 25–32 (1989).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators A, Phys. (1)

W.-M. Zhang, H. Yan, Z.-K. Peng, and G. Meng, “Electrostatic pull-in instability in MEMS/NEMS: a review,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 214, 187–218 (2014).
[Crossref]

SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. (1)

S. Hashimoto, O. Akimoto, H. Ishikawa, T. Kiyomiya, T. Togawa, T. Isozaki, H. Abe, M. Nakai, H. Terakawa, H. Horikiri, T. Ishii, and M. Kogure, “39.2: SXRD (Silicon X-tal reflective display); a new display device for projection displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 36, 1362–1365 (2005).
[Crossref]

Other (10)

L. J. Hornbeck, “Digital light processing for high-brightness high-resolution applications,” presented at the Electronic Imaging, San Jose, CA, 1997, pp. 27–40.

A. Gehner, P. Durr, D. Kunze, D. Rudloff, A. Elgner, J. Heber, S. Frances, C. Skupsch, H. Torlee, M. Eckert, M. Friedrichs, J. U. Schmidt, W. Pufe, S. Döring, C. Hohle, M. Schulze, and M. Wagner, “Novel 512 × 320 tip-tilt micro mirror array in a CMOS-integrated, scalable process technology,” in International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN), 2018, pp. 1–2.

A. E. Franke, D. Bilic, D. T. Chang, P. T. Jones, T.-J. King, R. T. Howe, and G. C. Johnson, “Post-CMOS integration of germanium microstructures,” in 12th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Technical Digest, Orlando, Florida, USA, (IEEE, 1999), pp. 630–637.

T. Brosnihan, R. Payne, J. Gandhi, S. Lewis, L. Steyn, M. Halfman, and N. Hagood, “Pixtronix digital micro-shutter display technology: a MEMS display for low power mobile multimedia displays,” presented at the MOEMS-MEMS, San Francisco, California, 2010, p. 759408.

D. Lopez, V. Aksyuk, G. Watson, M. E. Simon, W. Mansfield, F. Klemens, R. Cirelli, E. Ferry, A. Papazian, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, N. Basavanhally, J. Bower, J. Miner, T. Sorsch, and D. Tennan, Two-Dimensional MEMS Piston Array for DUV Optical Pattern Generation (IEEE, 2006), pp. 148–149.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, and M. Sokolsky, “Towards fully autonomous driving: systems and algorithms,” in IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV) (2011), pp. 163–168.

R. Fatemi, B. Abiri, and A. Hajimiri, “An 8 × 8 heterodyne lens-less OPA camera,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San Jose, California, 2017, p. JW2A.9.

S. Frisken, G. Baxter, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, and S. Poole, “Flexible and grid-less wavelength selective switch using LCOS technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2011), pp. 1–3.

E. L. Pearson, “MEMS spatial light modulator for holographic displays,” Thesis (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2001).

M. Stanley, M. A. G. Smith, A. P. Smith, P. J. Watson, S. D. Coomber, C. D. Cameron, C. W. Slinger, and A. Wood, “3D electronic holography display system using a 100-megapixel spatial light modulator,” presented at the Optical Systems Design, St. Etienne, France, 2004, p. 297.

Supplementary Material (5)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       Supplemental document
» Visualization 1       Video 1: Dynamic movement of the MEMS grating OPA under low frequency actuation. Video captured in the experiment showing top view of a laterally moving MEMS OPA element. The time scale is 0-9 seconds. The actuation voltage is a 6Hz sinusoidal signa
» Visualization 2       Video 2: Sweeping of the OPA diffracted beam spot in diagonal direction. Video captured in the experiment showing the far-field of the OPA with the output beam sweeping from the upper left to the bottom right of the FOV.
» Visualization 3       Video 3: Raster scan of OPA. The video shows raster scan of the OPA diffracted beams through 17 x 9 addressable angles. Residue spots at angles other than the steering angle are due to the mismatch of the grating and the pixel pitches. They can be el
» Visualization 4       Video 4: Steering of the OPA diffracted beam for various wavelengths. Video captured in experiment showing the far-field spots of the OPA for various optical wavelengths.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. MEMS grating OPA working principle: (a) schematic of the grating-based 2D OPA without actuation. All grating phase-shifting elements are aligned to form a large continuous grating. Light is incident at a shallow angle (65°). The grating profile is designed to maximize the efficiency of the first-order-diffraction beam and minimize the reflection beam. (b) To steer the optical beam, the grating elements are moved individually to produce the desired phase map for the output beam.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) SEM of a static grating phase shifter array to generate the “Cal” logo; (b) measured and (c) simulated far-field patterns of the first-order diffraction beam.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. MEMS grating OPA schematic: (a) top grating layer of the MEMS OPA; (b) bottom lateral combdrive structure; (c) integrated MEMS OPA phase-shifting element with grating and MEMS actuator; and (d) 2D MEMS grating OPA composed of an array of identical active phase-shifting elements.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Fabricated 2D MEMS grating OPA: (a) photograph of the OPA on a U.S. quarter coin; (b) confocal optical micrograph showing the optical aperture; (c) scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the OPA; (d) close-up view of a single MEMS grating element; (e) hidden combdrive actuator underneath the grating. The grating is attached to the blue-shaded movable comb beams; and (f) cross-sectional SEM of an OPA element before HF release.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Beamsteering results: (a) overlay of steered beams within the FOV; (b) measured main-to-sidelobe suppression ratio (MSSR) of the steered beam spots; and (c) waterfall images showing beam profiles at different angles.

Equations (1)

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θ x = ± arcsin ( λ 2 Λ x ) = ± 3.29 ° , θ y = ± arcsin ( λ 2 Λ y ) = ± 2.22 ° .

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