Abstract

Objective optical assessment of photoreceptor function may permit earlier diagnosis of retinal disease than current methods such as perimetry, electrophysiology, and clinical imaging. In this work, we describe an adaptive optics (AO) optical coherence tomography (OCT) system designed to measure functional responses of single cones to visible stimuli. The OCT subsystem consisted of a raster-scanning Fourier-domain mode-locked laser that acquires A scans at 1.64 MHz with a center wavelength of 1063 nm and an AO system operating in closed-loop. Analysis of serial volumetric images revealed phase changes of cone photoreceptors consistent with outer segment elongation and proportional to stimulus intensity, as well as other morphological changes in the outer segment and retinal pigment epithelium.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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[Crossref]

R. S. Jonnal, O. P. Kocaoglu, Q. Wang, S. Lee, and D. T. Miller, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Laut, S.

Lee, B.

C. D. Lu, B. Lee, J. Schottenhamml, A. Maier, E. N. Pugh, and J. G. Fujimoto, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 58, 4632 (2017).
[Crossref]

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M. D. Abràmoff, R. F. Mullins, K. Lee, J. M. Hoffmann, M. Sonka, D. B. Critser, S. F. Stasheff, and E. M. Stone, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54, 3721 (2013).
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B. A. Berkowitz, R. H. Podolsky, H. Qian, Y. Li, K. Jiang, J. Nellissery, A. Swaroop, and R. Roberts, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 59, 5957 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, R. Fariss, J. Qian, E. Cohen, and H. Qian, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57, 105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lu, C. D.

C. D. Lu, B. Lee, J. Schottenhamml, A. Maier, E. N. Pugh, and J. G. Fujimoto, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 58, 4632 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lu, R.-W.

Q.-X. Zhang, R.-W. Lu, J. D. Messinger, C. A. Curcio, V. Guarcello, and X.-C. Yao, Sci. Rep. 3, 2644 (2013).
[Crossref]

Maier, A.

C. D. Lu, B. Lee, J. Schottenhamml, A. Maier, E. N. Pugh, and J. G. Fujimoto, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 58, 4632 (2017).
[Crossref]

Messinger, J. D.

Q.-X. Zhang, R.-W. Lu, J. D. Messinger, C. A. Curcio, V. Guarcello, and X.-C. Yao, Sci. Rep. 3, 2644 (2013).
[Crossref]

Michels, S.

Miller, D. T.

Mullins, R. F.

M. D. Abràmoff, R. F. Mullins, K. Lee, J. M. Hoffmann, M. Sonka, D. B. Critser, S. F. Stasheff, and E. M. Stone, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54, 3721 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nellissery, J.

B. A. Berkowitz, R. H. Podolsky, H. Qian, Y. Li, K. Jiang, J. Nellissery, A. Swaroop, and R. Roberts, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 59, 5957 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, P. T.

P. Zhang, R. J. Zawadzki, M. Goswami, P. T. Nguyen, V. Yarov-Yarovoy, M. E. Burns, and E. N. P. Jr, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, 2937 (2017).
[Crossref]

Olivier, S.

Pfäffle, C.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Pfäffle, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, and G. Hüttmann, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 13138 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pircher, M.

Podolsky, R. H.

B. A. Berkowitz, R. H. Podolsky, H. Qian, Y. Li, K. Jiang, J. Nellissery, A. Swaroop, and R. Roberts, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 59, 5957 (2018).
[Crossref]

Pugh, E. N.

C. D. Lu, B. Lee, J. Schottenhamml, A. Maier, E. N. Pugh, and J. G. Fujimoto, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 58, 4632 (2017).
[Crossref]

Qian, H.

B. A. Berkowitz, R. H. Podolsky, H. Qian, Y. Li, K. Jiang, J. Nellissery, A. Swaroop, and R. Roberts, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 59, 5957 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, R. Fariss, J. Qian, E. Cohen, and H. Qian, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57, 105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qian, J.

Y. Li, R. Fariss, J. Qian, E. Cohen, and H. Qian, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57, 105 (2016).
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Rha, J.

Roberts, R.

B. A. Berkowitz, R. H. Podolsky, H. Qian, Y. Li, K. Jiang, J. Nellissery, A. Swaroop, and R. Roberts, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 59, 5957 (2018).
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S. Stevenson and A. Roorda, Proc. SPIE 5688, 145 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

Schottenhamml, J.

C. D. Lu, B. Lee, J. Schottenhamml, A. Maier, E. N. Pugh, and J. G. Fujimoto, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 58, 4632 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sloan, K.

C. Curcio, K. Sloan, R. Kalina, and A. Hendrickson, J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sonka, M.

M. D. Abràmoff, R. F. Mullins, K. Lee, J. M. Hoffmann, M. Sonka, D. B. Critser, S. F. Stasheff, and E. M. Stone, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54, 3721 (2013).
[Crossref]

Spahr, H.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Pfäffle, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, and G. Hüttmann, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 13138 (2016).
[Crossref]

Srinivasan, V.

Stasheff, S. F.

M. D. Abràmoff, R. F. Mullins, K. Lee, J. M. Hoffmann, M. Sonka, D. B. Critser, S. F. Stasheff, and E. M. Stone, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54, 3721 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stevenson, S.

S. Stevenson and A. Roorda, Proc. SPIE 5688, 145 (2005).
[Crossref]

Stone, E. M.

M. D. Abràmoff, R. F. Mullins, K. Lee, J. M. Hoffmann, M. Sonka, D. B. Critser, S. F. Stasheff, and E. M. Stone, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54, 3721 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sudkamp, H.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Pfäffle, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, and G. Hüttmann, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 13138 (2016).
[Crossref]

Swaroop, A.

B. A. Berkowitz, R. H. Podolsky, H. Qian, Y. Li, K. Jiang, J. Nellissery, A. Swaroop, and R. Roberts, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 59, 5957 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

Werner, J.

Werner, J. S.

R. S. Jonnal, O. P. Kocaoglu, R. J. Zawadzki, S.-H. Lee, J. S. Werner, and D. T. Miller, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 55, 7904 (2014).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Lee, J. S. Werner, and R. J. Zawadzki, Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 2508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wieser, W.

Wojtkowski, M.

Yang, C.

Yao, X.-C.

Q.-X. Zhang, R.-W. Lu, J. D. Messinger, C. A. Curcio, V. Guarcello, and X.-C. Yao, Sci. Rep. 3, 2644 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yarov-Yarovoy, V.

P. Zhang, R. J. Zawadzki, M. Goswami, P. T. Nguyen, V. Yarov-Yarovoy, M. E. Burns, and E. N. P. Jr, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, 2937 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zawadzki, R.

Zawadzki, R. J.

P. Zhang, R. J. Zawadzki, M. Goswami, P. T. Nguyen, V. Yarov-Yarovoy, M. E. Burns, and E. N. P. Jr, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, 2937 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. S. Jonnal, O. P. Kocaoglu, R. J. Zawadzki, S.-H. Lee, J. S. Werner, and D. T. Miller, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 55, 7904 (2014).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Lee, J. S. Werner, and R. J. Zawadzki, Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 2508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, P.

P. Zhang, R. J. Zawadzki, M. Goswami, P. T. Nguyen, V. Yarov-Yarovoy, M. E. Burns, and E. N. P. Jr, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, 2937 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.-X.

Q.-X. Zhang, R.-W. Lu, J. D. Messinger, C. A. Curcio, V. Guarcello, and X.-C. Yao, Sci. Rep. 3, 2644 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, M.

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (5)

R. S. Jonnal, O. P. Kocaoglu, R. J. Zawadzki, S.-H. Lee, J. S. Werner, and D. T. Miller, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 55, 7904 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. D. Abràmoff, R. F. Mullins, K. Lee, J. M. Hoffmann, M. Sonka, D. B. Critser, S. F. Stasheff, and E. M. Stone, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54, 3721 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, R. Fariss, J. Qian, E. Cohen, and H. Qian, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57, 105 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. D. Lu, B. Lee, J. Schottenhamml, A. Maier, E. N. Pugh, and J. G. Fujimoto, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 58, 4632 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. A. Berkowitz, R. H. Podolsky, H. Qian, Y. Li, K. Jiang, J. Nellissery, A. Swaroop, and R. Roberts, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 59, 5957 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Comp. Neurol. (1)

C. Curcio, K. Sloan, R. Kalina, and A. Hendrickson, J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

M. Chabre and A. Cavaggioni, Nature 244, 118 (1973).

Opt. Express (8)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2)

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Pfäffle, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, and G. Hüttmann, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 13138 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Zhang, R. J. Zawadzki, M. Goswami, P. T. Nguyen, V. Yarov-Yarovoy, M. E. Burns, and E. N. P. Jr, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, 2937 (2017).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Stevenson and A. Roorda, Proc. SPIE 5688, 145 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

Q.-X. Zhang, R.-W. Lu, J. D. Messinger, C. A. Curcio, V. Guarcello, and X.-C. Yao, Sci. Rep. 3, 2644 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (A) Schematic of the AO-FDML OCT imaging system integrated with Maxwellian-view optical system for bleaching photoreceptors. (B) An expanded view of the AO scanning system: DM, deformable mirror; SHWS, Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor; AL, achromatic lens; S, spherical mirror; FM, flat mirror; BS, beam splitter; DBS, dichroic beam splitter; HS, horizontal scanner; VS, vertical scanner; BD, beam dump; OI, optical isolator.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (A) Spectrum of FDML laser. (B) Axial point spread function and (C) sensitivity roll-off of the imaging system.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Strip-based registration permits averaging of AO-OCT volumes. Top panel shows (A) single B scan and (B) average of 30 B scans. En face projection of cone mosaic from a (C) single and (D) average of 30 motion-corrected volumes of a 1° patch acquired at 2.5° temporal from the foveal center.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (A) Response of a single cone to 70% photopigment bleaching stimuli. The top row shows examples of motion-corrected en face projections of the cone’s neighborhood. A time series of the cone’s axial profile (M scan) is shown below the en face projections, with a green line indicating the stimulus flash. The phase difference between the IS/OS and COST was monitored as a function of time and can be seen in the bottom plot. (B) OS length change as a function of time for lower L/M photopigment bleaching percentages of 1.8, 3.5, and 7. Each curve was produced by averaging responses of 10–30 cones. Error bars indicate ± one standard deviation.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Changes in the axial morphology of cones for photopigment bleaching percentages of (A) 1.8, (B) 7, and (C) 70. As shown by red arrows, appearance of an extra band between IS/OS and COST was observed in most of the cones. The reflectivity of this extra band and also its axial distance from IS/OS seems to be proportional to the bleaching light intensity. The blue arrow indicates changes observed in the RPE and SRS.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Specifications of the AO-FDML System and Scanning Parameters During Imaging

Equations (2)

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(Δϕ)tn=(1mi=1mAi×Bi*),
ΔΛtn=(Δϕ)tn4πλ.