Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) integration of photonic devices is an ultimate route toward highly integrated photonic circuits. 3D photonic crystals (PCs) are a promising platform for 3D integration because of their complete photonic bandgaps (cPBGs) which enables full control of light. However, simultaneous integration of active and passive devices into a 3D PC has been hindered due to fabrication difficulties. Here, we simultaneously integrate a nanocavity laser and waveguides into a 3D PC with a cPBG at near-IR wavelengths using micromanipulation technology. The proposed plate-insertion stacking method allowed fabrication of 3D PCs with a large number of layers, enabling integration of the active and passive circuit components. Laser emission from the photo-excited nanocavity laser was observed from the output port of the waveguides, demonstrating successful guiding of the light from the nanocavity laser in the 3D PC. This work paves the way for 3D photonic circuits using 3D PCs with cPBGs.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (3)

2016 (2)

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2015 (2)

2013 (1)

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2012 (2)

Y. Arakawa, S. Iwamoto, M. Nomura, A. Tandaechanurat, and Y. Ota, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1818 (2012).
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2011 (3)

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2010 (1)

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2008 (2)

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2006 (2)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

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S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, Nat. Photonics 1, 449 (2007).
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Busch, K.

Chiles, J.

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A. Chutinan and S. John, Phys. Rev. B 72, 161316 (2005).
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G. Subramania, Y.-J. Lee, A. J. Fischer, T. S. Luk, C. J. Brinker, and D. Dunphy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 151101 (2009).
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Espinola, R. L.

Essig, S.

Fan, S.

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, Nature 386, 143 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fischer, A. J.

G. Subramania, Y.-J. Lee, A. J. Fischer, T. S. Luk, C. J. Brinker, and D. Dunphy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 151101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fleming, J. G.

S.-Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, and I.-E. Kady, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 593 (2003).
[Crossref]

Freude, W.

Fujita, M.

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, Nat. Photonics 1, 449 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gondaira, K.

K. Ishizaki, M. Koumura, K. Suzuki, K. Gondaira, and S. Noda, Nat. Photonics 7, 133 (2013).
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Goodwill, D.

Gross, S.

S. Gross and M. J. Withford, Nanophotonics 4, 332 (2015).
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Guan, B.

S. J. B. Yoo, B. Guan, and R. P. Scott, Microsyst. Nanoeng. 2, 16030 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Shang, S. Pathak, B. Guan, G. Liu, and S. J. B. Yoo, Opt. Express 23, 21334 (2015).
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Guimard, D.

A. Tandechanurat, S. Ishida, D. Guimard, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Nat. Photonics 5, 91 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Nat. Photonics 2, 688 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hillerkuss, D.

Huang, Y.

Imada, M.

Ippen, E. P.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nature 429, 538 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ishida, S.

A. Tandechanurat, S. Ishida, D. Guimard, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Nat. Photonics 5, 91 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ishizaki, K.

K. Ishizaki, M. Koumura, K. Suzuki, K. Gondaira, and S. Noda, Nat. Photonics 7, 133 (2013).
[Crossref]

Itoh, K.

N. Nishiyama, J. Kang, Y. Kuno, K. Itoh, Y. Atsumi, T. Amemiya, and S. Arai, IEICE Trans. Electron. E101-C, 501 (2018).
[Crossref]

Iwamoto, S.

S. Takahashi, T. Tajiri, K. Watanabe, Y. Ota, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Electron. Lett. 54, 305 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Ota, M. Kakuda, K. Watanabe, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Opt. Express 25, 19981 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Arakawa, S. Iwamoto, M. Nomura, A. Tandaechanurat, and Y. Ota, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1818 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Tandechanurat, S. Ishida, D. Guimard, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Nat. Photonics 5, 91 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Nat. Photonics 2, 688 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jiang, J.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nature 429, 538 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, Nature 386, 143 (1997).
[Crossref]

John, S.

A. Chutinan and S. John, Phys. Rev. B 72, 161316 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 (1987).
[Crossref]

Johnson, S. G.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nature 429, 538 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jordan, M.

Kady, I.-E.

S.-Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, and I.-E. Kady, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 593 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kakuda, M.

Kang, J.

N. Nishiyama, J. Kang, Y. Kuno, K. Itoh, Y. Atsumi, T. Amemiya, and S. Arai, IEICE Trans. Electron. E101-C, 501 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kawashima, S.

Kim, I.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, H.

Koos, C.

Koumura, M.

K. Ishizaki, M. Koumura, K. Suzuki, K. Gondaira, and S. Noda, Nat. Photonics 7, 133 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuno, Y.

N. Nishiyama, J. Kang, Y. Kuno, K. Itoh, Y. Atsumi, T. Amemiya, and S. Arai, IEICE Trans. Electron. E101-C, 501 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, L. H.

Lee, R. K.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-J.

G. Subramania, Y.-J. Lee, A. J. Fischer, T. S. Luk, C. J. Brinker, and D. Dunphy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 151101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Leuthold, J.

Li, X.

E. C. Nelson, N. L. Dias, K. P. Bassett, S. N. Dunham, V. Verma, M. Miyake, P. Wiltzius, J. A. Rogers, J. J. Colema, X. Li, and P. V. Braun, Nat. Mater. 10, 676 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lidorikis, E.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nature 429, 538 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lin, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, and I.-E. Kady, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 593 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lindernmann, N.

Liu, G.

Lo, G.-Q.

Lo, P. G.-Q.

Luk, T. S.

G. Subramania, Y.-J. Lee, A. J. Fischer, T. S. Luk, C. J. Brinker, and D. Dunphy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 151101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Luo, X.

Mikkelsen, J. C.

Mirin, R. P.

J. Chiles, S. Buckley, N. Nader, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. M. Shainline, APL Photon. 2, 116101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Miyake, M.

E. C. Nelson, N. L. Dias, K. P. Bassett, S. N. Dunham, V. Verma, M. Miyake, P. Wiltzius, J. A. Rogers, J. J. Colema, X. Li, and P. V. Braun, Nat. Mater. 10, 676 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nader, N.

J. Chiles, S. Buckley, N. Nader, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. M. Shainline, APL Photon. 2, 116101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nam, S. W.

J. Chiles, S. Buckley, N. Nader, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. M. Shainline, APL Photon. 2, 116101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nelson, E. C.

E. C. Nelson, N. L. Dias, K. P. Bassett, S. N. Dunham, V. Verma, M. Miyake, P. Wiltzius, J. A. Rogers, J. J. Colema, X. Li, and P. V. Braun, Nat. Mater. 10, 676 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nishioka, M.

K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Nat. Photonics 2, 688 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nishiyama, N.

N. Nishiyama, J. Kang, Y. Kuno, K. Itoh, Y. Atsumi, T. Amemiya, and S. Arai, IEICE Trans. Electron. E101-C, 501 (2018).
[Crossref]

Noda, S.

Nomura, M.

Y. Arakawa, S. Iwamoto, M. Nomura, A. Tandaechanurat, and Y. Ota, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1818 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Tandechanurat, S. Ishida, D. Guimard, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Nat. Photonics 5, 91 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Nat. Photonics 2, 688 (2008).
[Crossref]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, Rep. Prog. Phys. 73, 096501 (2010).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, J. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[Crossref]

Okano, M.

Osgood, R. M.

Ota, Y.

S. Takahashi, T. Tajiri, K. Watanabe, Y. Ota, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Electron. Lett. 54, 305 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Ota, M. Kakuda, K. Watanabe, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Opt. Express 25, 19981 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Arakawa, S. Iwamoto, M. Nomura, A. Tandaechanurat, and Y. Ota, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1818 (2012).
[Crossref]

Painter, O.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pathak, S.

Pizzuto, F.

Poon, J. K. S.

Qi, M.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nature 429, 538 (2004).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a),(b) Schematic of the 3D PC and the integrated circuit components: (a) bird’s-eye view and (b) cutaway image. Plates with patterns are stacked in a trench, forming a 3D PC with the in-plane size L×L = 11.3 μm × 11.3 μm. The cutaway image shows the nanocavity, Z-waveguide, and Y-waveguide, marked in yellow, blue, and red, respectively. (c),(d) Details of the (c) Z- and (d) Y-waveguides. Magnified bird’s-eye and xy plane views are shown in the left-hand images. The layer patterns for the waveguides are shown in the right-hand images. The periodically stacked four patterns of the woodpile structure are shown in gray and labelled I, II, III, and IV. Additional defects are marked in blue for the Z-waveguide and in red for the Y-waveguide. (e) Magnified image of the waveguide bend, where the Y-and Z-waveguides are connected. Each of the waveguides is extended, as shown by the black arrows.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Dispersion relations for the (a) Z-waveguide and (b) Y-waveguide. Waveguide modes, labeled Mode Z (blue) and Mode Y (red), are coupled with the nanocavity mode, labeled Mode C (green). The white area shows the cPBG for the woodpile structure.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Schematic of the plate-insertion stacking method. The right image is a cross-sectional view at the dashed line. (b) SEM image of a fabricated 3D PC by the plate-insertion stacking method, (c) magnified SEM image of the 3D PC pattern.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) PL spectrum from a fabricated 3D PC circuit, (b) integrated intensity and mode linewidth for the nanocavity mode [shown by a red arrow in (a)] as a function of time-averaged input power. The curve fitted to the integrated intensity by a rate-equation model is shown in green, with the linear parts shown by dashed lines as a guide for the eyes. (c), (d) Spatial PL image for the z-polarization component of the nanocavity mode (c) without and (d) with a BPF with a 10 nm bandwidth [green region in (a)]. (e) Calculated spatial distribution of the +y component of the energy flux for the z-polarized light of a guided nanocavity mode.