Abstract

Ultrastable lasers serve as the backbone for some of the most advanced scientific experiments today and enable the ability to perform atomic spectroscopy and laser interferometry at the highest levels of precision possible. With the recent and increasing interest in applying these systems outside of the laboratory, it remains an open question as to how to realize a laser source that can reach the extraordinary levels of narrow linewidth required and still remain sufficiently compact and portable for field use. Critical to the development of this ideal laser source is the necessity for the laser to be insensitive to both short- and long-term fluctuations in temperature, which ultimately broaden the laser linewidth and cause drift in the laser’s center frequency. We show here that the use of a large mode-volume optical resonator with 2 m of optical fiber, which acts to suppress the resonator’s fast thermal fluctuations, together with stimulated Brillouin scattering optical nonlinearity presents a powerful combination that enables lasing with an ultra-narrow linewidth of 20 Hz. To address the laser’s long-term temperature drift, we apply two orthogonal polarizations of the narrow Brillouin line as a metrological tool that precisely senses a minute change in the resonator’s temperature at the level of 85 nK. The precision afforded by this temperature measurement enables new possibilities for the stabilization of resonators against environmental perturbation.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (3)

2016 (3)

W. Loh, J. Becker, D. C. Cole, A. Coillet, F. N. Baynes, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “A microrod-resonator Brillouin laser with 240 Hz absolute linewidth,” New J. Phys. 18, 045001 (2016).
[Crossref]

LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration, “Observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 061102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, L. T. Varghese, A. J. Metcalf, X. Xue, P. H. Wang, K. Han, J. A. Jaramillo-Villegas, A. Al Noman, C. Wang, and S. Kim, “High-Q silicon nitride microresonators exhibiting low-power frequency comb initiation,” Optica 3, 1171–1180 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

W. Loh, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Noise and dynamics of stimulated-Brillouin-scattering microresonator lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 053843 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Eliyahu, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Ultralow noise miniature external cavity semiconductor laser,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7371 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Loh, A. A. S. Green, F. N. Baynes, D. C. Cole, F. J. Quinlan, H. Lee, K. J. Vahala, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Dual-microcavity narrow-linewidth Brillouin laser,” Optica 2, 225–232 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Latawiec, V. Venkataraman, M. J. Burek, B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, and M. Lončar, “On-chip diamond Raman laser,” Optica 2, 924–928 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zha, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10−18 level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Weng, J. D. Anstie, T. M. Stace, G. Campbell, F. N. Baynes, and A. N. Luiten, “Nano-Kelvin thermometry and temperature control: beyond the thermal noise limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 160801 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. A. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. V. Kabakova, R. Pant, D.-Y. Choi, S. Debbarma, B. Luther-Davies, S. J. Madden, and B. J. Eggleton, “Narrow linewidth Brillouin laser based on a chalcogenide photonic chip,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3208–3211 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Laser-machined ultra-high-Q microrod resonators for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221119 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. B. Bulu, P. B. Deotare, M. McCutcheon, V. Venkataraman, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor optical resonator in diamond,” Nano Lett. 13, 1898–1902 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6, 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Fescenko, J. Alnis, A. Schliesser, C. Y. Wang, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. W. Hänsch, “Dual-mode temperature compensation technique for laser stabilization to a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator,” Opt. Express 20, 19185–19193 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

D. V. Strekalov, R. J. Thompson, L. M. Baumgartel, I. S. Grudinin, and N. Yu, “Temperature measurement and stabilization in a birefringent whispering gallery mode resonator,” Opt. Express 19, 14495–14501 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. J. Thorpe, L. Rippe, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, and T. Rosenband, “Frequency stabilization to 6 × 10−16 via spectral-hole burning,” Nat. Photonics 5, 688–693 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. R. Leibrandt, M. J. Thorpe, M. Notcutt, R. E. Drullinger, T. Rosenband, and J. C. Bergquist, “Spherical reference cavities for frequency stabilization of lasers in non-laboratory environments,” Opt. Express 19, 3471–3482 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow-frequency-noise stabilization of a laser by locking to an optical fiber-delay line,” Opt. Lett. 34, 914–916 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Brillouin lasing with a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043902 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

H. Häffner, C. F. Roos, and R. Blatt, “Quantum computing with trapped ions,” Phys. Rep. 469, 155–203 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, and S. Jiang, “Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1813–1815 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424, 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Tunable filter based on whispering gallery modes,” Electron. Lett. 39, 389–391 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415, 621–623 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

A. Debut, S. Randoux, and J. Zemmouri, “Linewidth narrowing in Brillouin lasers: theoretical analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 023803 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Sub-dekahertz ultraviolet spectroscopy of 199Hg+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462–2465 (2000).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, “Sub-hertz relative frequency stabilization of two-diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG lasers locked to a Fabry-Perot interferometer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106–1117 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

D. R. Hjelme, A. R. Mickelson, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Semiconductor laser stabilization by external optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 352–372 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. P. Smith, F. Zarinetchi, and S. Ezekiel, “Narrow-linewidth stimulated Brillouin fiber laser and applications,” Opt. Lett. 16, 393–395 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

E. P. Ippen and R. H. Stolen, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 539–541 (1972).
[Crossref]

Al Noman, A.

Al-Masoudi, A.

S. B. Koller, J. Grotti, S. Vogt, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, and C. Lisdat, “Transportable optical lattice clock with 7 × 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 073601 (2017).
[Crossref]

Alnis, J.

Anstie, J. D.

W. Weng, J. D. Anstie, T. M. Stace, G. Campbell, F. N. Baynes, and A. N. Luiten, “Nano-Kelvin thermometry and temperature control: beyond the thermal noise limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 160801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barbosa, F. A. S.

Baumgartel, L. M.

Baynes, F. N.

J. Davila-Rodriguez, F. N. Baynes, A. D. Ludlow, T. M. Fortier, H. Leopardi, S. A. Diddams, and F. Quinlan, “Compact, thermal-noise-limited reference cavity for ultra-low-noise microwave generation,” Opt. Lett. 42, 1277–1280 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Loh, J. Becker, D. C. Cole, A. Coillet, F. N. Baynes, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “A microrod-resonator Brillouin laser with 240 Hz absolute linewidth,” New J. Phys. 18, 045001 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Loh, A. A. S. Green, F. N. Baynes, D. C. Cole, F. J. Quinlan, H. Lee, K. J. Vahala, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Dual-microcavity narrow-linewidth Brillouin laser,” Optica 2, 225–232 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Weng, J. D. Anstie, T. M. Stace, G. Campbell, F. N. Baynes, and A. N. Luiten, “Nano-Kelvin thermometry and temperature control: beyond the thermal noise limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 160801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Beall, J. A.

R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Sub-dekahertz ultraviolet spectroscopy of 199Hg+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462–2465 (2000).
[Crossref]

Beausoleil, R. G.

D. R. Hjelme, A. R. Mickelson, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Semiconductor laser stabilization by external optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 352–372 (1991).
[Crossref]

Becker, J.

W. Loh, J. Becker, D. C. Cole, A. Coillet, F. N. Baynes, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “A microrod-resonator Brillouin laser with 240 Hz absolute linewidth,” New J. Phys. 18, 045001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Beloy, K.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. A. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bergquist, J. C.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. R. Leibrandt, M. J. Thorpe, M. Notcutt, R. E. Drullinger, T. Rosenband, and J. C. Bergquist, “Spherical reference cavities for frequency stabilization of lasers in non-laboratory environments,” Opt. Express 19, 3471–3482 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Sub-dekahertz ultraviolet spectroscopy of 199Hg+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462–2465 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bishof, M.

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zha, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10−18 level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Blake, M.

J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, and S. Jiang, “Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1813–1815 (2006).
[Crossref]

Blatt, R.

H. Häffner, C. F. Roos, and R. Blatt, “Quantum computing with trapped ions,” Phys. Rep. 469, 155–203 (2008).
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N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. A. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Okawachi, Y.

Painter, O.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pant, R.

Papp, S. B.

W. Loh, J. Becker, D. C. Cole, A. Coillet, F. N. Baynes, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “A microrod-resonator Brillouin laser with 240 Hz absolute linewidth,” New J. Phys. 18, 045001 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Loh, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Noise and dynamics of stimulated-Brillouin-scattering microresonator lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 053843 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Loh, A. A. S. Green, F. N. Baynes, D. C. Cole, F. J. Quinlan, H. Lee, K. J. Vahala, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Dual-microcavity narrow-linewidth Brillouin laser,” Optica 2, 225–232 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Laser-machined ultra-high-Q microrod resonators for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221119 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phillips, N. B.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. A. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pizzocaro, M.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. A. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[Crossref]

Quinlan, F.

J. Davila-Rodriguez, F. N. Baynes, A. D. Ludlow, T. M. Fortier, H. Leopardi, S. A. Diddams, and F. Quinlan, “Compact, thermal-noise-limited reference cavity for ultra-low-noise microwave generation,” Opt. Lett. 42, 1277–1280 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Quinlan, F. J.

Rafac, R. J.

R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Sub-dekahertz ultraviolet spectroscopy of 199Hg+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462–2465 (2000).
[Crossref]

Randoux, S.

A. Debut, S. Randoux, and J. Zemmouri, “Linewidth narrowing in Brillouin lasers: theoretical analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 023803 (2000).
[Crossref]

Riehle, F.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6, 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rippe, L.

M. J. Thorpe, L. Rippe, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, and T. Rosenband, “Frequency stabilization to 6 × 10−16 via spectral-hole burning,” Nat. Photonics 5, 688–693 (2011).
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Roberts, S. P.

Roos, C. F.

H. Häffner, C. F. Roos, and R. Blatt, “Quantum computing with trapped ions,” Phys. Rep. 469, 155–203 (2008).
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Rosenband, T.

M. J. Thorpe, L. Rippe, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, and T. Rosenband, “Frequency stabilization to 6 × 10−16 via spectral-hole burning,” Nat. Photonics 5, 688–693 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
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D. R. Leibrandt, M. J. Thorpe, M. Notcutt, R. E. Drullinger, T. Rosenband, and J. C. Bergquist, “Spherical reference cavities for frequency stabilization of lasers in non-laboratory environments,” Opt. Express 19, 3471–3482 (2011).
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Saloman, C.

Santarelli, G.

Savchenkov, A. A.

W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Eliyahu, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Ultralow noise miniature external cavity semiconductor laser,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7371 (2015).
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A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery-mode resonators as frequency references. I. Fundamental limitations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1324–1335 (2007).
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A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Tunable filter based on whispering gallery modes,” Electron. Lett. 39, 389–391 (2003).
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N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. A. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
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Schliesser, A.

I. Fescenko, J. Alnis, A. Schliesser, C. Y. Wang, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. W. Hänsch, “Dual-mode temperature compensation technique for laser stabilization to a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator,” Opt. Express 20, 19185–19193 (2012).
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P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
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Seidel, D.

W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Eliyahu, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Ultralow noise miniature external cavity semiconductor laser,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7371 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sherman, J. A.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. A. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
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Smith, S. P.

Spillane, S. M.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415, 621–623 (2002).
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Stace, T. M.

W. Weng, J. D. Anstie, T. M. Stace, G. Campbell, F. N. Baynes, and A. N. Luiten, “Nano-Kelvin thermometry and temperature control: beyond the thermal noise limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 160801 (2014).
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Staines, S.

J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, and S. Jiang, “Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1813–1815 (2006).
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Sterr, U.

S. B. Koller, J. Grotti, S. Vogt, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, and C. Lisdat, “Transportable optical lattice clock with 7 × 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 073601 (2017).
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T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6, 687–692 (2012).
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E. P. Ippen and R. H. Stolen, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 539–541 (1972).
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Taylor, J.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
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Thompson, R. J.

Thorpe, M. J.

D. R. Leibrandt, M. J. Thorpe, M. Notcutt, R. E. Drullinger, T. Rosenband, and J. C. Bergquist, “Spherical reference cavities for frequency stabilization of lasers in non-laboratory environments,” Opt. Express 19, 3471–3482 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. J. Thorpe, L. Rippe, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, and T. Rosenband, “Frequency stabilization to 6 × 10−16 via spectral-hole burning,” Nat. Photonics 5, 688–693 (2011).
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Twitchen, D. J.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. B. Bulu, P. B. Deotare, M. McCutcheon, V. Venkataraman, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor optical resonator in diamond,” Nano Lett. 13, 1898–1902 (2013).
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Vahala, K. J.

W. Loh, A. A. S. Green, F. N. Baynes, D. C. Cole, F. J. Quinlan, H. Lee, K. J. Vahala, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Dual-microcavity narrow-linewidth Brillouin laser,” Optica 2, 225–232 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 369–373 (2012).
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T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Dynamical thermal behavior and thermal self-stability of microcavities,” Opt. Express 12, 4742–4750 (2004).
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K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424, 839–846 (2003).
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S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415, 621–623 (2002).
[Crossref]

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Venkataraman, V.

P. Latawiec, V. Venkataraman, M. J. Burek, B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, and M. Lončar, “On-chip diamond Raman laser,” Optica 2, 924–928 (2015).
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B. J. M. Hausmann, I. B. Bulu, P. B. Deotare, M. McCutcheon, V. Venkataraman, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor optical resonator in diamond,” Nano Lett. 13, 1898–1902 (2013).
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Vogt, S.

S. B. Koller, J. Grotti, S. Vogt, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, and C. Lisdat, “Transportable optical lattice clock with 7 × 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 073601 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

Wang, C. Y.

Wang, P. H.

Wang, Z.

J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, and S. Jiang, “Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1813–1815 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
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W. Weng, J. D. Anstie, T. M. Stace, G. Campbell, F. N. Baynes, and A. N. Luiten, “Nano-Kelvin thermometry and temperature control: beyond the thermal noise limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 160801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wilken, T.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Williams, J. R.

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zha, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10−18 level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wineland, D. J.

R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Sub-dekahertz ultraviolet spectroscopy of 199Hg+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462–2465 (2000).
[Crossref]

Xuan, Y.

Xue, X.

Yang, K.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

Ye, J.

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zha, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10−18 level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6, 687–692 (2012).
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A. D. Ludlow, X. Huang, M. Notcutt, T. Zanon-Willette, S. M. Foreman, M. M. Boyd, S. Blatt, and J. Ye, “Compact, thermal-noise-limited optical cavity for diode laser stabilization at 1 × 10−15,” Opt. Lett. 32, 641–643 (2007).
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R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Sub-dekahertz ultraviolet spectroscopy of 199Hg+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462–2465 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

Zanon-Willette, T.

Zarinetchi, F.

Zemmouri, J.

A. Debut, S. Randoux, and J. Zemmouri, “Linewidth narrowing in Brillouin lasers: theoretical analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 023803 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zha, X.

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zha, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10−18 level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zha, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10−18 level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zong, J.

J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, and S. Jiang, “Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1813–1815 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. Del’Haye, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Laser-machined ultra-high-Q microrod resonators for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221119 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. P. Ippen and R. H. Stolen, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 539–541 (1972).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Tunable filter based on whispering gallery modes,” Electron. Lett. 39, 389–391 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, “Sub-hertz relative frequency stabilization of two-diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG lasers locked to a Fabry-Perot interferometer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106–1117 (1992).
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[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, and S. Jiang, “Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1813–1815 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Nano Lett. (1)

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. B. Bulu, P. B. Deotare, M. McCutcheon, V. Venkataraman, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor optical resonator in diamond,” Nano Lett. 13, 1898–1902 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Eliyahu, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Ultralow noise miniature external cavity semiconductor laser,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7371 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (4)

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. J. Thorpe, L. Rippe, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, and T. Rosenband, “Frequency stabilization to 6 × 10−16 via spectral-hole burning,” Nat. Photonics 5, 688–693 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6, 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (4)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415, 621–623 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424, 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zha, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10−18 level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

W. Loh, J. Becker, D. C. Cole, A. Coillet, F. N. Baynes, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “A microrod-resonator Brillouin laser with 240 Hz absolute linewidth,” New J. Phys. 18, 045001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Optica (4)

Phys. Rep. (1)

H. Häffner, C. F. Roos, and R. Blatt, “Quantum computing with trapped ions,” Phys. Rep. 469, 155–203 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

A. Debut, S. Randoux, and J. Zemmouri, “Linewidth narrowing in Brillouin lasers: theoretical analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 023803 (2000).
[Crossref]

W. Loh, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Noise and dynamics of stimulated-Brillouin-scattering microresonator lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 053843 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

W. Weng, J. D. Anstie, T. M. Stace, G. Campbell, F. N. Baynes, and A. N. Luiten, “Nano-Kelvin thermometry and temperature control: beyond the thermal noise limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 160801 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Sub-dekahertz ultraviolet spectroscopy of 199Hg+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462–2465 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. B. Koller, J. Grotti, S. Vogt, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, and C. Lisdat, “Transportable optical lattice clock with 7 × 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 073601 (2017).
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LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration, “Observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 061102 (2016).
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I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Brillouin lasing with a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043902 (2009).
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Science (2)

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. A. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. SBS laser system setup and operation. (a) Schematic of a pair of identical SBS lasers and laser characterization systems. Each SBS laser comprises a pump laser, a phase modulator, a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), a fiber resonator, and a photodiode (PD). The pump is locked to the cavity resonance through demodulation via a local oscillator (LO). (b) The laser scans over the mode profile of the resonator for varying coupling ratios. Critical coupling occurs at 1.3% coupling, corresponding to a resonance width of 420 kHz. (c) SBS laser output power as a function of the supplied input optical pump power. The threshold power is 4.6 mW, and the slope efficiency is 79% until the second SBS Stokes oscillation occurs at 20 mW input.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. SBS laser thermal response. (a) SBS laser thermal response corresponding to the cases of input optical power modulation and heater modulation. Both cases show a continuous roll-off in response starting at 100 mHz, but for optical power modulation, the Kerr limit is reached after 0.4 Hz. (b) Time domain response of the SBS laser frequency for a 6.5 mW step increase in input pump power. The measured rise time is 24.6 s. (c) Pump laser sweep over a resonance mode showing no visible effects of mode asymmetry from thermal bistability. The scan speed is intentionally made slow to allow the pump to spend 70 ms within the cavity linewidth.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Laser frequency noise comparison. Measurements of frequency noise corresponding to the pump laser (blue), the PDH-locked pump (green), and the SBS laser (red). The SBS laser receives an additional factor of 30 dB noise suppression from the locked pump case, but this suppression diminishes below 30 kHz offset frequency. By measuring the noise using two orthogonal polarization SBS lasers generated from one common resonator, the common-mode noise is suppressed, and the SBS noise reaches a new lower floor (black). This floor is now 30 dB reduced from the locked pump case at all offset frequencies.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. SBS laser dual-mode thermometry. (a) Configuration of the dual-mode SBS laser comprising two pump lasers that are phase modulated, amplified, and photodetected for locking to two orthogonal-polarization modes of a single resonator. One of the pump lasers is rotated using a polarization controller (PC) to the orthogonal polarization, and the two polarizations are separated using a polarization beam splitter (PBS). (b) Measurement of the shift in orthogonal polarization modes with temperature. A 1.2°C temperature change corresponds to a 58  MHz change in mode separation. (c) Efficiency of the dual-mode separation in response to temperature relative to the response of a single resonator mode. The dual-mode separation changes by 30 kHz for every 1 MHz shift in the cavity resonance.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. SBS laser temperature stabilization. (a) Sensitivity of the locked pump (blue) and SBS laser (red) for the measurement of temperature. A fit to the pump laser (black dashed line) indicates a resolution of 12.9 μK, while the SBS laser line is a single narrow peak on the same scale. The inset shows a zoomed-in plot of the SBS line indicating a temperature resolution of 85 nK. (b) Measurements of the temperature shift induced by a controlled variation in heater power. The thermistor (red open triangles) and SBS laser (blue squares) measurements were independently calibrated and agree with a linear dependence of temperature on heater power. (c) SBS laser frequency drift for free-running (red) and temperature-stabilized (black) cases. When locked, the SBS drift is nearly unnoticeable compared to the ideal zero drift case (dashed green line).