Abstract

Low-cost, small-footprint, highly efficient, and mass-producible on-chip wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) light sources are key components in future silicon electronic and photonic integrated circuits (EPICs), which can fulfill the rapidly increasing bandwidth and lower energy per bit requirements. We present here, for the first time to our knowledge, a low-noise high-channel-count 20 GHz passively mode-locked quantum dot laser grown on a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible on-axis (001) silicon substrate. The laser demonstrates a wide mode-locking regime in the O band. A record low timing jitter value for passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers of 82.7 fs (4–80 MHz) and a narrow RF 3 dB linewidth of 1.8 kHz are measured. The 3 dB optical bandwidth of the comb is 6.1 nm (containing 58 lines, with 80 lines within the 10 dB bandwidth). The integrated average relative intensity noise values of the whole spectrum and a single wavelength channel are 152dB/Hz and 133dB/Hz in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 10 GHz, respectively. Utilizing 64 channels, an aggregate total transmission capacity of 4.1 terabits per second is realized by employing a 32 Gbaud Nyquist four-level pulse amplitude modulation format. The demonstrated performance makes the laser a compelling on-chip WDM source for multi-terabit/s optical interconnects in future large-scale silicon EPICs.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (11)

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556, 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Kurczveil, M. A. Seyedi, D. Liang, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Error-free operation in a hybrid-silicon quantum dot comb laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 71–74 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Liu and J. E. Bowers, “Photonic integration with epitaxial III-V on silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 6000412 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Jung, Z. Zhang, J. Norman, R. Herrick, M. J. Kennedy, P. Patel, K. Turnlund, C. Jan, Y. Wan, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Highly reliable low-threshold InAs quantum dot lasers on on-axis (001) Si with 87% injection efficiency,” ACS Photon. 5, 1094–1100 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, J. C. Norman, D. Jung, M. J. Kennedy, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Monolithic 9  GHz passively mode locked quantum dot lasers directly grown on on-axis (001) Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 041108 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, D. Jung, J. C. Norman, P. Patel, W. W. Chow, and J. E. Bowers, “Effects of modulation p doping in InAs quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 061105 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, T. Komljenovic, S. Srinivasan, E. Norberg, G. Fish, and J. E. Bowers, “Characterization of a fully integrated heterogeneous silicon/III-V colliding pulse mode-locked laser with on-chip feedback,” Opt. Express 26, 9714–9723 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. L. Davenport, S. Liu, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated heterogeneous silicon/III-V mode-locked lasers,” Photon. Res. 6, 468–478 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, S. Chen, Y. Yu, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Yang, M. Liao, M. Tang, Z. Liu, J. Wu, W. Li, I. Ross, A. J. Seeds, H. Liu, and S. Yu, “Monolithic quantum-dot distributed feedback laser array on silicon,” Optica 5, 528–533 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Nagarajan, M. Filer, Y. Fu, M. Kato, T. Rope, and J. Stewart, “Silicon photonics-based 100  Gbit/s, PAM4, DWDM data center interconnects,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 10, B25–B36 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Cheng, M. Bahadori, M. Glick, S. Rumley, and K. Bergman, “Recent advances in optical technologies for data centers: a review,” Optica 5, 1354–1370 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

Z. Wang, K. Van Gasse, V. Moskalenko, S. Latkowski, E. Bente, B. Kuyken, and G. Roelkens, “A III-V-on-Si ultra-dense comb laser,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16260 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Tian, Z. Wang, M. Pantouvaki, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room temperature O-band DFB laser array directly grown on (001) silicon,” Nano Lett. 17, 559–564 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Jung, P. G. Callahan, B. Shin, K. Mukherjee, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Low threading dislocation density GaAs growth on on-axis GaP/Si (001),” J. Appl. Phys. 122, 225703 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

F. Gao, S. Luo, H. M. Ji, S. T. Liu, F. Xu, Z. R. Lv, D. Lu, C. Ji, and T. Yang, “Ultrashort pulse and high power mode-locked laser with chirped InAs/InP quantum dot active layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1481–1484 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Wang, L. Zhao, Q. Kan, D. Lu, R. Zhang, and C. Ji, “Low-cost AWG-based fundamental frequency mode-locked semiconductor laser for multichannel synchronous ultrashort pulse generation,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1503809 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Agrell, M. Karlsson, A. R. Chraplyvy, D. J. Richardson, P. M. Krummrich, P. Winzer, K. Roberts, J. K. Fischer, S. J. Savory, B. J. Eggleton, M. Secondini, F. R. Kschischang, A. Lord, J. Prat, I. Tomkos, J. E. Bowers, S. Srinivasan, M. Brandt-Pearce, and N. Gisin, “Roadmap of optical communications,” J. Opt. 18, 063002 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

C.-H. Chen, M. Ashkan Seyedi, M. Fiorentino, D. Livshits, A. Gubenko, S. Mikhrin, V. Mikhrin, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A comb laser-driven DWDM silicon photonic transmitter based on microring modulators,” Opt. Express 23, 21541–21548 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, B. Tian, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room-temperature InP distributed feedback laser array directly grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 9, 837–842 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

M. J. R. Heck and J. E. Bowers, “Energy efficient and energy proportional optical interconnects for multi-core processors: driving the need for on-chip sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 332–343 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Srinivasan, M. Davenport, M. J. R. Heck, J. Hutchinson, E. Norberg, G. Fish, and J. Bowers, “Low phase noise hybrid silicon mode-locked lasers,” Front. Optoelectron. 7, 265–276 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4, 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. G. Thompson, A. R. Rae, M. Xia, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “InGaAs quantum-dot mode-locked laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 661–672 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Carpintero, M. G. Thompson, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low noise performance of passively mode-locked 10-GHz quantum-dot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 389–391 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Stöhr, A. Akrout, R. Buß, B. Charbonnier, F. van Dijk, A. Enard, S. Fedderwitz, D. Jäger, M. Huchard, F. Lecoche, J. Marti, R. Sambaraju, A. Steffan, A. Umbach, and M. Weiß, “60  GHz radio-over-fiber technologies for broadband wireless services [Invited],” J. Opt. Netw. 8, 471–487 (2009).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

K. Sato and H. Toba, “Reduction of mode partition noise by using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 328–333 (2001).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

D. J. Derickson, R. J. Helkey, A. Mar, J. R. Karin, J. G. Wasserbauer, and J. E. Bowers, “Short pulse generation using multisegment mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2186–2202 (1992).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

B. Tian, Z. Wang, M. Pantouvaki, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room temperature O-band DFB laser array directly grown on (001) silicon,” Nano Lett. 17, 559–564 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, B. Tian, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room-temperature InP distributed feedback laser array directly grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 9, 837–842 (2015).
[Crossref]

Agrell, E.

E. Agrell, M. Karlsson, A. R. Chraplyvy, D. J. Richardson, P. M. Krummrich, P. Winzer, K. Roberts, J. K. Fischer, S. J. Savory, B. J. Eggleton, M. Secondini, F. R. Kschischang, A. Lord, J. Prat, I. Tomkos, J. E. Bowers, S. Srinivasan, M. Brandt-Pearce, and N. Gisin, “Roadmap of optical communications,” J. Opt. 18, 063002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Akrout, A.

Al Qubaisi, K.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556, 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556, 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

Altenhain, L.

Aramideh, S.

N. Eiselt, H. Griesser, M. Eiselt, W. Kaiser, S. Aramideh, J. J. V. Olmos, I. T. Monroy, and J.-P. Elbers, “Real-time 200  Gb/s (4×56.25  Gb/s) PAM-4 transmission over 80  km SSMF using quantum-dot laser and silicon ring-modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), p. W4D.3.

Asanovic, K.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ashkan Seyedi, M.

Atabaki, A. H.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556, 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

Avizienis, R. R.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bahadori, M.

Baiocco, C. V.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556, 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref]

Beausoleil, R. G.

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S. Liu, J. C. Norman, D. Jung, M. J. Kennedy, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Monolithic 9  GHz passively mode locked quantum dot lasers directly grown on on-axis (001) Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 041108 (2018).
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E. Agrell, M. Karlsson, A. R. Chraplyvy, D. J. Richardson, P. M. Krummrich, P. Winzer, K. Roberts, J. K. Fischer, S. J. Savory, B. J. Eggleton, M. Secondini, F. R. Kschischang, A. Lord, J. Prat, I. Tomkos, J. E. Bowers, S. Srinivasan, M. Brandt-Pearce, and N. Gisin, “Roadmap of optical communications,” J. Opt. 18, 063002 (2016).
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N. Eiselt, H. Griesser, M. Eiselt, W. Kaiser, S. Aramideh, J. J. V. Olmos, I. T. Monroy, and J.-P. Elbers, “Real-time 200  Gb/s (4×56.25  Gb/s) PAM-4 transmission over 80  km SSMF using quantum-dot laser and silicon ring-modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), p. W4D.3.

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G. Kurczveil, M. A. Seyedi, D. Liang, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Error-free operation in a hybrid-silicon quantum dot comb laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 71–74 (2018).
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[Crossref]

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Guo, W.

Z. Wang, B. Tian, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room-temperature InP distributed feedback laser array directly grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 9, 837–842 (2015).
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S. Srinivasan, M. Davenport, M. J. R. Heck, J. Hutchinson, E. Norberg, G. Fish, and J. Bowers, “Low phase noise hybrid silicon mode-locked lasers,” Front. Optoelectron. 7, 265–276 (2014).
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D. J. Derickson, R. J. Helkey, A. Mar, J. R. Karin, J. G. Wasserbauer, and J. E. Bowers, “Short pulse generation using multisegment mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2186–2202 (1992).
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D. Jung, Z. Zhang, J. Norman, R. Herrick, M. J. Kennedy, P. Patel, K. Turnlund, C. Jan, Y. Wan, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Highly reliable low-threshold InAs quantum dot lasers on on-axis (001) Si with 87% injection efficiency,” ACS Photon. 5, 1094–1100 (2018).
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Hirai, R.

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Huebner, M.

Hutchinson, J.

S. Srinivasan, M. Davenport, M. J. R. Heck, J. Hutchinson, E. Norberg, G. Fish, and J. Bowers, “Low phase noise hybrid silicon mode-locked lasers,” Front. Optoelectron. 7, 265–276 (2014).
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Jan, C.

D. Jung, Z. Zhang, J. Norman, R. Herrick, M. J. Kennedy, P. Patel, K. Turnlund, C. Jan, Y. Wan, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Highly reliable low-threshold InAs quantum dot lasers on on-axis (001) Si with 87% injection efficiency,” ACS Photon. 5, 1094–1100 (2018).
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F. Gao, S. Luo, H. M. Ji, S. T. Liu, F. Xu, Z. R. Lv, D. Lu, C. Ji, and T. Yang, “Ultrashort pulse and high power mode-locked laser with chirped InAs/InP quantum dot active layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1481–1484 (2016).
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Jung, D.

Z. Zhang, D. Jung, J. C. Norman, P. Patel, W. W. Chow, and J. E. Bowers, “Effects of modulation p doping in InAs quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 061105 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, J. C. Norman, D. Jung, M. J. Kennedy, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Monolithic 9  GHz passively mode locked quantum dot lasers directly grown on on-axis (001) Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 041108 (2018).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

D. Jung, P. G. Callahan, B. Shin, K. Mukherjee, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Low threading dislocation density GaAs growth on on-axis GaP/Si (001),” J. Appl. Phys. 122, 225703 (2017).
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S. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Wang, L. Zhao, Q. Kan, D. Lu, R. Zhang, and C. Ji, “Low-cost AWG-based fundamental frequency mode-locked semiconductor laser for multichannel synchronous ultrashort pulse generation,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1503809 (2016).
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D. J. Derickson, R. J. Helkey, A. Mar, J. R. Karin, J. G. Wasserbauer, and J. E. Bowers, “Short pulse generation using multisegment mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2186–2202 (1992).
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Kennedy, M. J.

S. Liu, J. C. Norman, D. Jung, M. J. Kennedy, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Monolithic 9  GHz passively mode locked quantum dot lasers directly grown on on-axis (001) Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 041108 (2018).
[Crossref]

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A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556, 349–354 (2018).
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Komljenovic, T.

Koos, C.

Kruger, S. A.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556, 349–354 (2018).
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G. Kurczveil, M. A. Seyedi, D. Liang, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Error-free operation in a hybrid-silicon quantum dot comb laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 71–74 (2018).
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Z. Wang, K. Van Gasse, V. Moskalenko, S. Latkowski, E. Bente, B. Kuyken, and G. Roelkens, “A III-V-on-Si ultra-dense comb laser,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16260 (2017).
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Z. Wang, K. Van Gasse, V. Moskalenko, S. Latkowski, E. Bente, B. Kuyken, and G. Roelkens, “A III-V-on-Si ultra-dense comb laser,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16260 (2017).
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Lee, Y.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
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A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556, 349–354 (2018).
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C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, S.

S. Tanaka, T. Matsumoto, T. Kurahashi, M. Matsuda, A. Uetake, S. Sekiguchi, Y. Tanaka, and K. Morito, “Flip-chip-bonded, 8-wavelength AlGaInAs DFB laser array operable up to 70°C for silicon WDM interconnects,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2014), pp. 1–3.

Tanaka, Y.

S. Tanaka, T. Matsumoto, T. Kurahashi, M. Matsuda, A. Uetake, S. Sekiguchi, Y. Tanaka, and K. Morito, “Flip-chip-bonded, 8-wavelength AlGaInAs DFB laser array operable up to 70°C for silicon WDM interconnects,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2014), pp. 1–3.

Tang, M.

Thompson, M. G.

G. Carpintero, M. G. Thompson, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low noise performance of passively mode-locked 10-GHz quantum-dot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 389–391 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. G. Thompson, A. R. Rae, M. Xia, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “InGaAs quantum-dot mode-locked laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 661–672 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tian, B.

B. Tian, Z. Wang, M. Pantouvaki, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room temperature O-band DFB laser array directly grown on (001) silicon,” Nano Lett. 17, 559–564 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, B. Tian, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room-temperature InP distributed feedback laser array directly grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 9, 837–842 (2015).
[Crossref]

Toba, H.

K. Sato and H. Toba, “Reduction of mode partition noise by using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 328–333 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tomkos, I.

E. Agrell, M. Karlsson, A. R. Chraplyvy, D. J. Richardson, P. M. Krummrich, P. Winzer, K. Roberts, J. K. Fischer, S. J. Savory, B. J. Eggleton, M. Secondini, F. R. Kschischang, A. Lord, J. Prat, I. Tomkos, J. E. Bowers, S. Srinivasan, M. Brandt-Pearce, and N. Gisin, “Roadmap of optical communications,” J. Opt. 18, 063002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Turnlund, K.

D. Jung, Z. Zhang, J. Norman, R. Herrick, M. J. Kennedy, P. Patel, K. Turnlund, C. Jan, Y. Wan, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Highly reliable low-threshold InAs quantum dot lasers on on-axis (001) Si with 87% injection efficiency,” ACS Photon. 5, 1094–1100 (2018).
[Crossref]

Uetake, A.

S. Tanaka, T. Matsumoto, T. Kurahashi, M. Matsuda, A. Uetake, S. Sekiguchi, Y. Tanaka, and K. Morito, “Flip-chip-bonded, 8-wavelength AlGaInAs DFB laser array operable up to 70°C for silicon WDM interconnects,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2014), pp. 1–3.

Umbach, A.

Van Campenhout, J.

B. Tian, Z. Wang, M. Pantouvaki, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room temperature O-band DFB laser array directly grown on (001) silicon,” Nano Lett. 17, 559–564 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, B. Tian, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room-temperature InP distributed feedback laser array directly grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 9, 837–842 (2015).
[Crossref]

van Dijk, F.

Van Gasse, K.

Z. Wang, K. Van Gasse, V. Moskalenko, S. Latkowski, E. Bente, B. Kuyken, and G. Roelkens, “A III-V-on-Si ultra-dense comb laser,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16260 (2017).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

B. Tian, Z. Wang, M. Pantouvaki, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room temperature O-band DFB laser array directly grown on (001) silicon,” Nano Lett. 17, 559–564 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, B. Tian, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room-temperature InP distributed feedback laser array directly grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 9, 837–842 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wade, M. T.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556, 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wan, Y.

D. Jung, Z. Zhang, J. Norman, R. Herrick, M. J. Kennedy, P. Patel, K. Turnlund, C. Jan, Y. Wan, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Highly reliable low-threshold InAs quantum dot lasers on on-axis (001) Si with 87% injection efficiency,” ACS Photon. 5, 1094–1100 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, I.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556, 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

S. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Wang, L. Zhao, Q. Kan, D. Lu, R. Zhang, and C. Ji, “Low-cost AWG-based fundamental frequency mode-locked semiconductor laser for multichannel synchronous ultrashort pulse generation,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1503809 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

B. Tian, Z. Wang, M. Pantouvaki, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room temperature O-band DFB laser array directly grown on (001) silicon,” Nano Lett. 17, 559–564 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, K. Van Gasse, V. Moskalenko, S. Latkowski, E. Bente, B. Kuyken, and G. Roelkens, “A III-V-on-Si ultra-dense comb laser,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16260 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, B. Tian, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room-temperature InP distributed feedback laser array directly grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 9, 837–842 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wasserbauer, J. G.

D. J. Derickson, R. J. Helkey, A. Mar, J. R. Karin, J. G. Wasserbauer, and J. E. Bowers, “Short pulse generation using multisegment mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2186–2202 (1992).
[Crossref]

Waterman, A. S.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weingarten, K.

Weiß, M.

White, I. H.

M. G. Thompson, A. R. Rae, M. Xia, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “InGaAs quantum-dot mode-locked laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 661–672 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Carpintero, M. G. Thompson, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low noise performance of passively mode-locked 10-GHz quantum-dot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 389–391 (2009).
[Crossref]

Winzer, P.

E. Agrell, M. Karlsson, A. R. Chraplyvy, D. J. Richardson, P. M. Krummrich, P. Winzer, K. Roberts, J. K. Fischer, S. J. Savory, B. J. Eggleton, M. Secondini, F. R. Kschischang, A. Lord, J. Prat, I. Tomkos, J. E. Bowers, S. Srinivasan, M. Brandt-Pearce, and N. Gisin, “Roadmap of optical communications,” J. Opt. 18, 063002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wolf, S.

Wu, J.

Xia, M.

M. G. Thompson, A. R. Rae, M. Xia, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “InGaAs quantum-dot mode-locked laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 661–672 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xu, F.

F. Gao, S. Luo, H. M. Ji, S. T. Liu, F. Xu, Z. R. Lv, D. Lu, C. Ji, and T. Yang, “Ultrashort pulse and high power mode-locked laser with chirped InAs/InP quantum dot active layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1481–1484 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

Yang, T.

F. Gao, S. Luo, H. M. Ji, S. T. Liu, F. Xu, Z. R. Lv, D. Lu, C. Ji, and T. Yang, “Ultrashort pulse and high power mode-locked laser with chirped InAs/InP quantum dot active layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1481–1484 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

Yu, S.

Yu, Y.

Zhang, B.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556, 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

S. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Wang, L. Zhao, Q. Kan, D. Lu, R. Zhang, and C. Ji, “Low-cost AWG-based fundamental frequency mode-locked semiconductor laser for multichannel synchronous ultrashort pulse generation,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1503809 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

S. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Wang, L. Zhao, Q. Kan, D. Lu, R. Zhang, and C. Ji, “Low-cost AWG-based fundamental frequency mode-locked semiconductor laser for multichannel synchronous ultrashort pulse generation,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1503809 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, D. Jung, J. C. Norman, P. Patel, W. W. Chow, and J. E. Bowers, “Effects of modulation p doping in InAs quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 061105 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Jung, Z. Zhang, J. Norman, R. Herrick, M. J. Kennedy, P. Patel, K. Turnlund, C. Jan, Y. Wan, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Highly reliable low-threshold InAs quantum dot lasers on on-axis (001) Si with 87% injection efficiency,” ACS Photon. 5, 1094–1100 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

S. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Wang, L. Zhao, Q. Kan, D. Lu, R. Zhang, and C. Ji, “Low-cost AWG-based fundamental frequency mode-locked semiconductor laser for multichannel synchronous ultrashort pulse generation,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1503809 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

ACS Photon. (1)

D. Jung, Z. Zhang, J. Norman, R. Herrick, M. J. Kennedy, P. Patel, K. Turnlund, C. Jan, Y. Wan, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Highly reliable low-threshold InAs quantum dot lasers on on-axis (001) Si with 87% injection efficiency,” ACS Photon. 5, 1094–1100 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Liu, J. C. Norman, D. Jung, M. J. Kennedy, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Monolithic 9  GHz passively mode locked quantum dot lasers directly grown on on-axis (001) Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 041108 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, D. Jung, J. C. Norman, P. Patel, W. W. Chow, and J. E. Bowers, “Effects of modulation p doping in InAs quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 061105 (2018).
[Crossref]

Front. Optoelectron. (1)

S. Srinivasan, M. Davenport, M. J. R. Heck, J. Hutchinson, E. Norberg, G. Fish, and J. Bowers, “Low phase noise hybrid silicon mode-locked lasers,” Front. Optoelectron. 7, 265–276 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. J. Derickson, R. J. Helkey, A. Mar, J. R. Karin, J. G. Wasserbauer, and J. E. Bowers, “Short pulse generation using multisegment mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2186–2202 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (4)

K. Sato and H. Toba, “Reduction of mode partition noise by using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 328–333 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. G. Thompson, A. R. Rae, M. Xia, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “InGaAs quantum-dot mode-locked laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 661–672 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Liu and J. E. Bowers, “Photonic integration with epitaxial III-V on silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 6000412 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. J. R. Heck and J. E. Bowers, “Energy efficient and energy proportional optical interconnects for multi-core processors: driving the need for on-chip sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 332–343 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

S. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Wang, L. Zhao, Q. Kan, D. Lu, R. Zhang, and C. Ji, “Low-cost AWG-based fundamental frequency mode-locked semiconductor laser for multichannel synchronous ultrashort pulse generation,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1503809 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

F. Gao, S. Luo, H. M. Ji, S. T. Liu, F. Xu, Z. R. Lv, D. Lu, C. Ji, and T. Yang, “Ultrashort pulse and high power mode-locked laser with chirped InAs/InP quantum dot active layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1481–1484 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Carpintero, M. G. Thompson, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low noise performance of passively mode-locked 10-GHz quantum-dot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 389–391 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Kurczveil, M. A. Seyedi, D. Liang, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Error-free operation in a hybrid-silicon quantum dot comb laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 71–74 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Jung, P. G. Callahan, B. Shin, K. Mukherjee, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Low threading dislocation density GaAs growth on on-axis GaP/Si (001),” J. Appl. Phys. 122, 225703 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

E. Agrell, M. Karlsson, A. R. Chraplyvy, D. J. Richardson, P. M. Krummrich, P. Winzer, K. Roberts, J. K. Fischer, S. J. Savory, B. J. Eggleton, M. Secondini, F. R. Kschischang, A. Lord, J. Prat, I. Tomkos, J. E. Bowers, S. Srinivasan, M. Brandt-Pearce, and N. Gisin, “Roadmap of optical communications,” J. Opt. 18, 063002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (2)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

Z. Wang, K. Van Gasse, V. Moskalenko, S. Latkowski, E. Bente, B. Kuyken, and G. Roelkens, “A III-V-on-Si ultra-dense comb laser,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16260 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

B. Tian, Z. Wang, M. Pantouvaki, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room temperature O-band DFB laser array directly grown on (001) silicon,” Nano Lett. 17, 559–564 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

Z. Wang, B. Tian, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room-temperature InP distributed feedback laser array directly grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 9, 837–842 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4, 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556, 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Optica (2)

Photon. Res. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

S. Tanaka, T. Matsumoto, T. Kurahashi, M. Matsuda, A. Uetake, S. Sekiguchi, Y. Tanaka, and K. Morito, “Flip-chip-bonded, 8-wavelength AlGaInAs DFB laser array operable up to 70°C for silicon WDM interconnects,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2014), pp. 1–3.

N. Kikuchi and R. Hirai, “Intensity-modulated/direct-detection (IM/DD) Nyquist pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) signaling for 100-Gbit/s/λ optical short-reach transmission,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2014), pp. 1–3.

N. Eiselt, H. Griesser, M. Eiselt, W. Kaiser, S. Aramideh, J. J. V. Olmos, I. T. Monroy, and J.-P. Elbers, “Real-time 200  Gb/s (4×56.25  Gb/s) PAM-4 transmission over 80  km SSMF using quantum-dot laser and silicon ring-modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), p. W4D.3.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic diagram of the epitaxial structure of the 20 GHz QD-MLL. (b) Room-temperature PL emission spectra of a single InAs DWELL layer with different InGaAs thicknesses. (c) PL intensity of the full QD laser material grown and fabricated in this paper. (d) Schematic diagram of the 20 GHz quantum dot mode-locked laser on silicon (not to scale).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Si-based 20 GHz QD-MLL (a) continuous-wave light-current-voltage curve under different SA reverse bias. (b) Fundamental RF peak signal-to-noise-floor ratio mapping and (c) pulse width mapping as a function of gain section current and SA section reverse bias under a passive mode-locking operation.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Si-based passively mode-locked 20 GHz QD-MLL: (a) autocorrelation trace with hyperbolic secant squared pulse fitting; (b) RF spectrum in a 50 GHz span view (RBW: 1 MHz); (c) narrow span RF peak with Voigt fit (RF peak occurred at 20.02 GHz, RBW: 1 kHz); and (d) corresponding single-sideband phase noise plot under the narrowest pulse width condition (Igain=110mA, VSA=5V).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Si-based passively mode-locked 20 GHz QD-MLL: (a) optical spectrum and corresponding optical linewidth of each mode within 10 dB and (b) relative intensity noise of the whole O-band spectrum and certain filtered individual wavelength channels under Igain=180mA, VSA=1.92V.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. PAM-4 data transmission setup, including DSP, digital signal processing; PRBS, pseudo-random bit sequence; BER, bit error ratio; DFE, decision-feedback equalizer; RRC, root-raised-cosine; PC, polarization controller; AWG, arbitrary waveform generator; SSMF, standard single-mode fiber; SOA, semiconductor optical amplifier; OBPF, optical band pass filter; VOA, variable optical attenuator; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; PD, photodetector.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) BER performance of the PAM-4 signal with different comb lines; (b) corresponding eye diagrams for channels at 1265.669 nm and 1269.445 nm after B2B and 5 km SSMF transmission.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. BER versus received optical power for B2B and after 5 km SSMF transmission using the comb lines located at 1266.221 nm and 1270.946 nm.