Abstract

Photoinduced quantum dynamics in molecules have hierarchical temporal structures with different energy scales that are associated with electron and nuclear motions. Femtosecond-to-attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS) using high-harmonic generation (HHG) with a photon energy below 300 eV has been a powerful tool to observe such electron and nuclear dynamics in a table-top manner. However, comprehensive measurements of the electronic, vibrational, and rotational molecular dynamics have not yet been achieved. Here we demonstrate HHG-based TAS at the nitrogen $K$-edge (400 eV) for the first time to our knowledge and observe all the electronic, vibrational, and rotational degrees of freedom in a nitric oxide molecule at attosecond to sub-picosecond time scales. This method of employing core-to-valence transitions offers an all-optical approach to reveal the complete molecular dynamics in photochemical reactions with element and electronic state specificity.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

C. Kleine, M. Ekimova, G. Goldsztejn, S. Raabe, C. Strüber, J. Ludwig, S. Yarlagadda, S. Eisebitt, M. J. J. Vrakking, T. Elsaesser, E. T. J. Nibbering, and A. Rouzée, “Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy of aqueous solutions using a table-top femtosecond soft X-ray source,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 10, 52–58 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

A. S. Johnson, D. R. Austin, D. A. Wood, C. Brahms, A. Gregory, K. B. Holzner, S. Jarosch, E. W. Larsen, S. Parker, C. S. Strüber, P. Ye, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “High-flux soft x-ray harmonic generation from ionization-shaped few-cycle laser pulses,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaar3761 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Ishii, K. Kaneshima, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Generation of sub-two-cycle millijoule infrared pulses in an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier and their application to soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy with high-flux high harmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 014003 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Chew, N. Douguet, C. Cariker, J. Li, E. Lindroth, X. Ren, Y. Yin, L. Argenti, W. T. Hill, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond transient absorption spectrum of argon at the L2, 3 edge,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 031407 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

M. Sabbar, H. Timmers, Y.-J. Chen, A. K. Pymer, Z.-H. Loh, S. G. Sayres, S. Pabst, R. Santra, and S. R. Leone, “State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields,” Nat. Phys. 13, 472–478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. R. Attar, A. Bhattacherjee, C. D. Pemmaraju, K. Schnorr, K. D. Closser, D. Prendergast, and S. R. Leone, “Femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy of an electrocyclic ring-opening reaction,” Science 356, 54–59 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Nisoli, P. Decleva, F. Calegari, A. Palacios, and F. Martín, “Attosecond electron dynamics in molecules,” Chem. Rev. 117, 10760–10825 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Wei, J. Li, L. Wang, S. T. See, M. H. Jhon, Y. Zhang, F. Shi, M. Yang, and Z.-H. Loh, “Elucidating the origins of multimode vibrational coherences of polyatomic molecules induced by intense laser fields,” Nat. Commun. 8, 735 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

E. R. Warrick, W. Cao, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Probing the dynamics of Rydberg and valence states of molecular nitrogen with attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 120, 3165–3174 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Cheng, M. Chini, X. Wang, A. González-Castrillo, A. Palacios, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and Z. Chang, “Reconstruction of an excited-state molecular wave packet with attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 023403 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. M. Teichmann, F. Silva, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “0.5-keV Soft X-ray attosecond continua,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11493 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wu, and Z. Chang, “Polarization gating of high harmonic generation in the water window,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 231102 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

H. Öström, H. Öberg, H. Xin, J. LaRue, M. Beye, M. Dell’Angela, J. Gladh, M. L. Ng, J. A. Sellberg, S. Kaya, G. Mercurio, D. Nordlund, M. Hantschmann, F. Hieke, D. Kühn, W. F. Schlotter, G. L. Dakovski, J. J. Turner, M. P. Minitti, A. Mitra, S. P. Moeller, A. Föhlisch, M. Wolf, W. Wurth, M. Persson, J. K. Nørskov, F. Abild-Pedersen, H. Ogasawara, L. G. M. Pettersson, and A. Nilsson, “Probing the transition state region in catalytic CO oxidation on Ru,” Science 347, 978–982 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

J. Schneider, M. Matsuoka, M. Takeuchi, J. Zhang, Y. Horiuchi, M. Anpo, and D. W. Bahnemann, “Understanding TiO2 photocatalysis: mechanisms and materials,” Chem. Rev. 114, 9919–9986 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Ishii, K. Kaneshima, K. Kitano, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent high harmonic generation in the water window using few-cycle infrared pulses,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3331 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Ott, A. Kaldun, L. Argenti, P. Raith, K. Meyer, M. Laux, Y. Zhang, A. Blättermann, S. Hagstotz, T. Ding, R. Heck, J. Madroñero, F. Martín, and T. Pfeifer, “Reconstruction and control of a time-dependent two-electron wave packet,” Nature 516, 374–378 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, D. Zhao, D. A. Telnov, S.-I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Sub-cycle oscillations in virtual states brought to light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1105 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. R. Hosler and S. R. Leone, “Characterization of vibrational wave packets by core-level high-harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023420 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Shafir, H. Soifer, B. D. Bruner, M. Dagan, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and N. Dudovich, “Resolving the time when an electron exits a tunnelling barrier,” Nature 485, 343–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grgura, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143002 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, D. V. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Following a chemical reaction using high-harmonic interferometry,” Nature 466, 604–607 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Petit, S. Henin, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Production of ozone and nitrogen oxides by laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Z.-H. Loh and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast strong-field dissociative ionization dynamics of CH2Br2 probed by femtosecond soft x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 128, 204302 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Chollet, L. Guerin, N. Uchida, S. Fukaya, H. Shimoda, T. Ishikawa, K. Matsuda, T. Hasegawa, A. Ota, H. Yamochi, G. Saito, R. Tazaki, S. Adachi, and S. Koshihara, “Gigantic photoresponse in ¼-filled-band organic salt (EDO-TTF)2PF6,” Science 307, 86–89 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

X. Urbain, B. Fabre, E. M. Staicu-Casagrande, N. de Ruette, V. M. Andrianarijaona, J. Jureta, J. H. Posthumus, A. Saenz, E. Baldit, and C. Cornaggia, “Intense-laser-field ionization of molecular hydrogen in the tunneling regime and its effect on the vibrational excitation of H2+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 163004 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. M. Villeneuve, S. A. Aseyev, P. Dietrich, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Forced molecular rotation in an optical centrifuge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 542–545 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. Ortigoso, M. Rodríguez, M. Gupta, and B. Friedrich, “Time evolution of pendular states created by the interaction of molecular polarizability with a pulsed nonresonant laser field,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 3870–3875 (1999).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

N. Kosugi, J. Adachi, E. Shigemasa, and A. Yagishita, “High-resolution and symmetry-resolved N and O K-edge absorption spectra of NO,” J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8842–8849 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

W. C. Ho, I. Ozier, D. T. Cramb, and M. C. L. Gerry, “Diode laser spectroscopy of the vibrational fundamental of NO+,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 149, 559–561 (1991).
[Crossref]

Abild-Pedersen, F.

H. Öström, H. Öberg, H. Xin, J. LaRue, M. Beye, M. Dell’Angela, J. Gladh, M. L. Ng, J. A. Sellberg, S. Kaya, G. Mercurio, D. Nordlund, M. Hantschmann, F. Hieke, D. Kühn, W. F. Schlotter, G. L. Dakovski, J. J. Turner, M. P. Minitti, A. Mitra, S. P. Moeller, A. Föhlisch, M. Wolf, W. Wurth, M. Persson, J. K. Nørskov, F. Abild-Pedersen, H. Ogasawara, L. G. M. Pettersson, and A. Nilsson, “Probing the transition state region in catalytic CO oxidation on Ru,” Science 347, 978–982 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adachi, J.

N. Kosugi, J. Adachi, E. Shigemasa, and A. Yagishita, “High-resolution and symmetry-resolved N and O K-edge absorption spectra of NO,” J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8842–8849 (1992).
[Crossref]

Adachi, S.

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B. Buades, A. Picón, I. León, N. D. Palo, S. L. Cousin, C. Cocchi, E. Pellegrin, J. H. Martin, S. Mañas-Valero, E. Coronado, T. Danz, C. Draxl, M. Uemoto, K. Yabana, M. Schultze, S. Wall, and J. Biegert, “Attosecond-resolved petahertz carrier motion in semi-metallic TiS2,” arXiv:1808.06493 (2018).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. TAS of NO in the SX region. (a) Schematic of the experimental setup. (b) Typical SX spectrum obtained by HHG in helium. (c) Energy levels of NO that are relevant to TAS (right) and the shapes of the N 1s and ${2}\pi $ orbitals (left). (d) Measured transient absorption spectrum. The color scale represents the transient absorbance $\Delta {\rm A}$ (the definition is described in the main text). (e) Static absorbance of NO without the IR pump pulses measured in our experiment (black circles) and in a synchrotron (green curve). The calculated positions of the NO and ${{\rm NO}^ + }$ 1s-${2}\pi $ peaks are indicated by the blue and red lines, respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Attosecond strong-field ionization dynamics. (a) Measured attosecond transient absorption spectrum of NO with fine delay steps around the delay origin. (b) Transient absorbance of the NO 1s-${2}\pi $ peak (blue circles, averaged from 398.7 to 400.6 eV) and the ${{\rm NO}^ + }$ 1s-${2}\pi $ peak (red circles, averaged from 401.7 to 403.6 eV). The solid curves are their three-point rolling averages, and the shaded areas indicate the errors.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Coherent molecular vibration. (a) Measured central energy of the ${{\rm NO}^ + }$ 1s-${2}\pi $ peak as a function of the delay (circles). The solid curve is the fitting result with a cosine function plus a Gaussian function around the time origin. The dashed curve is the cosine component of the fitting result. (b) Potential energy curves of the relevant states obtained by the ab initio calculation and a schematic of the mechanism of the molecular vibration.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Coherent molecular rotation. (a) Measured (circles) and calculated (solid curves) transient absorbance of the NO 1s-${2}\pi $ peak averaged from 398.7 to 400.6 eV. The blue and red data are measured when the polarizations of the SX and IR pulses are perpendicular and parallel, respectively. (b) Schematic of the mechanism of the SX absorption change upon molecular alignment.

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