Abstract

The achievable instrument sensitivity is a critical parameter for the continued development of terahertz (THz) applications. Techniques such as cavity-enhanced techniques and cavity ring-down spectroscopy have not yet been employed at THz frequency due to the difficulties to construct a high-finesse Fabry–Pérot cavity. Here, we describe such a THz resonator based on a low-loss oversized corrugated waveguide with highly reflective photonic mirrors obtaining a finesse above 3000 around 620 GHz. These components enable a Fabry–Pérot THz absorption spectrometer with an equivalent interaction length of 1 km giving access to line intensities as low as 1027cm1/(molecule/cm2) with a S/N ratio of 3. In addition, the intracavity optical power has allowed the Lamb dip effect to be studied with a low-power emitter; an absolute frequency accuracy better than 5 kHz can be easily obtained providing an additional solution for rotational spectroscopy.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (2)

2018 (6)

F. Hindle, L. Kuuliala, M. Mouelhi, A. Cuisset, C. Bray, M. Vanwolleghem, F. Devlieghere, G. Mouret, and R. Bocquet, “Monitoring of food spoilage by high resolution THz analysis,” Analyst 143, 5536–5544 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Roucou, I. Kleiner, M. Goubet, S. Bteich, G. Mouret, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, W. L. Meerts, and A. Cuisset, “Towards the detection of explosive taggants: microwave and millimetre-wave gas-phase spectroscopies of 3-nitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 19, 1056–1067 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. J. Nemchick, B. J. Drouin, M. J. Cich, T. Crawford, A. J. Tang, Y. Kim, T. J. Reck, E. T. Schlecht, M.-C. F. Chang, and G. Virbila, “A 90–102  GHz CMOS based pulsed Fourier transform spectrometer: New approaches for in situ chemical detection and millimeter-wave cavity-based molecular spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89, 073109 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Wehres, J. Maßen, K. Borisov, B. Schmidt, F. Lewen, U. U. Graf, C. E. Honingh, D. R. Higgins, and S. Schlemmer, “A laboratory heterodyne emission spectrometer at submillimeter wavelengths,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 20, 5530–5544 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. A. Koshelev, I. I. Leonov, E. A. Serov, A. I. Chernova, A. A. Balashov, G. M. Bubnov, A. F. Andriyanov, A. P. Shkaev, V. V. Parshin, A. F. Krupnov, and M. Y. Tretyakov, “New frontiers in modern resonator spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 8, 773–783 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. W. Vogt and R. Leonhardt, “Ultra-high Q terahertz whispering-gallery modes in a silicon resonator,” APL Photonics 3, 051702 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

2016 (2)

P. Balzerowski, E. Bründermann, and M. Havenith, “Fabry-Pérot cavities for the terahertz spectral range based on high-reflectivity multilayer mirrors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 563–567 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. P. Endres, S. Schlemmer, P. Schilke, J. Stutzki, and H. S. P. Müller, “The cologne database for molecular spectroscopy, CDMS, in the virtual atomic and molecular data centre, VAMDC,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 327, 95–104 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

C. Abeysekera, B. Joalland, N. Ariyasingha, L. N. Zack, I. R. Sims, R. W. Field, and A. G. Suits, “Product branching in the low temperature reaction of CN with propyne by chirped-pulse microwave spectroscopy in a uniform supersonic flow,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 1599–1604 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

T. Chen, P. Liu, J. Liu, and Z. Hong, “A terahertz photonic crystal cavity with high Q-factors,” Appl. Phys. B 115, 105–109 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

B. A. DePrince, B. E. Rocher, A. M. Carroll, and S. L. Widicus Weaver, “Extending high-finesse cavity techniques to the far-infrared,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 075107 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. W. Hrubesh and M. W. Droege, “Pure-rotational spectrometry: a vintage analytical method applied to modern breath analysis,” J. Breath Res. 7, 037105 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, and R. Colombelli, “Wave engineering with THz quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 691–701 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. L. Neill, B. J. Harris, A. L. Steber, K. O. Douglass, D. F. Plusquellic, and B. H. Pate, “Segmented chirped-pulse Fourier transform submillimeter spectroscopy for broadband gas analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 19743–19749 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (6)

J. S. Melinger, Y. Yang, M. Mandehgar, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz detection of small molecule vapors in the atmospheric transmission windows,” Opt. Express 20, 6788–6807 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Justtanont, T. Khouri, M. Maercker, J. Alcolea, L. Decin, H. Olofsson, F. L. Schöier, V. Bujarrabal, A. P. Marston, D. Teyssier, J. Cernicharo, C. Dominik, A. de Koter, G. Melnick, K. M. Menten, D. Neufeld, P. Planesas, M. Schmidt, R. Szczerba, and R. Waters, “Herschel/HIFI observations of O-rich AGB stars: molecular inventory,” Astron. Astrophys. 537, A144 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Maestrini, I. Mehdi, J. V. Siles, J. S. Ward, R. Lin, B. Thomas, C. Lee, J. Gill, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Pearson, and P. Siegel, “Design and characterization of a room temperature all-solid-state electronic source tunable from 2.48 to 2.75  THz,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2, 177–185 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. F. Neese, I. R. Medvedev, G. M. Plummer, A. J. Frank, C. D. Ball, and F. C. De Lucia, “Compact submillimeter/terahertz gas sensor with efficient gas collection, preconcentration, and ppt sensitivity,” IEEE Sens. J. 12, 2565–2574 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. L. Steber, B. J. Harris, J. L. Neill, and B. H. Pate, “An arbitrary waveform generator based chirped pulse Fourier transform spectrometer operating from 260 to 295  GHz,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 280, 3–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. A. Nanni, S. K. Jawla, M. A. Shapiro, P. P. Woskov, and R. J. Temkin, “Low-loss transmission lines for high-power terahertz radiation,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 33, 695–714 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

R. Braakman and G. A. Blake, “Principles and promise of Fabry-Perot resonators at terahertz frequencies,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 063102 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. B. Park, A. H. Steeves, K. Kuyanov-Prozument, J. L. Neill, and R. W. Field, “Design and evaluation of a pulsed-jet chirped-pulse millimeter-wave spectrometer for the 70–102  GHz region,” J. Chem. Phys. 135, 024202 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (6)

F. C. De Lucia, “The submillimeter: a spectroscopist’s view,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 261, 1–17 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 636–640 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111113 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4, 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. J. Kowalski, D. S. Tax, M. A. Shapiro, J. R. Sirigiri, R. J. Temkin, T. S. Bigelow, and D. A. Rasmussen, “Linearly polarized modes of a corrugated metallic waveguide,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 58, 2772–2780 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. R. Hanson, J. B. Wilgen, T. S. Bigelow, S. J. Diem, and T. M. Biewer, “Analysis of the ITER low field side reflectometer transmission line system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10D920 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Y. Han, M. Cho, H. Park, K. Moon, E. Jung, and H. Han, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of ultra-high reflectance photonic crystal mirrors,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 55, 508–511 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 313–326 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Withayachumnankul, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Quarter-wavelength multilayer interference filter for terahertz waves,” Opt. Commun. 281, 2374–2379 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Lott, C. Xia, L. Kosnosky, C. Weder, and J. Shan, “Terahertz photonic crystals based on barium titanate/polymer nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 20, 3649–3653 (2008).
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J. L. Doane, “Design of circular corrugated waveguides to transmit millimeter waves at ITER,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 53, 159–173 (2008).
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G. G. Brown, B. C. Dian, K. O. Douglass, S. M. Geyer, S. T. Shipman, and B. H. Pate, “A broadband Fourier transform microwave spectrometer based on chirped pulse excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 053103 (2008).
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2006 (3)

P. Thaddeus, “The prebiotic molecules observed in the interstellar gas,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 361, 1681–1687 (2006).
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A. Luukanen, E. N. Grossman, A. J. Miller, P. Helisto, J. S. Penttila, H. Sipola, and H. Seppa, “An ultra-low noise superconducting antenna-coupled microbolometer with a room-temperature read-out,” IEEE Microwave Wireless. Compon. Lett. 16, 464–466 (2006).
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D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, S. Matton, E. Fertein, R. Bocquet, and G. Mouret, “Detection and quantification of multiple molecular species in mainstream cigarette smoke by continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2356–2358 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

P. P. Woskov, V. S. Bajaj, M. K. Hornstein, R. J. Temkin, and R. G. Griffin, “Corrugated waveguide and directional coupler for CW 250-GHz gyrotron DNP experiments,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53, 1863–1869 (2005).
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A. I. Meshkov and F. C. De Lucia, “Broadband absolute absorption measurements of atmospheric continua with millimeter wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083103 (2005).
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2004 (1)

2002 (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

V. L. Bratman, A. W. Cross, G. G. Denisov, W. He, A. D. R. Phelps, K. Ronald, S. V. Samsonov, C. G. Whyte, and A. R. Young, “High-gain wide-band gyrotron traveling wave amplifier with a helically corrugated waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2746–2749 (2000).
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1998 (1)

1997 (2)

K. Ohkubo, S. Kubo, H. Idei, M. Sato, T. Shimozuma, and Y. Takita, “Coupling of tilting Gaussian beam with hybrid mode in the corrugated waveguide,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 18, 23–41 (1997).
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D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stoeckel, “CW cavity ring down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
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1995 (1)

Th. Encrenaz, B. Bézard, J. Crovisier, A. Coustenis, E. Lellouch, S. Gulkis, and S. K. Atreya, “Detectability of molecular species in planetary and satellite atmospheres from their rotational transitions,” Planet. Space Sci. 43, 1485–1516 (1995).
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1994 (1)

I. Merke and H. Dreizler, “A molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometer in the range 26.5 to 40  GHz. Tests of performance and analysis of the D- and 14N-hyperfine structure of methylcyanide-d1,” Z. Naturforsch. A 49, 490–496 (1994).

1981 (1)

A. V. Burenin, A. N. Val’dov, E. N. Karyakin, A. F. Krupnov, and S. M. Shapin, “Submillimeter microwave spectrum and spectroscopic constants of the OCS molecule: isotopic species 16O12C33S and 18O12C32S,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 87, 312–315 (1981).
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1980 (1)

T. J. Balle, E. J. Campbell, M. R. Keenan, and W. H. Flygare, “A new method for observing the rotational spectra of weak molecular complexes: KrHCl,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 922–932 (1980).
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1977 (1)

D. A. Helms and W. Gordy, “Forbidden rotational spectra of symmetric-top molecules: PH3 and PD3,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 66, 206–218 (1977).
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Abbott, D.

W. Withayachumnankul, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Quarter-wavelength multilayer interference filter for terahertz waves,” Opt. Commun. 281, 2374–2379 (2008).
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Abeysekera, C.

C. Abeysekera, B. Joalland, N. Ariyasingha, L. N. Zack, I. R. Sims, R. W. Field, and A. G. Suits, “Product branching in the low temperature reaction of CN with propyne by chirped-pulse microwave spectroscopy in a uniform supersonic flow,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 1599–1604 (2015).
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Alcolea, J.

K. Justtanont, T. Khouri, M. Maercker, J. Alcolea, L. Decin, H. Olofsson, F. L. Schöier, V. Bujarrabal, A. P. Marston, D. Teyssier, J. Cernicharo, C. Dominik, A. de Koter, G. Melnick, K. M. Menten, D. Neufeld, P. Planesas, M. Schmidt, R. Szczerba, and R. Waters, “Herschel/HIFI observations of O-rich AGB stars: molecular inventory,” Astron. Astrophys. 537, A144 (2012).
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Andriyanov, A. F.

M. A. Koshelev, I. I. Leonov, E. A. Serov, A. I. Chernova, A. A. Balashov, G. M. Bubnov, A. F. Andriyanov, A. P. Shkaev, V. V. Parshin, A. F. Krupnov, and M. Y. Tretyakov, “New frontiers in modern resonator spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 8, 773–783 (2018).
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Ariyasingha, N.

C. Abeysekera, B. Joalland, N. Ariyasingha, L. N. Zack, I. R. Sims, R. W. Field, and A. G. Suits, “Product branching in the low temperature reaction of CN with propyne by chirped-pulse microwave spectroscopy in a uniform supersonic flow,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 1599–1604 (2015).
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Atreya, S. K.

Th. Encrenaz, B. Bézard, J. Crovisier, A. Coustenis, E. Lellouch, S. Gulkis, and S. K. Atreya, “Detectability of molecular species in planetary and satellite atmospheres from their rotational transitions,” Planet. Space Sci. 43, 1485–1516 (1995).
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Axner, O.

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 313–326 (2008).
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Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Bajaj, V. S.

P. P. Woskov, V. S. Bajaj, M. K. Hornstein, R. J. Temkin, and R. G. Griffin, “Corrugated waveguide and directional coupler for CW 250-GHz gyrotron DNP experiments,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53, 1863–1869 (2005).
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Balashov, A. A.

M. A. Koshelev, I. I. Leonov, E. A. Serov, A. I. Chernova, A. A. Balashov, G. M. Bubnov, A. F. Andriyanov, A. P. Shkaev, V. V. Parshin, A. F. Krupnov, and M. Y. Tretyakov, “New frontiers in modern resonator spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 8, 773–783 (2018).
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Ball, C. D.

C. F. Neese, I. R. Medvedev, G. M. Plummer, A. J. Frank, C. D. Ball, and F. C. De Lucia, “Compact submillimeter/terahertz gas sensor with efficient gas collection, preconcentration, and ppt sensitivity,” IEEE Sens. J. 12, 2565–2574 (2012).
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Balle, T. J.

T. J. Balle, E. J. Campbell, M. R. Keenan, and W. H. Flygare, “A new method for observing the rotational spectra of weak molecular complexes: KrHCl,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 922–932 (1980).
[Crossref]

Balzerowski, P.

P. Balzerowski, E. Bründermann, and M. Havenith, “Fabry-Pérot cavities for the terahertz spectral range based on high-reflectivity multilayer mirrors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 563–567 (2016).
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Bansal, T.

W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111113 (2010).
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Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Barbieri, S.

C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, and R. Colombelli, “Wave engineering with THz quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 691–701 (2013).
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S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 636–640 (2010).
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Barends, R.

W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111113 (2010).
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Beere, H.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 636–640 (2010).
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Beere, H. E.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
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Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
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Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Bernhardt, B.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4, 55–57 (2010).
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Bézard, B.

Th. Encrenaz, B. Bézard, J. Crovisier, A. Coustenis, E. Lellouch, S. Gulkis, and S. K. Atreya, “Detectability of molecular species in planetary and satellite atmospheres from their rotational transitions,” Planet. Space Sci. 43, 1485–1516 (1995).
[Crossref]

Biewer, T. M.

G. R. Hanson, J. B. Wilgen, T. S. Bigelow, S. J. Diem, and T. M. Biewer, “Analysis of the ITER low field side reflectometer transmission line system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10D920 (2010).
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Bigelow, T. S.

G. R. Hanson, J. B. Wilgen, T. S. Bigelow, S. J. Diem, and T. M. Biewer, “Analysis of the ITER low field side reflectometer transmission line system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10D920 (2010).
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E. J. Kowalski, D. S. Tax, M. A. Shapiro, J. R. Sirigiri, R. J. Temkin, T. S. Bigelow, and D. A. Rasmussen, “Linearly polarized modes of a corrugated metallic waveguide,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 58, 2772–2780 (2010).
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Bigourd, D.

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blake, G. A.

R. Braakman and G. A. Blake, “Principles and promise of Fabry-Perot resonators at terahertz frequencies,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 063102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bocquet, R.

A. Roucou, I. Kleiner, M. Goubet, S. Bteich, G. Mouret, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, W. L. Meerts, and A. Cuisset, “Towards the detection of explosive taggants: microwave and millimetre-wave gas-phase spectroscopies of 3-nitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 19, 1056–1067 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Hindle, L. Kuuliala, M. Mouelhi, A. Cuisset, C. Bray, M. Vanwolleghem, F. Devlieghere, G. Mouret, and R. Bocquet, “Monitoring of food spoilage by high resolution THz analysis,” Analyst 143, 5536–5544 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, S. Matton, E. Fertein, R. Bocquet, and G. Mouret, “Detection and quantification of multiple molecular species in mainstream cigarette smoke by continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2356–2358 (2006).
[Crossref]

Borisov, K.

N. Wehres, J. Maßen, K. Borisov, B. Schmidt, F. Lewen, U. U. Graf, C. E. Honingh, D. R. Higgins, and S. Schlemmer, “A laboratory heterodyne emission spectrometer at submillimeter wavelengths,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 20, 5530–5544 (2018).
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Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Braakman, R.

R. Braakman and G. A. Blake, “Principles and promise of Fabry-Perot resonators at terahertz frequencies,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 063102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bratman, V. L.

V. L. Bratman, A. W. Cross, G. G. Denisov, W. He, A. D. R. Phelps, K. Ronald, S. V. Samsonov, C. G. Whyte, and A. R. Young, “High-gain wide-band gyrotron traveling wave amplifier with a helically corrugated waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2746–2749 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bray, C.

F. Hindle, L. Kuuliala, M. Mouelhi, A. Cuisset, C. Bray, M. Vanwolleghem, F. Devlieghere, G. Mouret, and R. Bocquet, “Monitoring of food spoilage by high resolution THz analysis,” Analyst 143, 5536–5544 (2018).
[Crossref]

Brown, G. G.

G. G. Brown, B. C. Dian, K. O. Douglass, S. M. Geyer, S. T. Shipman, and B. H. Pate, “A broadband Fourier transform microwave spectrometer based on chirped pulse excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 053103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bründermann, E.

P. Balzerowski, E. Bründermann, and M. Havenith, “Fabry-Pérot cavities for the terahertz spectral range based on high-reflectivity multilayer mirrors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 563–567 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bteich, S.

A. Roucou, I. Kleiner, M. Goubet, S. Bteich, G. Mouret, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, W. L. Meerts, and A. Cuisset, “Towards the detection of explosive taggants: microwave and millimetre-wave gas-phase spectroscopies of 3-nitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 19, 1056–1067 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bubnov, G. M.

M. A. Koshelev, I. I. Leonov, E. A. Serov, A. I. Chernova, A. A. Balashov, G. M. Bubnov, A. F. Andriyanov, A. P. Shkaev, V. V. Parshin, A. F. Krupnov, and M. Y. Tretyakov, “New frontiers in modern resonator spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 8, 773–783 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bujarrabal, V.

K. Justtanont, T. Khouri, M. Maercker, J. Alcolea, L. Decin, H. Olofsson, F. L. Schöier, V. Bujarrabal, A. P. Marston, D. Teyssier, J. Cernicharo, C. Dominik, A. de Koter, G. Melnick, K. M. Menten, D. Neufeld, P. Planesas, M. Schmidt, R. Szczerba, and R. Waters, “Herschel/HIFI observations of O-rich AGB stars: molecular inventory,” Astron. Astrophys. 537, A144 (2012).
[Crossref]

Burenin, A. V.

A. V. Burenin, A. N. Val’dov, E. N. Karyakin, A. F. Krupnov, and S. M. Shapin, “Submillimeter microwave spectrum and spectroscopic constants of the OCS molecule: isotopic species 16O12C33S and 18O12C32S,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 87, 312–315 (1981).
[Crossref]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Analyst (1)

F. Hindle, L. Kuuliala, M. Mouelhi, A. Cuisset, C. Bray, M. Vanwolleghem, F. Devlieghere, G. Mouret, and R. Bocquet, “Monitoring of food spoilage by high resolution THz analysis,” Analyst 143, 5536–5544 (2018).
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APL Photonics (1)

D. W. Vogt and R. Leonhardt, “Ultra-high Q terahertz whispering-gallery modes in a silicon resonator,” APL Photonics 3, 051702 (2018).
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Appl. Phys. B (2)

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W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111113 (2010).
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Astron. Astrophys. (1)

K. Justtanont, T. Khouri, M. Maercker, J. Alcolea, L. Decin, H. Olofsson, F. L. Schöier, V. Bujarrabal, A. P. Marston, D. Teyssier, J. Cernicharo, C. Dominik, A. de Koter, G. Melnick, K. M. Menten, D. Neufeld, P. Planesas, M. Schmidt, R. Szczerba, and R. Waters, “Herschel/HIFI observations of O-rich AGB stars: molecular inventory,” Astron. Astrophys. 537, A144 (2012).
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Chem. Phys. Chem. (1)

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Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

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IEEE Microwave Wireless. Compon. Lett. (1)

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IEEE Sens. J. (1)

C. F. Neese, I. R. Medvedev, G. M. Plummer, A. J. Frank, C. D. Ball, and F. C. De Lucia, “Compact submillimeter/terahertz gas sensor with efficient gas collection, preconcentration, and ppt sensitivity,” IEEE Sens. J. 12, 2565–2574 (2012).
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IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (2)

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IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (3)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Fabry–Pérot THz cavity system overview with three operational modes. The emitter is an amplified multiplier chain (×36) covering 440–660 GHz driven by a microwave synthesizer referenced to a GPS time signal. The synthesizer is referenced to a GPS timing signal providing a frequency accuracy of 1011 when measured over 1 s. The phase noise at the output of the frequency multiplier operating at 620 GHz is 63dBc/Hz at 1 kHz from the carrier frequency. A TPX (Polymethylpentene) lens L1 (f=25mm) is used to couple the free space THz emission to the corrugated waveguide CW. Two 1D photonic mirrors PM1 and PM2 close the cavity, one at each end of the corrugated waveguide. Each photonic mirror is mounted on a piezo actuator PA1 and PA2, enabling fine tuning of the cavity length over at least 250 μm to ensure complete coverage. A second TPX lens L2 (f=25mm) collects the THz emission at the cavity output and focuses it on a zero bias Schottky detector diode (ZBD WR1.5). The corrugated waveguide is 48 cm long, with internal diameters of 20.54 mm. The internal corrugations have a pitch of p=166μm, while the groves are w=83μm wide and d=125μm deep. Time mode, the cavity output signal is amplified and recorded by an oscilloscope while the source is extinguished giving direct access to the cavity ring-down time τR. Frequency mode, the THz source frequency is scanned and the cavity response is measured using a lock-in detection and amplitude modulation of the source. The cavity mode linewidths (FWHM) and free spectral range (FSR) are directly obtained in the frequency domain. Fabry–Pérot THz Absorption Spectrometer (FP-TAS) mode, the THz source is frequency modulated and the cavity output is measured by lock-in detection. The first harmonic (1×f) is used as an error signal, a cavity mode is locked to the frequency of the THz source using a proportional, integrator, derivative (PID) control loop that feeds a high-voltage (HV) power supply. The second harmonic (2×f) provides a sensitive molecular signal as the source frequency and cavity scan together. The entire cavity assembly is placed in a pressure-controlled gas cell equipped with Teflon windows.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Time mode. The ring-down signal of the cavity recorded after the extinction of the THz source. The black points measured data. The red line fitted exponential curve. The THz source is operating at 636.6 GHz, and the cavity length is tuned to match the cavity mode to the source frequency. Measurements are performed with an evacuated gas cell; residual pressure is less than 1 μbar. The measured trace is an average of 60,000 acquisitions obtained in less than 5 min. (b) Frequency mode. Successive cavity modes observed for a fixed cavity length. The black circles are measured data. The red lines are data fitted using a Lorentzian function. The blue squares show the finesse F=FSR/Δν. The upper pane shows a detailed plot of the resonance around 627.3408 GHz. These data were measured with an amplitude modulation of 10 kHz, a frequency step of 10 kHz, and an integration time of 30 ms/point. The uncertainty of the FSR values is dominated by the temperature fluctuation; a variation of 103K shifts the frequency position of a given resonance by 10 kHz.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Fabry–Pérot THz Absorption Spectrometer (FP-TAS) mode. The red line is the second harmonic of the frequency-modulated THz wave at the cavity output with a pressure of 100 μbar of OCS. The transition J=5655 of the isotopologue O1813C32S is clearly recorded. The black line is the baseline measurement under identical conditions with an empty gas cell. The integration time is 200 ms/point, the frequency step is 2 kHz, and the frequency modulation depth is 90 kHz.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Fabry–Pérot THz Absorption Spectrometer (FP-TAS) mode. The Lamb dip effect observed at different pressures on the J=5554 rotational transition of O1813C32S, recorded with an integration time of 100 ms/point, a frequency step of 2 kHz, and a frequency modulation depth of 72 kHz.

Equations (1)

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F=πR·eα·L1R·eα·L,