Abstract

Intense THz fields can be used to excite specific low-frequency modes in condensed matter or drive confined currents in nano-structured arrays, paving the way for a new class of optoelectronic devices. The long wavelength enables spatially confined field enhancement due to interaction with metallic structures and interference effects at dielectric interfaces. We use THz photoelectron streaking for the polarization-sensitive reconstruction of all electric field components at dielectric and metallic interfaces. This is realized in a THz/x-ray pump–probe experiment where x-ray emitted photoelectrons probe the effective THz field in close surface proximity. We observe distinct differences in the THz response of a nano-structured Pt thin film and a Pt(111) bulk crystal, in particular for the parallel field component. Simulations of the nanoscale spatial field modulation at metallic islands on the thin film provide design parameters for different sensitivity regimes with respect to local fields.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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2019 (1)

B. Rösner, P. Dudin, J. Bosgra, M. Hoesch, and C. David, “Zone plates for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy providing sub-micrometre resolution in the extreme ultraviolet regime,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 26, 467–472 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

K. Waltar, J. Haase, M. Lucchini, J. A. van Bokhoven, M. Hengsberger, J. Osterwalder, and L. Castiglioni, “Polarization-sensitive pulse reconstruction by momentum-resolved photoelectron streaking,” Opt. Express 26, 8364–8374 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Reimann, S. Schlauderer, C. P. Schmid, F. Langer, S. Baierl, K. A. Kokh, O. E. Tereshchenko, A. Kimura, C. Lange, J. Güdde, U. Höfer, and R. Huber, “Subcycle observation of lightwave-driven dirac currents in a topological surface band,” Nature 562, 396–400 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Olejnk, T. Seifert, Z. Kašpar, V. Novák, P. Wadley, R. P. Campion, M. Baumgartner, P. Gambardella, P. Němec, J. Wunderlich, J. Sinova, P. Kužel, M. Müller, T. Kampfrath, and T. Jungwirth, “Terahertz electrical writing speed in an antiferromagnetic memory,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaar3566 (2018).

2017 (3)

P. Hamm, M. Meuwly, S. L. Johnson, P. Beaud, and U. Staub, “Perspective: THz-driven nuclear dynamics from solids to molecules,” Struct. Dyn. 4, 061601 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Medjanik, O. Fedchenko, S. Chernov, D. Kutnyakhov, M. Ellguth, A. Oelsner, B. Schönhense, T. R. F. Peixoto, P. Lutz, C. H. Min, F. Reinert, S. Däster, Y. Acremann, J. Viefhaus, W. Wurth, H. J. Elmers, and G. Schönhense, “Direct 3D mapping of the Fermi surface and Fermi velocity,” Nat. Mater. 16, 615 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Schötz, B. Förg, M. Förster, W. A. Okell, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, P. Hommelhoff, and M. F. Kling, “Reconstruction of nanoscale near fields by attosecond streaking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 77–87 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

B. Förg, J. Schötz, F. Süßmann, M. Förster, M. Krüger, B. Ahn, W. A. Okell, K. Wintersperger, S. Zherebtsov, A. Guggenmos, V. Pervak, A. Kessel, S. A. Trushin, A. M. Azzeer, M. I. Stockman, D. Kim, F. Krausz, P. Hommelhoff, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond nanoscale near-field sampling,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11717EP (2016).
[Crossref]

H. A. Hafez, X. Chai, A. Ibrahim, S. Mondal, D. Férachou, X. Ropagnol, and T. Ozaki, “Intense terahertz radiation and their applications,” J. Opt. 18, 093004 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

J. L. LaRue, T. Katayama, A. Lindenberg, A. S. Fisher, H. Öström, A. Nilsson, and H. Ogasawara, “THz-pulse-induced selective catalytic CO oxidation on Ru,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 036103 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Ueno, S. Nozawa, and H. Misawa, “Surface-enhanced terahertz spectroscopy using gold rod structures resonant with terahertz waves,” Opt. Express 23, 28584–28592 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

N. Stojanovic and M. Drescher, “Accelerator- and laser-based sources of high-field terahertz pulses,” J. Phys. B 46, 192001 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

I. Grguraš, A. R. Maier, C. Behrens, T. Mazza, T. J. Kelly, P. Radcliffe, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, N. M. Kabachnik, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Schlarb, and A. L. Cavalieri, “Ultrafast x-ray pulse characterization at free-electron lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6, 852–857 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Bellei, J. R. Davies, P. K. Chauhan, and Z. Najmudin, “Coherent transition radiation in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 035011 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. A. Werley, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, S. M. Teo, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and K. A. Nelson, “Time-resolved imaging of near-fields in THz antennas and direct quantitative measurement of field enhancements,” Opt. Express 20, 8551–8567 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

C. A. Werley, Q. Wu, K.-H. Lin, C. R. Tait, A. Dorn, and K. A. Nelson, “Comparison of phase-sensitive imaging techniques for studying terahertz waves in structured LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 2350–2359 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707EP (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

K. Tiedtke, A. Azima, N. von Bargen, L. Bittner, S. Bonfigt, S. Düsterer, B. Faatz, U. Frühling, M. Gensch, C. Gerth, N. Guerassimova, U. Hahn, T. Hans, M. Hesse, K. Honkavaar, U. Jastrow, P. Juranic, S. Kapitzki, B. Keitel, T. Kracht, M. Kuhlmann, W. B. Li, M. Martins, T. Núñez, E. Plönjes, H. Redlin, E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, J. R. Schneider, S. Schreiber, N. Stojanovic, F. Tavella, S. Toleikis, R. Treusch, H. Weigelt, M. Wellhöfer, H. Wabnitz, M. V. Yurkov, and J. Feldhaus, “The soft x-ray free-electron laser flash at desy: beamlines, diagnostics and end-stations,” New J. Phys. 11, 023029 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Geloni, V. Kocharyan, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, “Theory of edge radiation. Part I: Foundations and basic applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 605, 409–429 (2009).
[Crossref]

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven x-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu, C. A. Werley, K.-H. Lin, A. Dorn, M. G. Bawendi, and K. A. Nelson, “Quantitative phase contrast imaging of THz electric fields in a dielectric waveguide,” Opt. Express 17, 9219–9225 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

H. Fischer and O. J. F. Martin, “Engineering the optical response of plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 16, 9144–9154 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Gensch, L. Bittner, A. Chesnov, H. Delsim-Hashemi, M. Drescher, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, U. Fruehling, G. Geloni, C. Gerth, O. Grimm, U. Hahn, M. Hesse, S. Kapitzki, V. Kocharyan, O. Kozlov, E. Matyushevsky, N. Morozov, D. Petrov, E. Ploenjes, M. Roehling, J. Rossbach, E. Saldin, B. Schmidt, P. Schmueser, E. Schneidmiller, E. Syresin, A. Willner, and M. Yurkov, “New infrared undulator beamline at flash,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 423–425 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G. Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123901 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 1–9 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

F. Wang and Y. R. Shen, “General properties of local plasmons in metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 206806 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

Y. Takakura, “Optical resonance in a narrow slit in a thick metallic screen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5601–5603 (2001).
[Crossref]

Acremann, Y.

K. Medjanik, O. Fedchenko, S. Chernov, D. Kutnyakhov, M. Ellguth, A. Oelsner, B. Schönhense, T. R. F. Peixoto, P. Lutz, C. H. Min, F. Reinert, S. Däster, Y. Acremann, J. Viefhaus, W. Wurth, H. J. Elmers, and G. Schönhense, “Direct 3D mapping of the Fermi surface and Fermi velocity,” Nat. Mater. 16, 615 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ahn, B.

B. Förg, J. Schötz, F. Süßmann, M. Förster, M. Krüger, B. Ahn, W. A. Okell, K. Wintersperger, S. Zherebtsov, A. Guggenmos, V. Pervak, A. Kessel, S. A. Trushin, A. M. Azzeer, M. I. Stockman, D. Kim, F. Krausz, P. Hommelhoff, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond nanoscale near-field sampling,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11717EP (2016).
[Crossref]

Al-Naib, I. A. I.

Angelis, F. D.

Averitt, R. D.

Azima, A.

K. Tiedtke, A. Azima, N. von Bargen, L. Bittner, S. Bonfigt, S. Düsterer, B. Faatz, U. Frühling, M. Gensch, C. Gerth, N. Guerassimova, U. Hahn, T. Hans, M. Hesse, K. Honkavaar, U. Jastrow, P. Juranic, S. Kapitzki, B. Keitel, T. Kracht, M. Kuhlmann, W. B. Li, M. Martins, T. Núñez, E. Plönjes, H. Redlin, E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, J. R. Schneider, S. Schreiber, N. Stojanovic, F. Tavella, S. Toleikis, R. Treusch, H. Weigelt, M. Wellhöfer, H. Wabnitz, M. V. Yurkov, and J. Feldhaus, “The soft x-ray free-electron laser flash at desy: beamlines, diagnostics and end-stations,” New J. Phys. 11, 023029 (2009).
[Crossref]

Azzeer, A. M.

B. Förg, J. Schötz, F. Süßmann, M. Förster, M. Krüger, B. Ahn, W. A. Okell, K. Wintersperger, S. Zherebtsov, A. Guggenmos, V. Pervak, A. Kessel, S. A. Trushin, A. M. Azzeer, M. I. Stockman, D. Kim, F. Krausz, P. Hommelhoff, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond nanoscale near-field sampling,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11717EP (2016).
[Crossref]

Baierl, S.

J. Reimann, S. Schlauderer, C. P. Schmid, F. Langer, S. Baierl, K. A. Kokh, O. E. Tereshchenko, A. Kimura, C. Lange, J. Güdde, U. Höfer, and R. Huber, “Subcycle observation of lightwave-driven dirac currents in a topological surface band,” Nature 562, 396–400 (2018).
[Crossref]

Baumgartner, M.

K. Olejnk, T. Seifert, Z. Kašpar, V. Novák, P. Wadley, R. P. Campion, M. Baumgartner, P. Gambardella, P. Němec, J. Wunderlich, J. Sinova, P. Kužel, M. Müller, T. Kampfrath, and T. Jungwirth, “Terahertz electrical writing speed in an antiferromagnetic memory,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaar3566 (2018).

Bawendi, M. G.

Beaud, P.

P. Hamm, M. Meuwly, S. L. Johnson, P. Beaud, and U. Staub, “Perspective: THz-driven nuclear dynamics from solids to molecules,” Struct. Dyn. 4, 061601 (2017).
[Crossref]

Behrens, C.

I. Grguraš, A. R. Maier, C. Behrens, T. Mazza, T. J. Kelly, P. Radcliffe, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, N. M. Kabachnik, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Schlarb, and A. L. Cavalieri, “Ultrafast x-ray pulse characterization at free-electron lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6, 852–857 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bellei, C.

C. Bellei, J. R. Davies, P. K. Chauhan, and Z. Najmudin, “Coherent transition radiation in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 035011 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bittner, L.

K. Tiedtke, A. Azima, N. von Bargen, L. Bittner, S. Bonfigt, S. Düsterer, B. Faatz, U. Frühling, M. Gensch, C. Gerth, N. Guerassimova, U. Hahn, T. Hans, M. Hesse, K. Honkavaar, U. Jastrow, P. Juranic, S. Kapitzki, B. Keitel, T. Kracht, M. Kuhlmann, W. B. Li, M. Martins, T. Núñez, E. Plönjes, H. Redlin, E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, J. R. Schneider, S. Schreiber, N. Stojanovic, F. Tavella, S. Toleikis, R. Treusch, H. Weigelt, M. Wellhöfer, H. Wabnitz, M. V. Yurkov, and J. Feldhaus, “The soft x-ray free-electron laser flash at desy: beamlines, diagnostics and end-stations,” New J. Phys. 11, 023029 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Gensch, L. Bittner, A. Chesnov, H. Delsim-Hashemi, M. Drescher, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, U. Fruehling, G. Geloni, C. Gerth, O. Grimm, U. Hahn, M. Hesse, S. Kapitzki, V. Kocharyan, O. Kozlov, E. Matyushevsky, N. Morozov, D. Petrov, E. Ploenjes, M. Roehling, J. Rossbach, E. Saldin, B. Schmidt, P. Schmueser, E. Schneidmiller, E. Syresin, A. Willner, and M. Yurkov, “New infrared undulator beamline at flash,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 423–425 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bonfigt, S.

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M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 1–9 (2007).
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M. Gensch, L. Bittner, A. Chesnov, H. Delsim-Hashemi, M. Drescher, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, U. Fruehling, G. Geloni, C. Gerth, O. Grimm, U. Hahn, M. Hesse, S. Kapitzki, V. Kocharyan, O. Kozlov, E. Matyushevsky, N. Morozov, D. Petrov, E. Ploenjes, M. Roehling, J. Rossbach, E. Saldin, B. Schmidt, P. Schmueser, E. Schneidmiller, E. Syresin, A. Willner, and M. Yurkov, “New infrared undulator beamline at flash,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 423–425 (2008).
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K. Tiedtke, A. Azima, N. von Bargen, L. Bittner, S. Bonfigt, S. Düsterer, B. Faatz, U. Frühling, M. Gensch, C. Gerth, N. Guerassimova, U. Hahn, T. Hans, M. Hesse, K. Honkavaar, U. Jastrow, P. Juranic, S. Kapitzki, B. Keitel, T. Kracht, M. Kuhlmann, W. B. Li, M. Martins, T. Núñez, E. Plönjes, H. Redlin, E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, J. R. Schneider, S. Schreiber, N. Stojanovic, F. Tavella, S. Toleikis, R. Treusch, H. Weigelt, M. Wellhöfer, H. Wabnitz, M. V. Yurkov, and J. Feldhaus, “The soft x-ray free-electron laser flash at desy: beamlines, diagnostics and end-stations,” New J. Phys. 11, 023029 (2009).
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E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G. Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123901 (2008).
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U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven x-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
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M. Gensch, L. Bittner, A. Chesnov, H. Delsim-Hashemi, M. Drescher, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, U. Fruehling, G. Geloni, C. Gerth, O. Grimm, U. Hahn, M. Hesse, S. Kapitzki, V. Kocharyan, O. Kozlov, E. Matyushevsky, N. Morozov, D. Petrov, E. Ploenjes, M. Roehling, J. Rossbach, E. Saldin, B. Schmidt, P. Schmueser, E. Schneidmiller, E. Syresin, A. Willner, and M. Yurkov, “New infrared undulator beamline at flash,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 423–425 (2008).
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Grguraš, I.

I. Grguraš, A. R. Maier, C. Behrens, T. Mazza, T. J. Kelly, P. Radcliffe, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, N. M. Kabachnik, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Schlarb, and A. L. Cavalieri, “Ultrafast x-ray pulse characterization at free-electron lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6, 852–857 (2012).
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U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven x-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
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M. Gensch, L. Bittner, A. Chesnov, H. Delsim-Hashemi, M. Drescher, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, U. Fruehling, G. Geloni, C. Gerth, O. Grimm, U. Hahn, M. Hesse, S. Kapitzki, V. Kocharyan, O. Kozlov, E. Matyushevsky, N. Morozov, D. Petrov, E. Ploenjes, M. Roehling, J. Rossbach, E. Saldin, B. Schmidt, P. Schmueser, E. Schneidmiller, E. Syresin, A. Willner, and M. Yurkov, “New infrared undulator beamline at flash,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 423–425 (2008).
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J. Reimann, S. Schlauderer, C. P. Schmid, F. Langer, S. Baierl, K. A. Kokh, O. E. Tereshchenko, A. Kimura, C. Lange, J. Güdde, U. Höfer, and R. Huber, “Subcycle observation of lightwave-driven dirac currents in a topological surface band,” Nature 562, 396–400 (2018).
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K. Tiedtke, A. Azima, N. von Bargen, L. Bittner, S. Bonfigt, S. Düsterer, B. Faatz, U. Frühling, M. Gensch, C. Gerth, N. Guerassimova, U. Hahn, T. Hans, M. Hesse, K. Honkavaar, U. Jastrow, P. Juranic, S. Kapitzki, B. Keitel, T. Kracht, M. Kuhlmann, W. B. Li, M. Martins, T. Núñez, E. Plönjes, H. Redlin, E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, J. R. Schneider, S. Schreiber, N. Stojanovic, F. Tavella, S. Toleikis, R. Treusch, H. Weigelt, M. Wellhöfer, H. Wabnitz, M. V. Yurkov, and J. Feldhaus, “The soft x-ray free-electron laser flash at desy: beamlines, diagnostics and end-stations,” New J. Phys. 11, 023029 (2009).
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B. Förg, J. Schötz, F. Süßmann, M. Förster, M. Krüger, B. Ahn, W. A. Okell, K. Wintersperger, S. Zherebtsov, A. Guggenmos, V. Pervak, A. Kessel, S. A. Trushin, A. M. Azzeer, M. I. Stockman, D. Kim, F. Krausz, P. Hommelhoff, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond nanoscale near-field sampling,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11717EP (2016).
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Hafez, H. A.

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K. Tiedtke, A. Azima, N. von Bargen, L. Bittner, S. Bonfigt, S. Düsterer, B. Faatz, U. Frühling, M. Gensch, C. Gerth, N. Guerassimova, U. Hahn, T. Hans, M. Hesse, K. Honkavaar, U. Jastrow, P. Juranic, S. Kapitzki, B. Keitel, T. Kracht, M. Kuhlmann, W. B. Li, M. Martins, T. Núñez, E. Plönjes, H. Redlin, E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, J. R. Schneider, S. Schreiber, N. Stojanovic, F. Tavella, S. Toleikis, R. Treusch, H. Weigelt, M. Wellhöfer, H. Wabnitz, M. V. Yurkov, and J. Feldhaus, “The soft x-ray free-electron laser flash at desy: beamlines, diagnostics and end-stations,” New J. Phys. 11, 023029 (2009).
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M. Gensch, L. Bittner, A. Chesnov, H. Delsim-Hashemi, M. Drescher, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, U. Fruehling, G. Geloni, C. Gerth, O. Grimm, U. Hahn, M. Hesse, S. Kapitzki, V. Kocharyan, O. Kozlov, E. Matyushevsky, N. Morozov, D. Petrov, E. Ploenjes, M. Roehling, J. Rossbach, E. Saldin, B. Schmidt, P. Schmueser, E. Schneidmiller, E. Syresin, A. Willner, and M. Yurkov, “New infrared undulator beamline at flash,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 423–425 (2008).
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M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 1–9 (2007).
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B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707EP (2010).
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P. Hamm, M. Meuwly, S. L. Johnson, P. Beaud, and U. Staub, “Perspective: THz-driven nuclear dynamics from solids to molecules,” Struct. Dyn. 4, 061601 (2017).
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K. Tiedtke, A. Azima, N. von Bargen, L. Bittner, S. Bonfigt, S. Düsterer, B. Faatz, U. Frühling, M. Gensch, C. Gerth, N. Guerassimova, U. Hahn, T. Hans, M. Hesse, K. Honkavaar, U. Jastrow, P. Juranic, S. Kapitzki, B. Keitel, T. Kracht, M. Kuhlmann, W. B. Li, M. Martins, T. Núñez, E. Plönjes, H. Redlin, E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, J. R. Schneider, S. Schreiber, N. Stojanovic, F. Tavella, S. Toleikis, R. Treusch, H. Weigelt, M. Wellhöfer, H. Wabnitz, M. V. Yurkov, and J. Feldhaus, “The soft x-ray free-electron laser flash at desy: beamlines, diagnostics and end-stations,” New J. Phys. 11, 023029 (2009).
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M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 1–9 (2007).
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E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G. Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123901 (2008).
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K. Waltar, J. Haase, M. Lucchini, J. A. van Bokhoven, M. Hengsberger, J. Osterwalder, and L. Castiglioni, “Polarization-sensitive pulse reconstruction by momentum-resolved photoelectron streaking,” Opt. Express 26, 8364–8374 (2018).
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L. Castiglioni, D. Leuenberger, M. Greif, and M. Hengsberger, “Attosecond transversal streaking to probe electron dynamics at surfaces,” in Multiphoton Processes and Attosecond Physics, K. Yamanouchi and M. Katsumi, eds. (Springer, 2012), pp. 365–368.

Hesse, M.

K. Tiedtke, A. Azima, N. von Bargen, L. Bittner, S. Bonfigt, S. Düsterer, B. Faatz, U. Frühling, M. Gensch, C. Gerth, N. Guerassimova, U. Hahn, T. Hans, M. Hesse, K. Honkavaar, U. Jastrow, P. Juranic, S. Kapitzki, B. Keitel, T. Kracht, M. Kuhlmann, W. B. Li, M. Martins, T. Núñez, E. Plönjes, H. Redlin, E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, J. R. Schneider, S. Schreiber, N. Stojanovic, F. Tavella, S. Toleikis, R. Treusch, H. Weigelt, M. Wellhöfer, H. Wabnitz, M. V. Yurkov, and J. Feldhaus, “The soft x-ray free-electron laser flash at desy: beamlines, diagnostics and end-stations,” New J. Phys. 11, 023029 (2009).
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M. Gensch, L. Bittner, A. Chesnov, H. Delsim-Hashemi, M. Drescher, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, U. Fruehling, G. Geloni, C. Gerth, O. Grimm, U. Hahn, M. Hesse, S. Kapitzki, V. Kocharyan, O. Kozlov, E. Matyushevsky, N. Morozov, D. Petrov, E. Ploenjes, M. Roehling, J. Rossbach, E. Saldin, B. Schmidt, P. Schmueser, E. Schneidmiller, E. Syresin, A. Willner, and M. Yurkov, “New infrared undulator beamline at flash,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 423–425 (2008).
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Hibbins, A. P.

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G. Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123901 (2008).
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B. Rösner, P. Dudin, J. Bosgra, M. Hoesch, and C. David, “Zone plates for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy providing sub-micrometre resolution in the extreme ultraviolet regime,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 26, 467–472 (2019).
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J. Reimann, S. Schlauderer, C. P. Schmid, F. Langer, S. Baierl, K. A. Kokh, O. E. Tereshchenko, A. Kimura, C. Lange, J. Güdde, U. Höfer, and R. Huber, “Subcycle observation of lightwave-driven dirac currents in a topological surface band,” Nature 562, 396–400 (2018).
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Hoffmann, M. C.

I. Grguraš, A. R. Maier, C. Behrens, T. Mazza, T. J. Kelly, P. Radcliffe, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, N. M. Kabachnik, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Schlarb, and A. L. Cavalieri, “Ultrafast x-ray pulse characterization at free-electron lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6, 852–857 (2012).
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J. Schötz, B. Förg, M. Förster, W. A. Okell, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, P. Hommelhoff, and M. F. Kling, “Reconstruction of nanoscale near fields by attosecond streaking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 77–87 (2017).
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B. Förg, J. Schötz, F. Süßmann, M. Förster, M. Krüger, B. Ahn, W. A. Okell, K. Wintersperger, S. Zherebtsov, A. Guggenmos, V. Pervak, A. Kessel, S. A. Trushin, A. M. Azzeer, M. I. Stockman, D. Kim, F. Krausz, P. Hommelhoff, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond nanoscale near-field sampling,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11717EP (2016).
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Honkavaar, K.

K. Tiedtke, A. Azima, N. von Bargen, L. Bittner, S. Bonfigt, S. Düsterer, B. Faatz, U. Frühling, M. Gensch, C. Gerth, N. Guerassimova, U. Hahn, T. Hans, M. Hesse, K. Honkavaar, U. Jastrow, P. Juranic, S. Kapitzki, B. Keitel, T. Kracht, M. Kuhlmann, W. B. Li, M. Martins, T. Núñez, E. Plönjes, H. Redlin, E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, J. R. Schneider, S. Schreiber, N. Stojanovic, F. Tavella, S. Toleikis, R. Treusch, H. Weigelt, M. Wellhöfer, H. Wabnitz, M. V. Yurkov, and J. Feldhaus, “The soft x-ray free-electron laser flash at desy: beamlines, diagnostics and end-stations,” New J. Phys. 11, 023029 (2009).
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Huber, R.

J. Reimann, S. Schlauderer, C. P. Schmid, F. Langer, S. Baierl, K. A. Kokh, O. E. Tereshchenko, A. Kimura, C. Lange, J. Güdde, U. Höfer, and R. Huber, “Subcycle observation of lightwave-driven dirac currents in a topological surface band,” Nature 562, 396–400 (2018).
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Ibrahim, A.

H. A. Hafez, X. Chai, A. Ibrahim, S. Mondal, D. Férachou, X. Ropagnol, and T. Ozaki, “Intense terahertz radiation and their applications,” J. Opt. 18, 093004 (2016).
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J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
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K. Tiedtke, A. Azima, N. von Bargen, L. Bittner, S. Bonfigt, S. Düsterer, B. Faatz, U. Frühling, M. Gensch, C. Gerth, N. Guerassimova, U. Hahn, T. Hans, M. Hesse, K. Honkavaar, U. Jastrow, P. Juranic, S. Kapitzki, B. Keitel, T. Kracht, M. Kuhlmann, W. B. Li, M. Martins, T. Núñez, E. Plönjes, H. Redlin, E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, J. R. Schneider, S. Schreiber, N. Stojanovic, F. Tavella, S. Toleikis, R. Treusch, H. Weigelt, M. Wellhöfer, H. Wabnitz, M. V. Yurkov, and J. Feldhaus, “The soft x-ray free-electron laser flash at desy: beamlines, diagnostics and end-stations,” New J. Phys. 11, 023029 (2009).
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Johnson, S. L.

P. Hamm, M. Meuwly, S. L. Johnson, P. Beaud, and U. Staub, “Perspective: THz-driven nuclear dynamics from solids to molecules,” Struct. Dyn. 4, 061601 (2017).
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Jungwirth, T.

K. Olejnk, T. Seifert, Z. Kašpar, V. Novák, P. Wadley, R. P. Campion, M. Baumgartner, P. Gambardella, P. Němec, J. Wunderlich, J. Sinova, P. Kužel, M. Müller, T. Kampfrath, and T. Jungwirth, “Terahertz electrical writing speed in an antiferromagnetic memory,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaar3566 (2018).

Juranic, P.

K. Tiedtke, A. Azima, N. von Bargen, L. Bittner, S. Bonfigt, S. Düsterer, B. Faatz, U. Frühling, M. Gensch, C. Gerth, N. Guerassimova, U. Hahn, T. Hans, M. Hesse, K. Honkavaar, U. Jastrow, P. Juranic, S. Kapitzki, B. Keitel, T. Kracht, M. Kuhlmann, W. B. Li, M. Martins, T. Núñez, E. Plönjes, H. Redlin, E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, J. R. Schneider, S. Schreiber, N. Stojanovic, F. Tavella, S. Toleikis, R. Treusch, H. Weigelt, M. Wellhöfer, H. Wabnitz, M. V. Yurkov, and J. Feldhaus, “The soft x-ray free-electron laser flash at desy: beamlines, diagnostics and end-stations,” New J. Phys. 11, 023029 (2009).
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Kabachnik, N. M.

I. Grguraš, A. R. Maier, C. Behrens, T. Mazza, T. J. Kelly, P. Radcliffe, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, N. M. Kabachnik, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Schlarb, and A. L. Cavalieri, “Ultrafast x-ray pulse characterization at free-electron lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6, 852–857 (2012).
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Kalms, R.

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven x-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
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Kampfrath, T.

K. Olejnk, T. Seifert, Z. Kašpar, V. Novák, P. Wadley, R. P. Campion, M. Baumgartner, P. Gambardella, P. Němec, J. Wunderlich, J. Sinova, P. Kužel, M. Müller, T. Kampfrath, and T. Jungwirth, “Terahertz electrical writing speed in an antiferromagnetic memory,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaar3566 (2018).

Kapitzki, S.

K. Tiedtke, A. Azima, N. von Bargen, L. Bittner, S. Bonfigt, S. Düsterer, B. Faatz, U. Frühling, M. Gensch, C. Gerth, N. Guerassimova, U. Hahn, T. Hans, M. Hesse, K. Honkavaar, U. Jastrow, P. Juranic, S. Kapitzki, B. Keitel, T. Kracht, M. Kuhlmann, W. B. Li, M. Martins, T. Núñez, E. Plönjes, H. Redlin, E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, J. R. Schneider, S. Schreiber, N. Stojanovic, F. Tavella, S. Toleikis, R. Treusch, H. Weigelt, M. Wellhöfer, H. Wabnitz, M. V. Yurkov, and J. Feldhaus, “The soft x-ray free-electron laser flash at desy: beamlines, diagnostics and end-stations,” New J. Phys. 11, 023029 (2009).
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M. Gensch, L. Bittner, A. Chesnov, H. Delsim-Hashemi, M. Drescher, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, U. Fruehling, G. Geloni, C. Gerth, O. Grimm, U. Hahn, M. Hesse, S. Kapitzki, V. Kocharyan, O. Kozlov, E. Matyushevsky, N. Morozov, D. Petrov, E. Ploenjes, M. Roehling, J. Rossbach, E. Saldin, B. Schmidt, P. Schmueser, E. Schneidmiller, E. Syresin, A. Willner, and M. Yurkov, “New infrared undulator beamline at flash,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 423–425 (2008).
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Kašpar, Z.

K. Olejnk, T. Seifert, Z. Kašpar, V. Novák, P. Wadley, R. P. Campion, M. Baumgartner, P. Gambardella, P. Němec, J. Wunderlich, J. Sinova, P. Kužel, M. Müller, T. Kampfrath, and T. Jungwirth, “Terahertz electrical writing speed in an antiferromagnetic memory,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaar3566 (2018).

Katayama, T.

J. L. LaRue, T. Katayama, A. Lindenberg, A. S. Fisher, H. Öström, A. Nilsson, and H. Ogasawara, “THz-pulse-induced selective catalytic CO oxidation on Ru,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 036103 (2015).
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Kazansky, A. K.

I. Grguraš, A. R. Maier, C. Behrens, T. Mazza, T. J. Kelly, P. Radcliffe, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, N. M. Kabachnik, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Schlarb, and A. L. Cavalieri, “Ultrafast x-ray pulse characterization at free-electron lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6, 852–857 (2012).
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Keitel, B.

K. Tiedtke, A. Azima, N. von Bargen, L. Bittner, S. Bonfigt, S. Düsterer, B. Faatz, U. Frühling, M. Gensch, C. Gerth, N. Guerassimova, U. Hahn, T. Hans, M. Hesse, K. Honkavaar, U. Jastrow, P. Juranic, S. Kapitzki, B. Keitel, T. Kracht, M. Kuhlmann, W. B. Li, M. Martins, T. Núñez, E. Plönjes, H. Redlin, E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, J. R. Schneider, S. Schreiber, N. Stojanovic, F. Tavella, S. Toleikis, R. Treusch, H. Weigelt, M. Wellhöfer, H. Wabnitz, M. V. Yurkov, and J. Feldhaus, “The soft x-ray free-electron laser flash at desy: beamlines, diagnostics and end-stations,” New J. Phys. 11, 023029 (2009).
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Kelly, T. J.

I. Grguraš, A. R. Maier, C. Behrens, T. Mazza, T. J. Kelly, P. Radcliffe, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, N. M. Kabachnik, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Schlarb, and A. L. Cavalieri, “Ultrafast x-ray pulse characterization at free-electron lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6, 852–857 (2012).
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Kessel, A.

B. Förg, J. Schötz, F. Süßmann, M. Förster, M. Krüger, B. Ahn, W. A. Okell, K. Wintersperger, S. Zherebtsov, A. Guggenmos, V. Pervak, A. Kessel, S. A. Trushin, A. M. Azzeer, M. I. Stockman, D. Kim, F. Krausz, P. Hommelhoff, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond nanoscale near-field sampling,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11717EP (2016).
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Kim, D.

B. Förg, J. Schötz, F. Süßmann, M. Förster, M. Krüger, B. Ahn, W. A. Okell, K. Wintersperger, S. Zherebtsov, A. Guggenmos, V. Pervak, A. Kessel, S. A. Trushin, A. M. Azzeer, M. I. Stockman, D. Kim, F. Krausz, P. Hommelhoff, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond nanoscale near-field sampling,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11717EP (2016).
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Kimura, A.

J. Reimann, S. Schlauderer, C. P. Schmid, F. Langer, S. Baierl, K. A. Kokh, O. E. Tereshchenko, A. Kimura, C. Lange, J. Güdde, U. Höfer, and R. Huber, “Subcycle observation of lightwave-driven dirac currents in a topological surface band,” Nature 562, 396–400 (2018).
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Kling, M. F.

J. Schötz, B. Förg, M. Förster, W. A. Okell, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, P. Hommelhoff, and M. F. Kling, “Reconstruction of nanoscale near fields by attosecond streaking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 77–87 (2017).
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B. Förg, J. Schötz, F. Süßmann, M. Förster, M. Krüger, B. Ahn, W. A. Okell, K. Wintersperger, S. Zherebtsov, A. Guggenmos, V. Pervak, A. Kessel, S. A. Trushin, A. M. Azzeer, M. I. Stockman, D. Kim, F. Krausz, P. Hommelhoff, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond nanoscale near-field sampling,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11717EP (2016).
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Kocharyan, V.

G. Geloni, V. Kocharyan, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, “Theory of edge radiation. Part I: Foundations and basic applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 605, 409–429 (2009).
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M. Gensch, L. Bittner, A. Chesnov, H. Delsim-Hashemi, M. Drescher, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, U. Fruehling, G. Geloni, C. Gerth, O. Grimm, U. Hahn, M. Hesse, S. Kapitzki, V. Kocharyan, O. Kozlov, E. Matyushevsky, N. Morozov, D. Petrov, E. Ploenjes, M. Roehling, J. Rossbach, E. Saldin, B. Schmidt, P. Schmueser, E. Schneidmiller, E. Syresin, A. Willner, and M. Yurkov, “New infrared undulator beamline at flash,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 423–425 (2008).
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Kokh, K. A.

J. Reimann, S. Schlauderer, C. P. Schmid, F. Langer, S. Baierl, K. A. Kokh, O. E. Tereshchenko, A. Kimura, C. Lange, J. Güdde, U. Höfer, and R. Huber, “Subcycle observation of lightwave-driven dirac currents in a topological surface band,” Nature 562, 396–400 (2018).
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Redlin, H.

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Terahertz streaking scheme and polarization-sensitive pulse reconstruction. (a) Superposition of incoming and reflected parts of the THz pulse generate a complex field grating above the sample surface. The magnified inset shows possible momentum modifications of emitted electrons due to interaction with the E-field. (b) Stack of raw detector data of the Pt 5 d valence level at different THz/x-ray delays, showing the effect of tilting and shifting of the electron momentum distribution. (c) Schematics of the individual effects of the perpendicular (left) and parallel (right) field components on the momentum distribution. (d) Angle-integrated delay trace of the thin-film sample (top) and reconstructed field components parallel (center) and perpendicular (bottom) to the sample surface. Dashed lines indicate the delays of the detector images in (b).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental setup of the THz/x-ray pump–probe experiment and thin-film sample characterization. (a) Schematics of the experimental setup. The x-ray beam path is set up in a back-reflection geometry via a multi-layer mirror. (b) Measurement geometry inside the UHV chamber. The THz beam is tighly focused onto the sample by an off-axis parabolic mirror. The x-ray light enters the interaction region from the back side of the same mirror through a small hole. Polarizations are as indicated. Photoemitted electrons are detected by a hemispherical electron analyzer. (c) Schematic of the thin-film sample with an SEM image showing the island-like Pt surface texture; bottom images show XPD map of the Pt 4f core level (left) and LEED image of the thin film (right).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. THz streaking of the Pt(111) valence level and reconstructed field components. (a) Angle-integrated delay trace of the Pt(111) valence level of the thin-film sample. (b) The reconstructed electric field components parallel (blue) and perpendicular (grey) to the sample surface are presented below. (c–d) Same as in (a) and (b), respectively, but for Pt(111) bulk sample.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Electric field simulations of THz light incident on nanometer-sized metallic islands. (a) Total electric field components perpendicular (left) and parallel (right) to the metallic island at a fixed phase of the external driving field. The vectors E and k indicate polarization and direction, respectively, of the incoming 2 THz light. Here, light is incident perpendicular to the surface at an incidence angle of 0°. (b) Line profiles of the parallel (black) and perpendicular (blue) electric field components at two heights above the island surface marked as P1 (1 nm, solid) and P2 (100 nm, dashed). (c) Same as in (a) but with an oblique angle of incidence of 60° and p -polarized light. (d) Line profiles of the electric field components from the simulation in (c). P1 and P2 are defined as in (b).