Abstract

The capability to store light for extended periods of time enables optical cavities to act as narrowband optical filters, whose linewidth corresponds to the cavity’s inverse energy storage time. Here, we report on nonlinear filtering of an optical pulse train based on temporal dissipative Kerr solitons in microresonators. Our experimental results in combination with analytical and numerical modeling show that soliton dynamics enables information storage about the system’s physical state longer than the cavity’s energy storage time, thereby giving rise to a filter width that can be more than an order of magnitude below the cavity’s intrinsic linewidth. Such nonlinear optical filtering can find immediate applications in optical metrology, and low-timing jitter ultrashort optical pulse generation and potentially opens new avenues for microwave photonics.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  33. F. Copie, M. T. Woodley, L. Del Bino, J. M. Silver, S. Zhang, and P. Del’Haye, “Interplay of polarization and time-reversal symmetry breaking in synchronously pumped ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 013905 (2019).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2019 (6)

A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic-chip-based frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 13, 158–169 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Weng, E. Lucas, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, H. Guo, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Spectral purification of microwave signals with disciplined dissipative Kerr solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 013902 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Lilienfein, C. Hofer, M. Högner, T. Saule, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, E. Fill, C. Riek, A. Leitenstorfer, J. Limpert, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “Temporal solitons in free-space femtosecond enhancement cavities,” Nat. Photonics 13, 214–218 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

I. Hendry, B. Garbin, S. G. Murdoch, S. Coen, and M. Erkintalo, “Impact of de-synchronization and drift on soliton-based Kerr frequency combs in the presence of pulsed driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 100, 023829 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Copie, M. T. Woodley, L. Del Bino, J. M. Silver, S. Zhang, and P. Del’Haye, “Interplay of polarization and time-reversal symmetry breaking in synchronously pumped ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 013905 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361, eaan8083 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. Hendry, W. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Garbin, J. Javaloyes, G.-L. Oppo, S. Coen, S. G. Murdoch, and M. Erkintalo, “Spontaneous symmetry breaking and trapping of temporal Kerr cavity solitons by pulsed or amplitude-modulated driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 053834 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

K. Beha, D. C. Cole, P. Del’Haye, A. Coillet, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Electronic synthesis of light,” Optica 4, 406–411 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. M. Weiner, “Frequency combs: cavity solitons come of age,” Nat. Photonics 11, 533–535 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Obrzud, S. Lecomte, and T. Herr, “Temporal solitons in microresonators driven by optical pulses,” Nat. Photonics 11, 600–607 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, V. Brasch, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13, 94–102 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7957 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. K. Jang, M. Erkintalo, S. Coen, and S. G. Murdoch, “Temporal tweezing of light through the trapping and manipulation of temporal cavity solitons,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7370 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, M.-G. Suh, and K. Vahala, “Soliton frequency comb at microwave rates in a high-Q silica microresonator,” Optica 2, 1078–1085 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87, 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. Gorodetsky, and T. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123901 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Hansson, D. Modotto, and S. Wabnitz, “On the numerical simulation of Kerr frequency combs using coupled mode equations,” Opt. Commun 312, 134–136 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Xu and S. Coen, “Experimental observation of the spontaneous breaking of the time-reversal symmetry in a synchronously pumped passive Kerr resonator,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3492–3495 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

J. K. Jang, M. Erkintalo, S. G. Murdoch, and S. Coen, “Ultraweak long-range interactions of solitons observed over astronomical distances,” Nat. Photonics 7, 657–663 (2013).
[Crossref]

P.-H. Wang, Y. Xuan, L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Xue, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Drop-port study of microresonator frequency combs: power transfer, spectra and time-domain characterization,” Opt. Express 21, 22441–22452 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

F. Leo, S. Coen, P. Kockaert, S.-P. Gorza, P. Emplit, and M. Haelterman, “Temporal cavity solitons in one-dimensional Kerr media as bits in an all-optical buffer,” Nat. Photonics 4, 471–476 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Chembo and N. Yu, “Modal expansion approach to optical-frequency-comb generation with monolithic whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 033801 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1, 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424, 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

T. Kobayashi, H. Yao, K. Amano, Y. Fukushima, A. Morimoto, and T. Sueta, “Optical pulse compression using high-frequency electrooptic phase modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 382–387 (1988).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

C. W. Gardiner and M. J. Collett, “Input and output in damped quantum systems: Quantum stochastic differential equations and the master equation,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 3761–3774 (1985).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

1960 (1)

T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated optical radiation in ruby,” Nature 187, 493–494 (1960).
[Crossref]

Amano, K.

T. Kobayashi, H. Yao, K. Amano, Y. Fukushima, A. Morimoto, and T. Sueta, “Optical pulse compression using high-frequency electrooptic phase modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 382–387 (1988).
[Crossref]

Anderson, M.

M. Anderson, R. Bouchand, J. Liu, W. Weng, E. Obrzud, T. Herr, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based resonant supercontinuum,” arXiv:1909.00022v2 (2019).

Anderson, M. H.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Beha, K.

Bouchand, R.

M. Anderson, R. Bouchand, J. Liu, W. Weng, E. Obrzud, T. Herr, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based resonant supercontinuum,” arXiv:1909.00022v2 (2019).

E. Lucas, P. Brochard, R. Bouchand, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultralow-noise photonic microwave synthesis using a soliton microcomb-based transfer oscillator,” arXiv:1903.01213 [physics] (2019).

Bouchy, F.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

Boyd, M. M.

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87, 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brasch, V.

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, V. Brasch, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13, 94–102 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. Gorodetsky, and T. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123901 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brochard, P.

E. Lucas, P. Brochard, R. Bouchand, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultralow-noise photonic microwave synthesis using a soliton microcomb-based transfer oscillator,” arXiv:1903.01213 [physics] (2019).

Capmany, J.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1, 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cecconi, M.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chazelas, B.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chembo, Y. K.

Y. K. Chembo and N. Yu, “Modal expansion approach to optical-frequency-comb generation with monolithic whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 033801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

I. Hendry, W. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Garbin, J. Javaloyes, G.-L. Oppo, S. Coen, S. G. Murdoch, and M. Erkintalo, “Spontaneous symmetry breaking and trapping of temporal Kerr cavity solitons by pulsed or amplitude-modulated driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 053834 (2018).
[Crossref]

Coen, S.

I. Hendry, B. Garbin, S. G. Murdoch, S. Coen, and M. Erkintalo, “Impact of de-synchronization and drift on soliton-based Kerr frequency combs in the presence of pulsed driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 100, 023829 (2019).
[Crossref]

I. Hendry, W. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Garbin, J. Javaloyes, G.-L. Oppo, S. Coen, S. G. Murdoch, and M. Erkintalo, “Spontaneous symmetry breaking and trapping of temporal Kerr cavity solitons by pulsed or amplitude-modulated driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 053834 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. K. Jang, M. Erkintalo, S. Coen, and S. G. Murdoch, “Temporal tweezing of light through the trapping and manipulation of temporal cavity solitons,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7370 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Xu and S. Coen, “Experimental observation of the spontaneous breaking of the time-reversal symmetry in a synchronously pumped passive Kerr resonator,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3492–3495 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. K. Jang, M. Erkintalo, S. G. Murdoch, and S. Coen, “Ultraweak long-range interactions of solitons observed over astronomical distances,” Nat. Photonics 7, 657–663 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Leo, S. Coen, P. Kockaert, S.-P. Gorza, P. Emplit, and M. Haelterman, “Temporal cavity solitons in one-dimensional Kerr media as bits in an all-optical buffer,” Nat. Photonics 4, 471–476 (2010).
[Crossref]

Coillet, A.

Cole, D. C.

Collett, M. J.

C. W. Gardiner and M. J. Collett, “Input and output in damped quantum systems: Quantum stochastic differential equations and the master equation,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 3761–3774 (1985).
[Crossref]

Copie, F.

F. Copie, M. T. Woodley, L. Del Bino, J. M. Silver, S. Zhang, and P. Del’Haye, “Interplay of polarization and time-reversal symmetry breaking in synchronously pumped ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 013905 (2019).
[Crossref]

Del Bino, L.

F. Copie, M. T. Woodley, L. Del Bino, J. M. Silver, S. Zhang, and P. Del’Haye, “Interplay of polarization and time-reversal symmetry breaking in synchronously pumped ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 013905 (2019).
[Crossref]

Del’Haye, P.

F. Copie, M. T. Woodley, L. Del Bino, J. M. Silver, S. Zhang, and P. Del’Haye, “Interplay of polarization and time-reversal symmetry breaking in synchronously pumped ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 013905 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Beha, D. C. Cole, P. Del’Haye, A. Coillet, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Electronic synthesis of light,” Optica 4, 406–411 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Eliyahu, D.

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W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7957 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mirgorodskiy, I.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. Gorodetsky, and T. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Modotto, D.

T. Hansson, D. Modotto, and S. Wabnitz, “On the numerical simulation of Kerr frequency combs using coupled mode equations,” Opt. Commun 312, 134–136 (2014).
[Crossref]

Molinari, E.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

Morimoto, A.

T. Kobayashi, H. Yao, K. Amano, Y. Fukushima, A. Morimoto, and T. Sueta, “Optical pulse compression using high-frequency electrooptic phase modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 382–387 (1988).
[Crossref]

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Murdoch, S. G.

I. Hendry, B. Garbin, S. G. Murdoch, S. Coen, and M. Erkintalo, “Impact of de-synchronization and drift on soliton-based Kerr frequency combs in the presence of pulsed driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 100, 023829 (2019).
[Crossref]

I. Hendry, W. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Garbin, J. Javaloyes, G.-L. Oppo, S. Coen, S. G. Murdoch, and M. Erkintalo, “Spontaneous symmetry breaking and trapping of temporal Kerr cavity solitons by pulsed or amplitude-modulated driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 053834 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. K. Jang, M. Erkintalo, S. Coen, and S. G. Murdoch, “Temporal tweezing of light through the trapping and manipulation of temporal cavity solitons,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7370 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. K. Jang, M. Erkintalo, S. G. Murdoch, and S. Coen, “Ultraweak long-range interactions of solitons observed over astronomical distances,” Nat. Photonics 7, 657–663 (2013).
[Crossref]

Novak, D.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1, 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Obrzud, E.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Obrzud, S. Lecomte, and T. Herr, “Temporal solitons in microresonators driven by optical pulses,” Nat. Photonics 11, 600–607 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Anderson, R. Bouchand, J. Liu, W. Weng, E. Obrzud, T. Herr, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based resonant supercontinuum,” arXiv:1909.00022v2 (2019).

Oppo, G.-L.

I. Hendry, W. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Garbin, J. Javaloyes, G.-L. Oppo, S. Coen, S. G. Murdoch, and M. Erkintalo, “Spontaneous symmetry breaking and trapping of temporal Kerr cavity solitons by pulsed or amplitude-modulated driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 053834 (2018).
[Crossref]

Papp, S. B.

Peik, E.

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87, 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pepe, F.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

Pervak, V.

N. Lilienfein, C. Hofer, M. Högner, T. Saule, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, E. Fill, C. Riek, A. Leitenstorfer, J. Limpert, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “Temporal solitons in free-space femtosecond enhancement cavities,” Nat. Photonics 13, 214–218 (2019).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, M. H. P.

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, V. Brasch, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13, 94–102 (2016).
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Pupeza, I.

N. Lilienfein, C. Hofer, M. Högner, T. Saule, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, E. Fill, C. Riek, A. Leitenstorfer, J. Limpert, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “Temporal solitons in free-space femtosecond enhancement cavities,” Nat. Photonics 13, 214–218 (2019).
[Crossref]

Qi, M.

Rainer, M.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
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Riek, C.

N. Lilienfein, C. Hofer, M. Högner, T. Saule, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, E. Fill, C. Riek, A. Leitenstorfer, J. Limpert, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “Temporal solitons in free-space femtosecond enhancement cavities,” Nat. Photonics 13, 214–218 (2019).
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Roy, S.

A. Sahoo and S. Roy, “A complete theoretical analysis of cavity solitons under various perturbations,” arXiv:1905.05960 (2019).

Sahoo, A.

A. Sahoo and S. Roy, “A complete theoretical analysis of cavity solitons under various perturbations,” arXiv:1905.05960 (2019).

Saule, T.

N. Lilienfein, C. Hofer, M. Högner, T. Saule, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, E. Fill, C. Riek, A. Leitenstorfer, J. Limpert, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “Temporal solitons in free-space femtosecond enhancement cavities,” Nat. Photonics 13, 214–218 (2019).
[Crossref]

Savchenkov, A. A.

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7957 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schilt, S.

E. Lucas, P. Brochard, R. Bouchand, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultralow-noise photonic microwave synthesis using a soliton microcomb-based transfer oscillator,” arXiv:1903.01213 [physics] (2019).

Schliesser, A.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, P.

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87, 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Seidel, D.

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7957 (2015).
[Crossref]

Silver, J. M.

F. Copie, M. T. Woodley, L. Del Bino, J. M. Silver, S. Zhang, and P. Del’Haye, “Interplay of polarization and time-reversal symmetry breaking in synchronously pumped ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 013905 (2019).
[Crossref]

Südmeyer, T.

E. Lucas, P. Brochard, R. Bouchand, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultralow-noise photonic microwave synthesis using a soliton microcomb-based transfer oscillator,” arXiv:1903.01213 [physics] (2019).

Sueta, T.

T. Kobayashi, H. Yao, K. Amano, Y. Fukushima, A. Morimoto, and T. Sueta, “Optical pulse compression using high-frequency electrooptic phase modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 382–387 (1988).
[Crossref]

Suh, M.-G.

Trubetskov, M.

N. Lilienfein, C. Hofer, M. Högner, T. Saule, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, E. Fill, C. Riek, A. Leitenstorfer, J. Limpert, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “Temporal solitons in free-space femtosecond enhancement cavities,” Nat. Photonics 13, 214–218 (2019).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K.

Vahala, K. J.

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424, 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref]

Varghese, L. T.

Wabnitz, S.

T. Hansson, D. Modotto, and S. Wabnitz, “On the numerical simulation of Kerr frequency combs using coupled mode equations,” Opt. Commun 312, 134–136 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. Y.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, P.-H.

Wang, Y.

I. Hendry, W. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Garbin, J. Javaloyes, G.-L. Oppo, S. Coen, S. G. Murdoch, and M. Erkintalo, “Spontaneous symmetry breaking and trapping of temporal Kerr cavity solitons by pulsed or amplitude-modulated driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 053834 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Weiner, A. M.

Weng, W.

W. Weng, E. Lucas, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, H. Guo, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Spectral purification of microwave signals with disciplined dissipative Kerr solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 013902 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Anderson, R. Bouchand, J. Liu, W. Weng, E. Obrzud, T. Herr, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based resonant supercontinuum,” arXiv:1909.00022v2 (2019).

Wildi, F.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wilken, T.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Woodley, M. T.

F. Copie, M. T. Woodley, L. Del Bino, J. M. Silver, S. Zhang, and P. Del’Haye, “Interplay of polarization and time-reversal symmetry breaking in synchronously pumped ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 013905 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Xuan, Y.

Xue, X.

Yang, K. Y.

Yang, Q.-F.

Yao, H.

T. Kobayashi, H. Yao, K. Amano, Y. Fukushima, A. Morimoto, and T. Sueta, “Optical pulse compression using high-frequency electrooptic phase modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 382–387 (1988).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87, 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yi, X.

Yu, N.

Y. K. Chembo and N. Yu, “Modal expansion approach to optical-frequency-comb generation with monolithic whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 033801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

F. Copie, M. T. Woodley, L. Del Bino, J. M. Silver, S. Zhang, and P. Del’Haye, “Interplay of polarization and time-reversal symmetry breaking in synchronously pumped ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 013905 (2019).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Kobayashi, H. Yao, K. Amano, Y. Fukushima, A. Morimoto, and T. Sueta, “Optical pulse compression using high-frequency electrooptic phase modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 382–387 (1988).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

J. K. Jang, M. Erkintalo, S. Coen, and S. G. Murdoch, “Temporal tweezing of light through the trapping and manipulation of temporal cavity solitons,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7370 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7957 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (9)

J. K. Jang, M. Erkintalo, S. G. Murdoch, and S. Coen, “Ultraweak long-range interactions of solitons observed over astronomical distances,” Nat. Photonics 7, 657–663 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1, 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Obrzud, S. Lecomte, and T. Herr, “Temporal solitons in microresonators driven by optical pulses,” Nat. Photonics 11, 600–607 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Leo, S. Coen, P. Kockaert, S.-P. Gorza, P. Emplit, and M. Haelterman, “Temporal cavity solitons in one-dimensional Kerr media as bits in an all-optical buffer,” Nat. Photonics 4, 471–476 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. M. Weiner, “Frequency combs: cavity solitons come of age,” Nat. Photonics 11, 533–535 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic-chip-based frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 13, 158–169 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Lilienfein, C. Hofer, M. Högner, T. Saule, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, E. Fill, C. Riek, A. Leitenstorfer, J. Limpert, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “Temporal solitons in free-space femtosecond enhancement cavities,” Nat. Photonics 13, 214–218 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, V. Brasch, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13, 94–102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated optical radiation in ruby,” Nature 187, 493–494 (1960).
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P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424, 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun (1)

T. Hansson, D. Modotto, and S. Wabnitz, “On the numerical simulation of Kerr frequency combs using coupled mode equations,” Opt. Commun 312, 134–136 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (2)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

Y. K. Chembo and N. Yu, “Modal expansion approach to optical-frequency-comb generation with monolithic whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 033801 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. Hendry, W. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Garbin, J. Javaloyes, G.-L. Oppo, S. Coen, S. G. Murdoch, and M. Erkintalo, “Spontaneous symmetry breaking and trapping of temporal Kerr cavity solitons by pulsed or amplitude-modulated driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 053834 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. Hendry, B. Garbin, S. G. Murdoch, S. Coen, and M. Erkintalo, “Impact of de-synchronization and drift on soliton-based Kerr frequency combs in the presence of pulsed driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 100, 023829 (2019).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

W. Weng, E. Lucas, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, H. Guo, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Spectral purification of microwave signals with disciplined dissipative Kerr solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 013902 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Copie, M. T. Woodley, L. Del Bino, J. M. Silver, S. Zhang, and P. Del’Haye, “Interplay of polarization and time-reversal symmetry breaking in synchronously pumped ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 013905 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. Gorodetsky, and T. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87, 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361, eaan8083 (2018).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

A. Sahoo and S. Roy, “A complete theoretical analysis of cavity solitons under various perturbations,” arXiv:1905.05960 (2019).

N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, eds., Dissipative Solitons: From Optics to Biology and Medicine, Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer-Verlag, 2008).

E. Lucas, P. Brochard, R. Bouchand, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultralow-noise photonic microwave synthesis using a soliton microcomb-based transfer oscillator,” arXiv:1903.01213 [physics] (2019).

M. Anderson, R. Bouchand, J. Liu, W. Weng, E. Obrzud, T. Herr, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based resonant supercontinuum,” arXiv:1909.00022v2 (2019).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Nonlinear filtering of an optical pulse train. (a) The Fabry–Pérot filter reduces the timing jitter of the pulse train. (b) Photograph of a fiber-based Fabry–Pérot microresonator as it was used in this work. The highly reflective dielectric mirror appears pink. Sketched into the image is a dissipative Kerr soliton (DKS) circulating inside the cavity on top of a driving pulse with a round-trip time of 1/frep. (c) Linear (L) and nonlinear (NL) filtering effects in the frequency domain. The linear filtering effect is given by the Lorentzian lineshape and the linewidth of the cavity (grey). The nonlinear filtering effectively provides a substantially narrower filter (purple).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Nonlinear filter characterization. (a) Setup used to characterize the linear and nonlinear filtering effects. AM: electro-optic amplitude modulator; Att: RF attenuator; CFBG: chirped fiber Bragg grating; ECDL: external-cavity diode laser; EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; Microresonator: fiber-based Fabry–Pérot microresonator; NA: network analyzer; OSA: optical spectrum analyzer; PD: photodetector; PLL: phase-locked loop controller; PM: electro-optic phase modulator; RF: MW synthesizer. (b) Lorentzian lineshape on a linear scale and on a double-logarithmic scale. (c) Phase modulation (PM) response of the cavity in the linear regime for three different laser detunings. The traces are measured with the NA and are then normalized. The dashed–dotted line is the fitted full linear model ZmodL(Ω). The dotted and dashed lines show the individual contributions of ZPML and ZXML, respectively, as explained in the text. (d) Nonlinear filter response with a DKS state present in the cavity for three different detunings (blue, green, red). Purple lines represent the respective best fit of ZNL to the low frequency part of the modulation response. The resulting values of κNL are given in (g). (e) Optical spectra of the input (grey) and the output after the microresonator in a DKS state (purple). (f) Envelope of the DKS spectrum around the input spectrum for different detunings corresponding to (d). (g) Fitted values for κNL for different detunings. The x-axis is not a quantified detuning but represents different measurements for different driving laser positions as defined by a change in the laser lock point. This monotonically changes the detuning. Colors represent the same detunings as in (d) and (f).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Nonlinear filter model. (a) The linear filter is given by the Lorentzian lineshape (grey) of the resonator with linewidth κ taking into account the detuning (gold) resulting in a more complicated lineshape shown in (b). The nonlinear filter represents a much narrower Lorentzian (purple) with linewidth κNL, which remains centered on the optical input frequencies for all detunings. (b) Shape of the different linear and nonlinear contributions. (c) Time domain picture of the soliton on top of the driving pulse and the resulting dynamic for the soliton. (d) Diagram showing the different modulation signal paths through the system and how they contribute. (e) Fit of the full model ZmodNL (green) to the experimental data [solid grey, same data as green in Fig. 2(d)]. Dashed lines represent the individual contributions as shown in (d). Grey dashed is the pure linear response function. (f) Phase modulation response function derived from numerical simulations (grey) and fitted model (blue). Dashed purple is again the ideal soliton PM response.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Soliton dynamics in numerical simulations. (a) Zoom into the central part of the full simulated spectrum shown in (b). (c) Soliton position on top of the driving pulse for the different cases shown in (a). The position of the soliton in the middle of the driving pulse represents the symmetric spectrum (both in green). (d) Time domain intracavity field with respect to the driving pulse’s temporal position. As the repetition rate mismatch is numerically swept from 5kHz to 5 kHz the soliton (high intensity, yellow) moves over the center of the pump pulse (white line at 0 ps). Other pump parameters: δ=3.5κ, Pp=0.02W. (e) Dependence of κNL on the soliton’s temporal position relative to the driving pulse (positive and negative soliton positions symmetric to the pump pulse result in the same κNL). (f) Sweep similar to (a) but with changing detuning (Δ=0kHz, Pp=0.02W). (g) As (d) and (f) but with changing pump power (Δ=0kHz, δ=3.5κ).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Absolute phase noise filtering. (a) The intrinsic phase noise of a compact RF synthesizer is shown in blue as the phase noise of the input pulse train. The phase noise after nonlinear optical filtering is shown in purple. The grey, dashed trace is derived from the blue input trace by multiplying the data with ZNL [Eq. (6)] with κNL/2π=750kHz. (b) Dependence of κNL on the detuning. As in Fig. 2(g), the detuning is not quantified but simply represents different driving laser detuning steps as fixed by different laser lock points.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ZPML(Ω,δ)=κ2(4Ω2+8δ2+κ2)+16δ4(4Ω2+4δ2+κ2)264Ω2δ2,
ZXML(Ω,δ)=1024·D12κ2Ω2δ2(4δ2+κ2)2·((4Ω2+4δ2+κ2)2(8Ωδ)2),
ZmodL(Ω,δ)=ZPML(Ω,δ)+αZXML(Ω,δ),
v=dxdt=a(S,δ)dSdx+d,
dxdt=A(x(t)εeiΩt),
ZNL(Ω)=A2Ω2+A2,
ZmodNL(Ω,δS,δC)=S·(ZPMNL(Ω,δS)+αZXML(Ω,δS))+C·(ZPML(Ω,δC)+αZXML(Ω,δC)),