Abstract

Nanophotonic waveguides with sub-wavelength mode confinement and engineered dispersion are an excellent platform for application-tailored nonlinear optical interactions at low pulse energies. We present fully air-clad suspended silicon waveguides for infrared frequency comb generation with optical bandwidth limited only by the silicon transparency. Precise lithographic control over the waveguide dispersion enables tailored infrared frequency comb generation across a bandwidth of 2.0–8.8 μm (11305000cm1), with the broadest simultaneous bandwidth covering 2.0–7.7 μm. Novel fork-shaped couplers provide efficient input coupling with only 1.5 dB loss. The coherence, brightness, and stability of the generated light are highlighted in a dual-frequency comb setup in which individual comb lines are resolved with 30 dB extinction ratio and 100 MHz spacing in the wavelength range of 4.9–8.8 μm (11302050cm1) using three different waveguide widths. These sources are used for broadband gas- and liquid-phase dual-comb spectroscopy with 100 MHz comb line resolution. We achieve a peak spectral signal-to-noise ratio of 10Hz across a simultaneous bandwidth of 6.3–8.2 μm (12201590cm1) containing 112,200 comb lines. These results provide a pathway to further integration with the developing high-repetition-rate frequency comb lasers for compact sensors with applications in chip-based chemical analysis and spectroscopy.

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References

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2019 (7)

D. Waldburger, A. S. Mayer, C. G. E. Alfieri, J. Nürnberg, A. R. Johnson, X. Ji, A. Klenner, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and U. Keller, “Tightly locked optical frequency comb from a semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 27, 1786–1797 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. S. Kowligy, H. Timmers, A. J. Lind, U. Elu, F. C. Cruz, P. G. Schunemann, J. Biegert, and S. A. Diddams, “Infrared electric field sampled frequency comb spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 5, eaaw8794 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Grassani, E. Tagkoudi, H. Guo, C. Herkommer, F. Yang, T. J. Kippenberg, and C.-S. Brès, “Mid infrared gas spectroscopy using efficient fiber laser driven photonic chip-based supercontinuum,” Nat. Commun. 10, 1553 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Sinobad, A. D. Torre, B. Luther-Davis, P. Ma, S. Madden, S. Debbarma, K. Vu, D. J. Moss, A. Mitchell, J.-M. Hartmann, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Monat, and C. Grillet, “Dispersion trimming for mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a hybrid chalcogenide/silicon-germanium waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 36, A98–A104 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. B. Changala, M. L. Weichman, K. F. Lee, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Rovibrational quantum state resolution of the C60 fullerene,” Science 363, 49–54 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Iwakuni, T. Q. Bui, J. F. Niedermeyer, T. Sukegawa, and J. Ye, “Comb-resolved spectroscopy with immersion grating in long-wave infrared,” Opt. Express 27, 1911–1921 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. L. Weichman, P. B. Changala, J. Ye, Z. Chen, M. Yan, and N. Picqué, “Broadband molecular spectroscopy with optical frequency combs,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 355, 66–78 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (12)

X. Jiang, H. Wu, and D. Dai, “Low-loss and low-crosstalk multimode waveguide bend on silicon,” Opt. Express 26, 17680–17689 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Nader, D. L. Maser, F. C. Cruz, A. Kowligy, H. Timmers, J. Chiles, C. Fredrick, D. A. Westly, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, J. M. Shainline, and S. Diddams, “Versatile silicon-waveguide supercontinuum for coherent mid-infrared spectroscopy,” APL Photon. 3, 036102 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Sinobad, C. Monat, B. Luther-davies, P. Ma, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, A. Mitchell, D. Allioux, R. Orobtchouk, S. Boutami, J.-M. Hartmann, J.-M. Fedeli, and C. Grillet, “Mid-infrared octave spanning supercontinuum generation to 8.5 μm in silicon-germanium waveguides,” Optica 5, 360–366 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. S. Kowligy, A. Lind, D. D. Hickstein, D. R. Carlson, H. Timmers, N. Nader, F. C. Cruz, G. Ycas, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Mid-infrared frequency comb generation via cascaded quadratic nonlinearities in quasi-phase-matched waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 43, 1678–1681(2018).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12, 330–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Kou, T. Hatakeyama, J. Horng, J.-H. Kang, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Mid-IR broadband supercontinuum generation from a suspended silicon waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 43, 1387–1390 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Yu, Y. Okawachi, A. G. Griffith, N. Picqué, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1869 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 μm,” Nat. Photonics 12, 202–208 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. V. Muraviev, V. O. Smolski, Z. E. Loparo, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Massively parallel sensing of trace molecules and their isotopologues with broadband subharmonic mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 12, 209–214 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Timmers, A. Kowligy, A. Lind, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. Silfies, G. Ycas, T. K. Allison, P. G. Schunemann, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Molecular fingerprinting with bright, broadband infrared frequency combs,” Optica 5, 727–732 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Okawachi, M. Yu, J. Cardenas, X. Ji, A. Klenner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Carrier envelope offset detection via simultaneous supercontinuum and second-harmonic generation in a silicon nitride waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 43, 4627–4630 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. L. Davenport, S. Liu, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated heterogeneous silicon/III-V mode-locked lasers,” Photon. Res. 6, 468–478 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (8)

D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, S. Droste, D. Westly, N. Nader, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Self-referenced frequency combs using high-efficiency silicon-nitride waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2314–2317 (2017).
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2016 (5)

I. Coddington, N. Newbury, and W. Swann, “Dual-comb spectroscopy,” Optica 3, 414–426 (2016).
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2015 (3)

2014 (3)

2013 (3)

J. Chiles, S. Khan, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, “High-contrast, all-silicon waveguiding platform for ultra-broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 151106 (2013).
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2012 (2)

2011 (2)

F. Gholami, S. Zlatanovic, A. Simic, L. Liu, D. Borlaug, N. Alic, M. P. Nezhad, Y. Fainman, and S. Radic, “Third-order nonlinearity in silicon beyond 2350 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081102 (2011).
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W. Bogaerts and S. K. Selvaraja, “Compact single-mode silicon hybrid rib/strip waveguide with adiabatic bends,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 422–432 (2011).
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2010 (2)

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J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picqué, “Fourier transform spectroscopy with a laser frequency comb,” Nat. Photonics 3, 99 (2009).
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2008 (1)

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2004 (1)

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B. Spaun, P. B. Changala, D. Patterson, B. J. Bjork, O. H. Heckl, J. M. Doyle, and J. Ye, “Continuous probing of cold complex molecules with infrared frequency comb spectroscopy,” Nature 533, 517 (2016).
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G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 μm,” Nat. Photonics 12, 202–208 (2018).
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D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
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S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
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A. J. Lind, A. Kowligy, H. Timmers, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. C. Silfies, T. K. Allison, and S. A. Diddams, “χ2 mid-infrared frequency comb generation and stabilization with few-cycle pulses,” arXiv:1811.02604 (2018).

J. Chiles, N. Nader, E. J. Stanton, D. Herman, G. Moody, J. Zhu, J. C. Skehan, B. Guha, A. Kowligy, J. T. Gopinath, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Shainline, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, “Multi-functional integrated photonics in the mid-infrared with suspended AlGaAs on silicon,” arXiv:1905.01380 (2019).

Dinneen, T.

Doyle, J. M.

B. Spaun, P. B. Changala, D. Patterson, B. J. Bjork, O. H. Heckl, J. M. Doyle, and J. Ye, “Continuous probing of cold complex molecules with infrared frequency comb spectroscopy,” Nature 533, 517 (2016).
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B. J. Bjork, T. Q. Bui, O. H. Heckl, P. B. Changala, B. Spaun, P. Heu, D. Follman, C. Deutsch, G. D. Cole, M. Aspelmeyer, M. Okumura, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb measurement of OD + CO → DOCO kinetics,” Science 354, 444–448 (2016).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Fabricated suspended Si waveguides. (a) Image of the fabricated suspended Si chip with scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of (b) the suspended waveguide cross section; (c), (d) the input; and (e), (f) the output fork-shaped couplers. Simulated electric-field wavefront transformation as the (g) 3.06 μm input and (h) 8.0 μm output modes propagate along the fork-shaped couplers. (i) The designed GVD of the waveguides plotted as a function of the wavelength for different waveguide widths. The geometrical dispersion of the waveguides can be tailored to provide GVD zero-crossing at different wavelengths (dashed line), providing the phase matching for dispersive wave generation.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Supercontinuum generation in the 5 mm long suspended Si waveguides. (a) Schematic of the experimental setup for pumping the Si waveguides. The 3.06 μm pump source is based on a 1550 nm Er:comb with f 0 and f rep locking and DFG in a PPLN crystal. HNLF, highly nonlinear fiber; CW, continuous wave; Si WG, silicon waveguide; M1 and M2, gold mirrors. A zoomed-in, cross-sectional SEM of a suspended Si waveguide overlaid with a simulation of the 8 μm mode is also presented. The (b) calculated and (c) measured supercontinuum spectra of the waveguides. (d) Individual spectra generated with 3.25 and 2.40 μm wide waveguides, emphasizing the broadest generated bandwidth and the longest wavelength dispersive wave, respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Dual-comb interferograms and spectra. (a) Time-domain multi-heterodyne interferogram of the dual-comb system for the waveguide width of W = 2.95 μm . A sequence of five interferograms is shown with time separation of 1 / δ f rep = 20 ms . (b) Zoomed-in view of one of the interferograms, emphasizing the center-burst and trailing molecular free-induction decay oscillations of the atmospheric water absorption at the LWIR. (c) The frequency-domain dual-comb spectrum is calculated by taking an FFT of a single, averaged time-domain interferogram. Generated spectra for three waveguide widths of 2.80, 2.95, and 3.35 μm are presented, highlighting the spectral coverage from 4.9 to 8.80 μm. (d) A 0.025 cm 1 window of the dual-comb spectra in (c), presenting the 100 MHz spacing comb lines resolved with 22–30 dB extinction ratio. This is calculated by taking an FFT of the five periodic time-domain interferograms.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Dual-comb measurement of the atmospheric water absorption. (a) Baseline-corrected DCS of the atmospheric water absorption with the 100 MHz ( 0.0033 cm 1 ) comb line spacing resolution in the 1250 1610 cm 1 range (6.2–8.0 μm). The dual-comb data (red) is compared with the HITRAN database (blue, reflected about the x axis). Data is measured using 2.80, 2.95, and 3.35 μm wide waveguides. The HITRAN is fitted to the DCS data by a Voigt fitting algorithm to estimate Lorentzian and Gaussian lineshapes. (b) Difference between the data and the fit (residuals), showing excellent agreement between DCS and HITRAN within 1.5% uncertainty. The higher residuals at 1588 1610 cm 1 (5% error) are due to the lower optical power from the dual-comb system in this frequency range. (c) Zoomed-in view of the highlighted regions in (a).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Broadband DCS of liquid methanol and isopropanol. (a) Schematic diagram of the dual-comb setup for simultaneous measurement of the sample and reference spectra. M1, gold mirror; B/S, mid-IR beamsplitter. (b) Dual-comb spectra of the reference and sample for methanol (top panel) and isopropanol (bottom panel). The green shaded area is the region with sufficient SNR to calculate the absorbance of the liquid samples. The measured DCS absorbance of (c) methanol and (d) isopropanol are compared with FTIR measurements in the range of 1280 1500 cm 1 . The simultaneous reference and sample measurement, along with the smooth waveguide spectrum, enable broad-bandwidth DCS of liquid samples.

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