Abstract

Achieving cavity-optomechanical strong coupling with high-frequency phonons provides a rich avenue for quantum technology development, including quantum state transfer, memory, and transduction, as well as enabling several fundamental studies of macroscopic phononic degrees of freedom. Reaching such coupling with GHz mechanical modes, however, has proved challenging, with a prominent hindrance being material- and surface-induced optical absorption in many materials. Here, we circumvent these challenges and report the observation of optomechanical strong coupling to a high-frequency (11 GHz) mechanical mode of a fused-silica whispering-gallery microresonator via the electrostrictive Brillouin interaction. Using an optical heterodyne detection scheme, the anti-Stokes light backscattered from the resonator is measured, and normal-mode splitting and an avoided crossing are observed in the recorded spectra, providing unambiguous signatures of strong coupling. The optomechanical coupling rate reaches values as high as G/2π=39MHz through the use of an auxiliary pump resonance, where the coupling dominates both optical (κ/2π=3MHz) and mechanical (γm/2π=21MHz) amplitude decay rates. Our findings provide a promising new approach for optical quantum control using light and sound.

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2018 (2)

W. H. Renninger, P. Kharel, R. O. Behunin, and P. T. Rakich, “Bulk crystalline optomechanics,” Nat. Phys. 14, 601–607 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Rakich and F. Marquardt, “Quantum theory of continuum optomechanics,” New J. Phys. 20, 045005 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

R. Van Laer, C. J. Sarabalis, R. Baets, D. Van Thourhout, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “Thermal Brillouin noise observed in silicon optomechanical waveguide,” J. Opt. 19, 044002 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Merklein, B. Stiller, K. Vu, S. J. Madden, and B. J. Eggleton, “A chip-integrated coherent photonic-phononic memory,” Nat. Commun. 8, 574 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Garmire, “Perspectives on stimulated Brillouin scattering,” New J. Phys. 19, 011003 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

Z. Shen, Y.-L. Zhang, Y. Chen, C.-L. Zou, Y.-F. Xiao, X.-B. Zou, F.-W. Sun, G.-C. Guo, and C.-H. Dong, “Experimental realization of optomechanically induced non-reciprocity,” Nat. Photonics 10, 657–661 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. E. Sipe and M. J. Steel, “A Hamiltonian treatment of stimulated Brillouin scattering in nanoscale integrated waveguides,” New J. Phys. 18, 045004 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Van Laer, R. Baets, and D. V. Thourhout, “Unifying Brillouin scattering and cavity optomechanics,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 053828 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Zoubi and K. Hammerer, “Optomechanical multimode Hamiltonian for nanophotonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 053827 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. P. Huy, J.-C. Beugnot, J.-C. Tchahame, and T. Sylvestre, “Strong coupling between phonons and optical beating in backward Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 043847 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

D. Marpaung, B. Morrison, M. Pagani, R. Pant, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, S. J. Madden, and B. J. Eggleton, “Low-power, chip-based stimulated Brillouin scattering microwave photonic filter with ultrahigh selectivity,” Optica 2, 76–83 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Shin, J. A. Cox, R. Jarecki, A. Starbuck, Z. Wang, and P. T. Rakich, “Control of coherent information via on-chip photonic-phononic emitter-receivers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6427 (2015).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Dong, Z. Shen, C.-L. Zou, Y.-L. Zhang, W. Fu, and G.-C. Guo, “Brillouin-scattering-induced transparency and non-reciprocal light storage,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6193 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Van Laer, B. Kuyken, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Interaction between light and highly confined hypersound in a silicon photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 9, 199–203 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Sturman and I. Breunig, “Brillouin lasing in whispering gallery micro-resonators,” New J. Phys. 17, 125006 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Wolff, M. J. Steel, B. J. Eggleton, and C. G. Poulton, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering in integrated photonic waveguides: forces, scattering mechanisms, and coupled-mode analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 013836 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1391–1452 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

P. Del’Haye, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Laser-machined ultra-high-Q microrod resonators for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221119 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

G. Bahl, M. Tomes, F. Marquardt, and T. Carmon, “Observation of spontaneous Brillouin cooling,” Nat. Phys. 8, 203–207 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Verhagen, S. Deleglise, S. Weis, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Quantum-coherent coupling of a mechanical oscillator to an optical cavity mode,” Nature 482, 63–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, and R. W. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. D. Teufel, D. Li, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, and R. W. Simmonds, “Circuit cavity electromechanics in the strong-coupling regime,” Nature 471, 204–208 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

J. Hofer, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Cavity optomechanics with ultrahigh-Q crystalline microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 031804 (2010).
[Crossref]

U. Akram, N. Kiesel, M. Aspelmeyer, and G. J. Milburn, “Single-photon opto-mechanics in the strong coupling regime,” New J. Phys. 12, 083030 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Khalili, S. Danilishin, H. Miao, H. Müller-Ebhardt, H. Yang, and Y. Chen, “Preparing a mechanical oscillator in non-Gaussian quantum states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070403 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

S. Groblacher, K. Hammerer, M. R. Vanner, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Observation of strong coupling between a micromechanical resonator and an optical cavity field,” Nature 460, 724–727 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Brillouin lasing with a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043902 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Tomes and T. Carmon, “Photonic micro-electromechanical systems vibrating at X-band (11-GHz) Rates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113601 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. M. Dobrindt, I. Wilson-Rae, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Parametric normal-mode splitting in cavity optomechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 263602 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

F. Marquardt, J. P. Chen, A. A. Clerk, and S. M. Girvin, “Quantum theory of cavity-assisted sideband cooling of mechanical motion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 093902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “Stored light in an optical fiber via stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Science 318, 1748–1750 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

A. Wallraff, D. I. Schuster, A. Blais, L. Frunzio, R.-S. Huang, J. Majer, S. Kumar, S. M. Girvin, and R. J. Schoelkopf, “Strong coupling of a single photon to a superconducting qubit using circuit quantum electrodynamics,” Nature 431, 162–167 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Dynamical thermal behavior and thermal self-stability of microcavities,” Opt. Express 12, 4742–4750 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. Le Floch and P. Cambon, “Study of Brillouin gain spectrum in standard single-mode optical fiber at low temperatures (1.4-370  K) and high hydrostatic pressures (1-250 bars),” Opt. Commun. 219, 395–410 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

J. Raimond, M. Brune, and S. Haroche, “Manipulating quantum entanglement with atoms and photons in a cavity,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 73, 565–582 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. Nikles, L. Thevenaz, and P. A. Robert, “Brillouin gain spectrum characterization in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1842–1851 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1992 (1)

R. J. Thompson, G. Rempe, and H. J. Kimble, “Observation of normal-mode splitting for an atom in an optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1132–1135 (1992).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

R. Vacher, H. Sussner, and S. Hunklinger, “Brillouin scattering in vitreous silica below 1 K,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 5850–5853 (1980).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

E. P. Ippen and R. H. Stolen, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 539–541 (1972).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

R. Y. Chiao, C. H. Townes, and B. P. Stoicheff, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering and coherent generation of intense hypersonic waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 592–595 (1964).
[Crossref]

1928 (1)

C. V. Raman and K. S. Krishnan, “A new type of secondary radiation,” Nature 121, 501–502 (1928).
[Crossref]

1926 (1)

L. I. Mandelstam, “Light scattering by inhomogeneous media,” Zh. Russ. Fiz.-Khim. Ova. 58, 381 (1926).

1922 (1)

L. Brillouin, “Diffusion de la lumière et des rayons X par un corps transparent homogène-Influence de l’agitation thermique,” Ann. Phys. 9, 88–122 (1922).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2013).

Akram, U.

U. Akram, N. Kiesel, M. Aspelmeyer, and G. J. Milburn, “Single-photon opto-mechanics in the strong coupling regime,” New J. Phys. 12, 083030 (2010).
[Crossref]

Allman, M. S.

J. D. Teufel, D. Li, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, and R. W. Simmonds, “Circuit cavity electromechanics in the strong-coupling regime,” Nature 471, 204–208 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, and R. W. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aspelmeyer, M.

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1391–1452 (2014).
[Crossref]

U. Akram, N. Kiesel, M. Aspelmeyer, and G. J. Milburn, “Single-photon opto-mechanics in the strong coupling regime,” New J. Phys. 12, 083030 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Groblacher, K. Hammerer, M. R. Vanner, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Observation of strong coupling between a micromechanical resonator and an optical cavity field,” Nature 460, 724–727 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

R. Van Laer, C. J. Sarabalis, R. Baets, D. Van Thourhout, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “Thermal Brillouin noise observed in silicon optomechanical waveguide,” J. Opt. 19, 044002 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Van Laer, R. Baets, and D. V. Thourhout, “Unifying Brillouin scattering and cavity optomechanics,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 053828 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Van Laer, B. Kuyken, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Interaction between light and highly confined hypersound in a silicon photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 9, 199–203 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bahl, G.

G. Bahl, M. Tomes, F. Marquardt, and T. Carmon, “Observation of spontaneous Brillouin cooling,” Nat. Phys. 8, 203–207 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, J. M. Taylor, and G. Bahl, “Dynamic suppression of Rayleigh light scattering in dielectric resonators,” arXiv:1803.02366 (2018).

Behunin, R. O.

W. H. Renninger, P. Kharel, R. O. Behunin, and P. T. Rakich, “Bulk crystalline optomechanics,” Nat. Phys. 14, 601–607 (2018).
[Crossref]

Beugnot, J.-C.

K. P. Huy, J.-C. Beugnot, J.-C. Tchahame, and T. Sylvestre, “Strong coupling between phonons and optical beating in backward Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 043847 (2016).
[Crossref]

Blais, A.

A. Wallraff, D. I. Schuster, A. Blais, L. Frunzio, R.-S. Huang, J. Majer, S. Kumar, S. M. Girvin, and R. J. Schoelkopf, “Strong coupling of a single photon to a superconducting qubit using circuit quantum electrodynamics,” Nature 431, 162–167 (2004).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “Stored light in an optical fiber via stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Science 318, 1748–1750 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2008).

Breunig, I.

B. Sturman and I. Breunig, “Brillouin lasing in whispering gallery micro-resonators,” New J. Phys. 17, 125006 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brillouin, L.

L. Brillouin, “Diffusion de la lumière et des rayons X par un corps transparent homogène-Influence de l’agitation thermique,” Ann. Phys. 9, 88–122 (1922).
[Crossref]

Brune, M.

J. Raimond, M. Brune, and S. Haroche, “Manipulating quantum entanglement with atoms and photons in a cavity,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 73, 565–582 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cambon, P.

S. Le Floch and P. Cambon, “Study of Brillouin gain spectrum in standard single-mode optical fiber at low temperatures (1.4-370  K) and high hydrostatic pressures (1-250 bars),” Opt. Commun. 219, 395–410 (2003).
[Crossref]

Carmon, T.

G. Bahl, M. Tomes, F. Marquardt, and T. Carmon, “Observation of spontaneous Brillouin cooling,” Nat. Phys. 8, 203–207 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Tomes and T. Carmon, “Photonic micro-electromechanical systems vibrating at X-band (11-GHz) Rates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113601 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Dynamical thermal behavior and thermal self-stability of microcavities,” Opt. Express 12, 4742–4750 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. P.

F. Marquardt, J. P. Chen, A. A. Clerk, and S. M. Girvin, “Quantum theory of cavity-assisted sideband cooling of mechanical motion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 093902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Z. Shen, Y.-L. Zhang, Y. Chen, C.-L. Zou, Y.-F. Xiao, X.-B. Zou, F.-W. Sun, G.-C. Guo, and C.-H. Dong, “Experimental realization of optomechanically induced non-reciprocity,” Nat. Photonics 10, 657–661 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Supplementary Material (1)

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» Supplement 1       Supplementary text with figures

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental platform and setup. (A) Wavevector and energy conservation in Brillouin anti-Stokes scattering. (B) Resonance structure of our Brillouin optomechanical system. Optical (red, orange) and mechanical (blue) modes with their frequencies and decay rates shown. (C) Experimental schematic (left) and optical microscope images of a 700 μm fused-silica microrod whispering-gallery resonator (right). The microresonator is coupled to a tapered optical fiber and driven by a continuous-wave pump laser. Frequency upconverted light backscattered from the resonator is separated by a circulator and measured using optical heterodyne detection and is recorded with a spectrum analyzer. (D) Taper transmission as the laser frequency is scanned across the anti-Stokes cavity resonance. (E) Observed detuning versus intracavity pump power due to optical nonlinearities.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Observed Brillouin optomechanical anti-Stokes spectra. Power spectral densities of the Brillouin anti-Stokes heterodyne signal (blue) with theoretical fits (red). The spectra are normalized such that a vacuum input corresponds to a value of 1/2. The heterodyne frequency is 190 MHz. As the intracavity pump power is increased from (A) through (D), the detuning decreases, and the coupling rate increases. As the detuning goes through zero, an avoided crossing and normal-mode splitting are observed [see plot (C)].
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Brillouin optomechanical strong coupling showing normal-mode splitting and an avoided crossing. (A) Observed optomechanical coupling strength, as determined from the measured spectra, plotted with the intracavity pump power. The expected square-root scaling with the intracavity power is observed and the input-pump powers used were up to 30 mW. The coupling rate achieved far exceeds the damping rates of the system, allowing us to go deeply into the strong coupling regime (shaded purple). (B) Experimentally observed spectra of the anti-Stokes scattered light with varying intracavity pump power. As the power increases, the point of zero detuning is crossed, where an avoided crossing is clearly observed. Theoretically predicted spectra (C) and observed spectra (D), with intracavity pump power. Note the excellent agreement between theory, which includes the power-dependent detuning, and experiment.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Microresonator Parameters Achieving Brillouin Optomechanical Strong Coupling

Equations (1)

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H=G(aaSb+aaSb)Δbb.

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