Abstract

Organic–inorganic halide perovskites have recently developed into a potential semiconductor coherent light emitter candidate beyond their promise in solar cell applications. However, despite the ample demonstrations of perovskite lasers, experimental results on the origin of optical gain in perovskites are still elusive. Here, we analyze the excitonic gain in the green from mixed-cation halide perovskites Cs0.17[CH(NH2)2]0.83PbBr3 (Cs0.17FA0.83PbBr3) by both low temperature absorption/emission spectroscopies and ultrafast pump–probe transient absorption experiments. The perovskite thin films show a robust excitonic feature up to room temperature, with estimated exciton binding energy Eb=43.8  meV, which can be maintained under high electronic excitations that are required for lasers. By using a high-quality (Q=1350) vertical cavity consisting of sputtered dielectric HfO2/SiO2 distributed Bragg reflectors with perovskite optical gain medium embedded inside, we have demonstrated excitonic-gain-enabled optically pumped lasing, with improved threshold of 13.5±1.4  μJ/cm2 and device longevity lifetime >35  h (108 laser shots) at ambient environment under sustained pulsed optical excitations (3.493 eV, τpulse=0.34  ns, 1 kHz). Understanding and exploiting excitonic gain from perovskite thin film materials may help to further boost the performance of perovskite-based lasers.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

T. J. S. Evans, A. Schlaus, Y. Fu, X. Zhong, T. L. Atallah, M. S. Spencer, L. E. Brus, S. Jin, and X. Y. Zhu, “Continuous-wave lasing in cesium lead bromide perovskite nanowires,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1700982 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (17)

N. Pourdavoud, S. Wang, A. Mayer, T. Hu, Y. Chen, A. Marianovich, W. Kowalsky, R. Heiderhoff, H. C. Scheer, and T. Riedl, “Photonic nanostructures patterned by thermal nanoimprint directly into organo-metal halide perovskites,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1605003 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Jia, R. A. Kerner, A. J. Grede, B. P. Rand, and N. C. Giebink, “Continuous-wave lasing in an organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite semiconductor,” Nat. Photonics 11, 784–788 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, F. Ye, W. Tang, J. He, M. Yin, Y. Wang, F. Xie, E. Bi, X. Yang, M. Gratzel, and L. Han, “A solvent- and vacuum-free route to large-area perovskite films for efficient solar modules,” Nature 550, 92–95 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. He, P. Liu, H. Zhang, Q. Liao, J. Yao, and H. Fu, “Patterning multicolored microdisk laser arrays of cesium lead halide perovskite,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1604510 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, C. Zou, C. Mao, K. L. Corp, Y. Yao, Y. Lee, C. W. Schlenker, A. K. J. Jen, and L. Y. Lin, “CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dot vertical cavity lasers with low threshold and high stability,” ACS Photon. 4, 2281–2289 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, X. Li, V. Nalla, H. Zeng, and H. Sun, “Solution-processed low threshold vertical cavity surface emitting lasers from all-inorganic perovskite nanocrystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1605088 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, C. Zhang, J. Lee, J. Han, and A. Nurmikko, “High-Q, low-threshold monolithic perovskite thin-film vertical-cavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1604781 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Chen and A. Nurmikko, “Stable green perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers on rigid and flexible substrates,” ACS Photon. 4, 2486–2494 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Xiao, R. A. Kerner, L. Zhao, N. L. Tran, K. M. Lee, T. Koh, G. D. Scholes, and B. P. Rand, “Efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes featuring nanometer-sized crystallites,” Nat. Photonics 11, 108–115 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Chen and A. Nurmikko, “Coherent light emitters from solution chemistry: inorganic II-VI nanocrystals and organometallic perovskites,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. R. Harwell, G. L. Whitworth, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Green perovskite distributed feedback lasers,” Sci. Rep. 7, 11727 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, D. P. McMeekin, N. Sakai, S. V. Reenen, K. Wojciechowski, J. B. Patel, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient and air-stable mixed-cation lead mixed-halide perovskite solar cells with n-doped organic electron extraction layers,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1604186 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Saran, A. H. Jungemann, A. G. Kanaras, and R. J. Curry, “Giant bandgap renormalization and exciton-phonon scattering in perovskite nanocrystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700231 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. M. Iaru, J. J. Geuchies, P. M. Koenraad, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Y. Silov, “Strong carrier-phonon coupling in lead halide perovskite nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 11, 11024–11030 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. M. Richter, F. Branchi, F. V. A. Camargo, B. Zhao, R. H. Friend, G. Cerullo, and F. Deschler, “Ultrafast carrier thermalization in lead iodide perovskite probed with two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 376 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Li, S. Bhaumik, T. W. Goh, M. S. Kumar, N. Yantara, M. Gratzel, S. Mhaisalkar, N. Mathews, and T. C. Sum, “Slow cooling and highly efficient extraction of hot carriers in colloidal perovskite nanocrystals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14350 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, K. Zidek, P. Chabera, D. Liu, P. Cheng, L. Nuuttila, M. J. Al-Marri, H. Lehtivuori, M. E. Messing, K. Han, K. Zheng, and T. Pullerits, “Size- and wavelength-dependent two-photon absorption cross-section of CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8, 2316–2321 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (17)

Y. Yang, D. P. Ostrowski, R. M. France, K. Zhu, J. Lagemaat, J. M. Luther, and M. C. Beard, “Observation of a hot-phonon bottleneck in lead-iodide perovskites,” Nat. Photonics 10, 53–59 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Kulbak, S. Gupta, N. Kedem, I. Levine, T. Bendikov, G. Hodes, and S. Cahen, “Cesium enhances long-term stability of lead bromide perovskite-based solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 167–172 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. M. A. Leguy, A. R. Goni, J. M. Frost, J. Skelton, F. Brivio, X. Rodrigues, O. J. Weber, A. Pallipurath, M. I. Alonso, M. Campoy, M. T. Weller, J. Nelson, A. Walsh, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Dynamic disorder, phonon lifetimes, and the assignment of modes to the vibrational spectra of methylammonium lead halide perovskites,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 27051–27066 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Roh, J. Lee, C. Dang, and A. Nurmikko, “Spectroscopy of optical gain in low threshold colloidal quantum dots laser media: dominance of single-exciton states at room temperature,” Opt. Mater. Express 6, 3776–3786 (2016).
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J. S. Manser, J. A. Christians, and P. V. Kamat, “Intriguing optoelectronic properties of metal halide perovskites,” Chem. Rev. 116, 12956–13008 (2016).
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A. D. Wright, C. Verdi, R. L. Milot, G. E. Eperon, M. A. Perez-Osorio, H. J. Snaith, F. Giustino, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11755 (2016).
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J. Tilchin, D. N. Dirin, G. I. Maikov, A. Sashchiuk, M. V. Kovalenko, and E. Lifshitz, “Hydrogen-like Wannier-Mott excitons in single crystal of methylammonium lead bromide perovskite,” ACS Nano 10, 6363–6371 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, K. Roh, J. Lee, W. K. Chong, Y. Lu, N. Mathews, T. C. Sum, and A. Nurmikko, “A photonic crystal laser from solution based organo-lead iodide perovskite thin films,” ACS Nano 10, 3959–3967 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Cha, S. Bae, M. Lee, and H. Jeon, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal bandedge laser with hybrid perovskite thin film for optical gain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 181104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Jia, R. A. Kerner, A. J. Grede, A. N. Brigeman, B. P. Rand, and N. C. Giebink, “Diode-pumped organo-lead halide perovskite lasing in a metal-clad distributed feedback resonator,” Nano Lett. 16, 4624–4629 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Brenner, M. Stulz, D. Kapp, T. Abzieher, U. W. Paetzold, A. Quintilla, I. A. Howard, H. Kalt, and U. Lemmer, “Highly stable solution processed metal-halide perovskite lasers on nanoimprinted distributed feedback structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 141106 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. L. Whitworth, J. R. Harwell, D. N. Miller, G. J. Hedley, W. Zhang, H. J. Snaith, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Nanoimprinted distributed feedback lasers of solution processed hybrid perovskites,” Opt. Express 24, 23677–23684 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Piatkowski, B. Cohen, C. S. Ponseca, M. Salado, S. Kazim, S. Ahmad, V. Sundstrom, and A. Douhal, “Unravelling charge carriers generation, diffusion, and recombination in formamidinium lead triiodide perovskite polycrystalline thin film,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 204–210 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Q. Phuong, Y. Yamada, M. Nagai, N. Maruyama, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Free carriers versus excitons in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films at low temperatures: charge transfer from the orthorhombic phase to the tetragonal phase,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 2316–2321 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Saba, F. Quochi, A. Mura, and G. Bongiovanni, “Excited state properties of hybrid perovskites,” Acc. Chem. Res. 49, 166–173 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Galkowski, A. Mitioglu, A. Miyata, P. Plochocka, O. Portugall, G. E. Eperon, J. T. Wang, T. Stergiopoulos, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, and R. J. Nicholas, “Determination of the exciton binding energy and effective masses for methylammonium and formamidinium lead tri-halide perovskite semiconductors,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 962–970 (2016).
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D. P. McMeekin, G. Sadoughi, W. Rehman, G. E. Eperon, M. Saliba, M. T. Horantner, A. Haghighirad, N. Sakai, L. Korte, B. Rech, M. B. Johnston, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “A mixed-cation lead mixed-halide perovskite absorber for tandem solar cells,” Science 351, 151–155 (2016).
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2015 (9)

K. Zheng, Q. Zhu, M. Abdellah, M. E. Messing, W. Zhang, A. Generalov, Y. Niu, L. Ribaud, S. E. Canton, and T. N. Pullerits, “Exciton binding energy and the nature of emissive states in organometal halide perovskites,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 2969–2975 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Miyata, A. Mitioglu, P. Plochocka, O. Portugall, J. T. Wang, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, and R. J. Nicholas, “Direct measurement of the exciton binding energy and effective masses for charge carriers in organic-inorganic tri-halide perovskites,” Nat. Phys. 11, 582–587 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X. Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14, 636–642 (2015).
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H. Cho, S. Jeong, M. Park, Y. Kim, C. Wolf, C. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350, 1222–1225 (2015).
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S. D. Stranks and H. J. Snaith, “Metal-halide perovskites for photovoltaic and light-emitting devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 391–402 (2015).
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W. S. Yang, J. H. Noh, N. J. Jeon, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange,” Science 348, 1234–1237 (2015).
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C. She, I. Fedin, D. S. Solzhnikov, P. D. Dahlberg, G. S. Engel, R. D. Schaller, and D. V. Talapin, “Red, yellow, green, and blue amplified spontaneous emission and lasing using colloidal CdSe nanoplatelets,” ACS Nano 9, 9475–9485 (2015).
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M. de Jong, L. Seijo, A. Meijerink, and F. T. Rabouw, “Resolving the ambiguity in the relation between Stokes shift and Huang-Rhys parameter,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 16959–16969 (2015).
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S. Yakunin, L. Protesescu, F. Krieg, M. I. Bodnarchuk, G. Nedelcu, M. Humer, G. D. Luca, M. Fiebig, W. Heiss, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8056 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

K. Roh, C. Dang, J. Lee, S. Chen, J. S. Steckel, S. Coe-Sullivan, and A. Nurmikko, “Surface-emitting red, green, and blue colloidal quantum dot distributed feedback lasers,” Opt. Express 22, 18800–18806 (2014).
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F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. E. Klintberg, D. D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Huttner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atature, R. T. Phillip, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 1421–1426 (2014).
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M. Saba, M. Cadelano, D. Marongiu, F. Chen, V. Sarritzu, N. Sestu, C. Figus, M. Aresti, R. Piras, A. G. Lehmann, C. Cannas, A. Musinu, F. Quochi, A. Mura, and G. Bongiovanni, “Correlated electron-hole plasma in organometal perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5049 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. D’innocenzo, G. Grancini, M. J. Alcocer, A. R. S. Kandada, S. D. Stranks, M. M. Lee, G. Lanzani, H. J. Snaith, and A. Petrozza, “Excitons versus free charges in organo-lead tri-halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3586 (2014).
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C. Wehrenfenning, G. E. Eperon, M. B. Johnston, H. J. Snaith, and L. M. Herz, “High charge carrier mobilities and lifetimes in organolead trihalide perovskites,” Adv. Mater. 26, 1584–1589 (2014).
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T. J. Savenije, C. S. Ponseca, L. Kunneman, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, Y. Tian, Q. Zhu, S. E. Canton, I. G. Scheblykin, T. Pullerits, A. Yartsev, and V. Sundstrom, “Thermally activated exciton dissociation and recombination control the carrier dynamics in organometal halide perovskite,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 2189–2194 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

C. Dang, J. Lee, C. Breen, J. S. Steckel, S. Coe-Sullivan, and A. Nurmikko, “Red, green and blue lasing enabled by single-exciton gain in colloidal quantum dot films,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 335–339 (2012).
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E. A. Dias, J. I. Saari, P. Tyagi, and P. Kambhampati, “Improving optical gain performance in semiconductor quantum dots via coupled quantum shells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 5407–5413 (2012).
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2006 (2)

J. Nanda, S. A. Ivanov, H. Htoon, I. Bezel, A. Piryatinski, S. Tretiak, and V. I. Klimov, “Absorption cross sections and Auger recombination lifetimes in inverted core-shell nanocrystals: implications for lasing performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 034309 (2006).
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H. Altug, E. Dirk, and V. Jenela, “Ultrafast photonic crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 484–488 (2006).
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2002 (1)

C. A. Leatherdale, W. K. Woo, F. V. Mikulec, and M. G. Bawendi, “On the absorption cross section of CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 7619–7622 (2002).
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2000 (2)

F. W. Wise, “Lead salt quantum dots: the limit of strong quantum confinement,” Acc. Chem. Res. 33, 773–780 (2000).
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I. G. Hill, A. Kahn, Z. G. Soos, and R. A. Pascal, “Charge-separation energy in films of π-conjugated organic molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 327, 181–188 (2000).
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1997 (1)

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2572–2574 (1997).
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1996 (1)

I. H. Campbell, T. W. Hagler, D. L. Smith, and J. P. Ferraris, “Direct measurement of conjugated polymer electronic excitation energies using metal/polymer/metal structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1900–1903 (1996).
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1992 (2)

J. Ding, H. Jeon, T. Ishihara, A. Nurmikko, H. Luo, N. Samarth, and J. Furdyna, “Excitonic gain and stimulated emission in ZnSe-based quantum wells up to room temperature,” Surf. Sci. 267, 616–622 (1992).
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J. Ding, H. Jeon, T. Ishihara, M. Hagerott, A. Nurmikko, H. Luo, N. Samarth, and J. Furdyna, “Excitonic gain and laser emission in ZnSe-based quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1707–1710 (1992).
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1990 (1)

S. Rudin, T. L. Reinecke, and B. Segall, “Temperature-dependent exciton linewidths in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 11218–11231 (1990).
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1985 (1)

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Femtosecond dynamics of resonantly excited excitons in room-temperature GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1306–1309 (1985).
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1974 (1)

R. Dingle, W. Wiegmann, and C. H. Henry, “Quantum states of confined carriers in very thin AlxGa1-xAs-GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 827–830 (1974).
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1967 (1)

Y. P. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica 34, 149–154 (1967).
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1957 (1)

R. Elliott, “Intensity of optical absorption by excitons,” Phys. Rev. 108, 1384–1389 (1957).
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1950 (1)

K. Huang and A. Rhys, “Theory of light absorption and non-radiative transitions in F-centers,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 204, 406–423 (1950).
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Abdellah, M.

K. Zheng, Q. Zhu, M. Abdellah, M. E. Messing, W. Zhang, A. Generalov, Y. Niu, L. Ribaud, S. E. Canton, and T. N. Pullerits, “Exciton binding energy and the nature of emissive states in organometal halide perovskites,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 2969–2975 (2015).
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T. J. Savenije, C. S. Ponseca, L. Kunneman, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, Y. Tian, Q. Zhu, S. E. Canton, I. G. Scheblykin, T. Pullerits, A. Yartsev, and V. Sundstrom, “Thermally activated exciton dissociation and recombination control the carrier dynamics in organometal halide perovskite,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 2189–2194 (2014).
[Crossref]

Abzieher, T.

P. Brenner, M. Stulz, D. Kapp, T. Abzieher, U. W. Paetzold, A. Quintilla, I. A. Howard, H. Kalt, and U. Lemmer, “Highly stable solution processed metal-halide perovskite lasers on nanoimprinted distributed feedback structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 141106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, S.

P. Piatkowski, B. Cohen, C. S. Ponseca, M. Salado, S. Kazim, S. Ahmad, V. Sundstrom, and A. Douhal, “Unravelling charge carriers generation, diffusion, and recombination in formamidinium lead triiodide perovskite polycrystalline thin film,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 204–210 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alcocer, M. J.

V. D’innocenzo, G. Grancini, M. J. Alcocer, A. R. S. Kandada, S. D. Stranks, M. M. Lee, G. Lanzani, H. J. Snaith, and A. Petrozza, “Excitons versus free charges in organo-lead tri-halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3586 (2014).
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Al-Marri, M. J.

J. Chen, K. Zidek, P. Chabera, D. Liu, P. Cheng, L. Nuuttila, M. J. Al-Marri, H. Lehtivuori, M. E. Messing, K. Han, K. Zheng, and T. Pullerits, “Size- and wavelength-dependent two-photon absorption cross-section of CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8, 2316–2321 (2017).
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Alonso, M. I.

A. M. A. Leguy, A. R. Goni, J. M. Frost, J. Skelton, F. Brivio, X. Rodrigues, O. J. Weber, A. Pallipurath, M. I. Alonso, M. Campoy, M. T. Weller, J. Nelson, A. Walsh, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Dynamic disorder, phonon lifetimes, and the assignment of modes to the vibrational spectra of methylammonium lead halide perovskites,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 27051–27066 (2016).
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Altug, H.

H. Altug, E. Dirk, and V. Jenela, “Ultrafast photonic crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 484–488 (2006).
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Aresti, M.

M. Saba, M. Cadelano, D. Marongiu, F. Chen, V. Sarritzu, N. Sestu, C. Figus, M. Aresti, R. Piras, A. G. Lehmann, C. Cannas, A. Musinu, F. Quochi, A. Mura, and G. Bongiovanni, “Correlated electron-hole plasma in organometal perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5049 (2014).
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Atallah, T. L.

T. J. S. Evans, A. Schlaus, Y. Fu, X. Zhong, T. L. Atallah, M. S. Spencer, L. E. Brus, S. Jin, and X. Y. Zhu, “Continuous-wave lasing in cesium lead bromide perovskite nanowires,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1700982 (2018).
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Atature, M.

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. E. Klintberg, D. D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Huttner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atature, R. T. Phillip, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 1421–1426 (2014).
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Bae, S.

H. Cha, S. Bae, M. Lee, and H. Jeon, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal bandedge laser with hybrid perovskite thin film for optical gain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 181104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Barnes, P. R. F.

A. M. A. Leguy, A. R. Goni, J. M. Frost, J. Skelton, F. Brivio, X. Rodrigues, O. J. Weber, A. Pallipurath, M. I. Alonso, M. Campoy, M. T. Weller, J. Nelson, A. Walsh, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Dynamic disorder, phonon lifetimes, and the assignment of modes to the vibrational spectra of methylammonium lead halide perovskites,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 27051–27066 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bawendi, M. G.

C. A. Leatherdale, W. K. Woo, F. V. Mikulec, and M. G. Bawendi, “On the absorption cross section of CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 7619–7622 (2002).
[Crossref]

Beard, M. C.

Y. Yang, D. P. Ostrowski, R. M. France, K. Zhu, J. Lagemaat, J. M. Luther, and M. C. Beard, “Observation of a hot-phonon bottleneck in lead-iodide perovskites,” Nat. Photonics 10, 53–59 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bendikov, T.

M. Kulbak, S. Gupta, N. Kedem, I. Levine, T. Bendikov, G. Hodes, and S. Cahen, “Cesium enhances long-term stability of lead bromide perovskite-based solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 167–172 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bezel, I.

J. Nanda, S. A. Ivanov, H. Htoon, I. Bezel, A. Piryatinski, S. Tretiak, and V. I. Klimov, “Absorption cross sections and Auger recombination lifetimes in inverted core-shell nanocrystals: implications for lasing performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 034309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bhaumik, S.

M. Li, S. Bhaumik, T. W. Goh, M. S. Kumar, N. Yantara, M. Gratzel, S. Mhaisalkar, N. Mathews, and T. C. Sum, “Slow cooling and highly efficient extraction of hot carriers in colloidal perovskite nanocrystals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14350 (2017).
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Bi, E.

H. Chen, F. Ye, W. Tang, J. He, M. Yin, Y. Wang, F. Xie, E. Bi, X. Yang, M. Gratzel, and L. Han, “A solvent- and vacuum-free route to large-area perovskite films for efficient solar modules,” Nature 550, 92–95 (2017).
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Bodnarchuk, M. I.

S. Yakunin, L. Protesescu, F. Krieg, M. I. Bodnarchuk, G. Nedelcu, M. Humer, G. D. Luca, M. Fiebig, W. Heiss, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8056 (2015).
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Bongiovanni, G.

M. Saba, F. Quochi, A. Mura, and G. Bongiovanni, “Excited state properties of hybrid perovskites,” Acc. Chem. Res. 49, 166–173 (2016).
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M. Saba, M. Cadelano, D. Marongiu, F. Chen, V. Sarritzu, N. Sestu, C. Figus, M. Aresti, R. Piras, A. G. Lehmann, C. Cannas, A. Musinu, F. Quochi, A. Mura, and G. Bongiovanni, “Correlated electron-hole plasma in organometal perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5049 (2014).
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Branchi, F.

J. M. Richter, F. Branchi, F. V. A. Camargo, B. Zhao, R. H. Friend, G. Cerullo, and F. Deschler, “Ultrafast carrier thermalization in lead iodide perovskite probed with two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 376 (2017).
[Crossref]

Breen, C.

C. Dang, J. Lee, C. Breen, J. S. Steckel, S. Coe-Sullivan, and A. Nurmikko, “Red, green and blue lasing enabled by single-exciton gain in colloidal quantum dot films,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 335–339 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brenner, P.

P. Brenner, M. Stulz, D. Kapp, T. Abzieher, U. W. Paetzold, A. Quintilla, I. A. Howard, H. Kalt, and U. Lemmer, “Highly stable solution processed metal-halide perovskite lasers on nanoimprinted distributed feedback structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 141106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brigeman, A. N.

Y. Jia, R. A. Kerner, A. J. Grede, A. N. Brigeman, B. P. Rand, and N. C. Giebink, “Diode-pumped organo-lead halide perovskite lasing in a metal-clad distributed feedback resonator,” Nano Lett. 16, 4624–4629 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brivio, F.

A. M. A. Leguy, A. R. Goni, J. M. Frost, J. Skelton, F. Brivio, X. Rodrigues, O. J. Weber, A. Pallipurath, M. I. Alonso, M. Campoy, M. T. Weller, J. Nelson, A. Walsh, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Dynamic disorder, phonon lifetimes, and the assignment of modes to the vibrational spectra of methylammonium lead halide perovskites,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 27051–27066 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brus, L. E.

T. J. S. Evans, A. Schlaus, Y. Fu, X. Zhong, T. L. Atallah, M. S. Spencer, L. E. Brus, S. Jin, and X. Y. Zhu, “Continuous-wave lasing in cesium lead bromide perovskite nanowires,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1700982 (2018).
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Y. Guo, O. Yaffe, T. D. Hull, J. S. Owen, D. R. Reichman, and L. E. Brus, “Liquid-like free carrier solvation and band edge luminescence in lead-halide perovskites,” arXiV:1804.01509 (2018).

Cadelano, M.

M. Saba, M. Cadelano, D. Marongiu, F. Chen, V. Sarritzu, N. Sestu, C. Figus, M. Aresti, R. Piras, A. G. Lehmann, C. Cannas, A. Musinu, F. Quochi, A. Mura, and G. Bongiovanni, “Correlated electron-hole plasma in organometal perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5049 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cahen, S.

M. Kulbak, S. Gupta, N. Kedem, I. Levine, T. Bendikov, G. Hodes, and S. Cahen, “Cesium enhances long-term stability of lead bromide perovskite-based solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 167–172 (2016).
[Crossref]

Camargo, F. V. A.

J. M. Richter, F. Branchi, F. V. A. Camargo, B. Zhao, R. H. Friend, G. Cerullo, and F. Deschler, “Ultrafast carrier thermalization in lead iodide perovskite probed with two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 376 (2017).
[Crossref]

Campbell, I. H.

I. H. Campbell, T. W. Hagler, D. L. Smith, and J. P. Ferraris, “Direct measurement of conjugated polymer electronic excitation energies using metal/polymer/metal structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1900–1903 (1996).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Scanning electron microscope image of surface morphology of a Cs 0.17 FA 0.83 PbBr 3 film on a planar quartz substrate. (b) Grain size distribution of the mixed-cation perovskite film, with Gaussian fit (black line) yielding mean value of 79 nm and standard deviation of 51 nm. (c) X-ray diffraction pattern comparison between Cs 0.17 FA 0.83 PbBr 3 and control FAPbBr 3 films, with zoom-in of (001) peak shown on the right.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Pseudo-color maps of (a) excitonic absorbance and (b) normalized PL emission of mixed-cation Cs 0.17 FA 0.83 PbBr 3 films at different temperatures. (c) Positions of absorption excitonic peak and PL peak across the measured temperature range. (d) Temperature-dependent emission Stokes shift of the mixed-cation Cs 0.17 FA 0.83 PbBr 3 perovskite films.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Spectral lineshapes of absorbance and (b) normalized PL spectra of Cs 0.17 FA 0.83 PbBr 3 films at different temperatures. (c) Theoretical fit of measured absorption spectrum at room temperature according to Elliott’s model of Wannier excitons, yielding an estimate of exciton binding energy E b = 43.8    meV . (d) Theoretical fit of PL FWHM linewidth at different temperatures, which includes contributions from inhomogeneous broadening and electron–LO-phonon coupling (Fröhlich interaction).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Nonlinear absorption spectra of Cs 0.17 FA 0.83 PbBr 3 films under various excitation levels at room temperature with probe pulse arrival delay time Δ t = 2    ps . Linear absorption spectrum obtained in the absence of photoexcitation ( 0    μJ / cm 2 ) is also included (black line). The inset shows the transient absorption spectrum at pump energy density of 36.8    μJ / cm 2 . The onset for optical gain occurs when α + Δ α = 0 (black arrow) at 2.233    eV . (b) Time-resolved transient absorption measured at 2.233 eV (where optical gain first occurs). Here the onset for optical gain is defined when Δ α / α = 1 .
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Schematic structure of mixed-cation PeVCSEL. The sputtered dielectric DBR stack consists of 10 pairs of HfO 2 / SiO 2 . (b) Measured reflectivity spectrum of a standalone HfO 2 / SiO 2 DBR showing a reasonably good match with pre-deposition design simulation. (c) Zoom-in view of the high-reflection band showing peak reflectivity of 99.5%, and a broad spectral window covering from 2.145 eV to 2.398 eV (517–578 nm) wherein reflectivity exceeds 99%. (d) Spontaneous emission from the PeVCSEL device under excitation well below the lasing threshold with a cavity mode peak at 2.244 eV ( λ = 552.6    nm ). A Lorentzian profile is used to fit the cavity mode, which leads to a FWHM linewidth of 1.665 meV ( Δ λ = 0.41    nm ).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Schematic structure of a vertically pumped PeVCSEL with a long-pass filter to block the pump residue. The pulsed pump source is a compact diode-pumped solid state laser (3.493 eV, τ pulse = 0.34    ns , 1 kHz repetition rate). (b) Device light output with increasing pump fluence expressed in a log–log plot with threshold energy density of 13.5 ± 1.4    μJ / cm 2 . The empty circles record the FWHM linewidth of the emission spectrum. (c) Emission spectra under different excitation levels. Spectrally coherent single-mode lasing at 2.244 eV ( λ = 552.5    nm ) with FWHM linewidth of 0.996 meV ( Δ λ = 0.245    nm ) is observed. (d) Pseudo-color plot of PeVCSEL emission under different levels of excitation in a logarithmic scale demonstrating the single mode operation and large background suppression ratio ( > 20    dB ). (e) Near-field images of a device with pump energy densities near and above the threshold. (f) Far-field pattern of PeVCSEL emission, with 5 ° divergence in the transverse plane. (g) PeVCSEL device (longevity) lifetime measured under the same subnanosecond pumping source at E pump 1.5    E th . Green squares monitor the lasing output intensity, while the orange circles track the FWHM linewidth of the emission, indicating persistent lasing operation.

Equations (2)

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α ( ω ) μ c v 2 ω [ 4 π E b 3 sech ( ω E g + E b Γ ) + E g sech ( ω E Γ ) 2 π E b 1 e 2 π E b / ( E E g ) d E ] .
Γ ( T ) = Γ inh + Γ LO e ω LO / k T 1 .

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