Abstract

Single-shot ultrafast optical imaging can capture two-dimensional transient scenes in the optical spectral range at 100 million frames per second. This rapidly evolving field surpasses conventional pump-probe methods by possessing real-time imaging capability, which is indispensable for recording nonrepeatable and difficult-to-reproduce events and for understanding physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms. In this mini-review, we survey state-of-the-art single-shot ultrafast optical imaging comprehensively. Based on the illumination requirement, we categorized the field into active-detection and passive-detection domains. Depending on the specific image acquisition and reconstruction strategies, these two categories are further divided into a total of six subcategories. Under each subcategory, we describe operating principles, present representative cutting-edge techniques, with a particular emphasis on their methodology and applications, and discuss their advantages and challenges. Finally, we envision prospects for technical advancement in this field.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (5)

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359, 887–891 (2018).
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M.-G. Suh and K. J. Vahala, “Soliton microcomb range measurement,” Science 359, 884–887 (2018).
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B. Zhu, J. Z. Liu, S. F. Cauley, B. R. Rosen, and M. S. Rosen, “Image reconstruction by domain-transform manifold learning,” Nature 555, 487–492 (2018).
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Y. Rivenson, Y. Zhang, H. Günaydın, D. Teng, and A. Ozcan, “Phase recovery and holographic image reconstruction using deep learning in neural networks,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 17141 (2018).
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J. Liang, L. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, “Single-shot real-time femtosecond imaging of temporal focusing,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 42 (2018).
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2017 (12)

C. Lei, Y. Wu, A. C. Sankaranarayanan, S. M. Chang, B. Guo, N. Sasaki, H. Kobayashi, C. W. Sun, Y. Ozeki, and K. Goda, “GHz optical time-stretch microscopy by compressive sensing,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 3900308 (2017).
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T. G. Etoh, A. Q. Nguyen, Y. Kamakura, K. Shimonomura, T. Y. Le, and N. Mori, “The theoretical highest frame rate of silicon image sensors,” Sensors 17, 483 (2017).
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G. Gao, K. He, J. Tian, C. Zhang, J. Zhang, T. Wang, S. Chen, H. Jia, F. Yuan, L. Liang, X. Yan, S. Li, C. Wang, and F. Yin, “Ultrafast all-optical solid-state framing camera with picosecond temporal resolution,” Opt. Express 25, 8721–8729 (2017).
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P. Sidorenko, O. Lahav, and O. Cohen, “Ptychographic ultrahigh-speed imaging,” Opt. Express 25, 10997–11008 (2017).
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Q.-Y. Yue, Z.-J. Cheng, L. Han, Y. Yang, and C.-S. Guo, “One-shot time-resolved holographic polarization microscopy for imaging laser-induced ultrafast phenomena,” Opt. Express 25, 14182–14191 (2017).
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J.-L. Wu, Y.-Q. Xu, J.-J. Xu, X.-M. Wei, A. C. Chan, A. H. Tang, A. K. Lau, B. M. Chung, H. C. Shum, and E. Y. Lam, “Ultrafast laser-scanning time-stretch imaging at visible wavelengths,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16196 (2017).
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T. Suzuki, R. Hida, Y. Yamaguchi, K. Nakagawa, T. Saiki, and F. Kannari, “Single-shot 25-frame burst imaging of ultrafast phase transition of Ge2Sb2Te5 with a sub-picosecond resolution,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 092502 (2017).
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G. Gao, J. Tian, T. Wang, K. He, C. Zhang, J. Zhang, S. Chen, H. Jia, F. Yuan, L. Liang, X. Yan, S. Li, C. Wang, and F. Yin, “Ultrafast all-optical imaging technique using low-temperature grown GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple-quantum-well semiconductor,” Phys. Lett. 381, 3594–3598 (2017).
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A. Ehn, J. Bood, Z. Li, E. Berrocal, M. Aldén, and E. Kristensson, “FRAME: femtosecond videography for atomic and molecular dynamics,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17045 (2017).
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H. Xing, Q. Zhang, C. H. Braithwaite, B. Pan, and J. Zhao, “High-speed photography and digital optical measurement techniques for geomaterials: fundamentals and applications,” Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 50, 1611–1659 (2017).
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J. Liang, C. Ma, L. Zhu, Y. Chen, L. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Single-shot real-time video recording of photonic Mach cone induced by a scattered light pulse,” Sci. Adv. 3, e1601814 (2017).
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J. Liang, C. Ma, L. Zhu, Y. Chen, L. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Ultrafast imaging of light scattering dynamics using second-generation compressed ultrafast photography,” Proc. SPIE 10076, 1007612 (2017).
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2016 (10)

K. Shigemori, T. Yamamoto, Y. Hironaka, T. Kawashima, S. Hattori, H. Nagatomo, H. Kato, N. Sato, T. Watari, and M. Takagi, “Converging shock generation with cone target filled with low density foam,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 717, 012050 (2016).
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M. T. Hassan, T. T. Luu, A. Moulet, O. Raskazovskaya, P. Zhokhov, M. Garg, N. Karpowicz, A. Zheltikov, V. Pervak, and F. Krausz, “Optical attosecond pulses and tracking the nonlinear response of bound electrons,” Nature 530, 66–70 (2016).
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T. Gorkhover, S. Schorb, R. Coffee, M. Adolph, L. Foucar, D. Rupp, A. Aquila, J. D. Bozek, S. W. Epp, B. Erk, L. Gumprecht, L. Holmegaard, A. Hartmann, R. Hartmann, G. Hauser, P. Holl, A. Hömke, P. Johnsson, N. Kimmel, K.-U. Kühnel, M. Messerschmidt, C. Reich, A. Rouzée, B. Rudek, C. Schmidt, J. Schulz, H. Soltau, S. Stern, G. Weidenspointner, B. White, J. Küpper, L. Strüder, I. Schlichting, J. Ullrich, D. Rolles, A. Rudenko, T. Möller, and C. Bostedt, “Femtosecond and nanometre visualization of structural dynamics in superheated nanoparticles,” Nat. Photonics 10, 93–97 (2016).
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C. Lei, B. Guo, Z. Cheng, and K. Goda, “Optical time-stretch imaging: principles and applications,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 3, 011102 (2016).
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Z. Li, H.-E. Tsai, X. Zhang, C.-H. Pai, Y.-Y. Chang, R. Zgadzaj, X. Wang, V. Khudik, G. Shvets, and M. C. Downer, “Single-shot visualization of evolving plasma wakefields,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1777, 040010 (2016).
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G. Gariepy, F. Tonolini, R. Henderson, J. Leach, and D. Faccio, “Detection and tracking of moving objects hidden from view,” Nat. Photonics 10, 23–26 (2016).
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F. Mochizuki, K. Kagawa, S.-I. Okihara, M.-W. Seo, B. Zhang, T. Takasawa, K. Yasutomi, and S. Kawahito, “Single-event transient imaging with an ultra-high-speed temporally compressive multi-aperture CMOS image sensor,” Opt. Express 24, 4155–4176 (2016).
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L. Zhu, Y. Chen, J. Liang, L. Gao, C. Ma, and L. V. Wang, “Space- and intensity-constrained reconstruction for compressed ultrafast photography,” Optica 3, 694–697 (2016).
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J. Zhang, X. Tan, M. Liu, S. W. Teitelbaum, K. W. Post, F. Jin, K. A. Nelson, D. Basov, W. Wu, and R. D. Averitt, “Cooperative photoinduced metastable phase control in strained manganite films,” Nat. Mater. 15, 956–960 (2016).
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L. Gao and L. V. Wang, “A review of snapshot multidimensional optical imaging: measuring photon tags in parallel,” Phys. Rep. 616, 1–37 (2016).
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2015 (9)

Q. Song, A. Nakamura, K. Hirosawa, K. Isobe, K. Midorikawa, and F. Kannari, “Two-dimensional spatiotemporal focusing of femtosecond pulses and its applications in microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 083701 (2015).
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N. Vogt, “Voltage sensors: challenging, but with potential,” Nat. Methods 12, 921–924 (2015).
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F. Xing, H. Chen, C. Lei, M. Chen, S. Yang, and S. Xie, “A 2-GHz discrete-spectrum waveband-division microscopic imaging system,” Opt. Commun. 338, 22–26 (2015).
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M. Zlatanski, W. Uhring, and J.-P. Le Normand, “Sub-500-ps temporal resolution streak-mode optical sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 15, 6570–6583 (2015).
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J. Liang, L. Gao, P. Hai, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Encrypted three-dimensional dynamic imaging using snapshot time-of-flight compressed ultrafast photography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15504 (2015).
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A. Tsikouras, R. Berman, D. W. Andrews, and Q. Fang, “High-speed multifocal array scanning using refractive window tilting,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 3737–3747 (2015).
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T. Suzuki, F. Isa, L. Fujii, K. Hirosawa, K. Nakagawa, K. Goda, I. Sakuma, and F. Kannari, “Sequentially timed all-optical mapping photography (STAMP) utilizing spectral filtering,” Opt. Express 23, 30512–30522 (2015).
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M. Sciamanna and K. A. Shore, “Physics and applications of laser diode chaos,” Nat. Photonics 9, 151–162 (2015).
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G. Gariepy, N. Krstajic, R. Henderson, C. Li, R. R. Thomson, G. S. Buller, B. Heshmat, R. Raskar, J. Leach, and D. Faccio, “Single-photon sensitive light-in-fight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6021 (2015).
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2014 (8)

A. Kirmani, D. Venkatraman, D. Shin, A. Colaço, F. N. Wong, J. H. Shapiro, and V. K. Goyal, “First-photon imaging,” Science 343, 58–61 (2014).
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T. Shin, J. W. Wolfson, S. W. Teitelbaum, M. Kandyla, and K. A. Nelson, “Dual echelon femtosecond single-shot spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 083115 (2014).
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Z. Li, R. Zgadzaj, X. Wang, Y.-Y. Chang, and M. C. Downer, “Single-shot tomographic movies of evolving light-velocity objects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3085 (2014).
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K. Nakagawa, A. Iwasaki, Y. Oishi, R. Horisaki, A. Tsukamoto, A. Nakamura, K. Hirosawa, H. Liao, T. Ushida, K. Goda, F. Kannari, and I. Sakuma, “Sequentially timed all-optical mapping photography (STAMP),” Nat. Photonics 8, 695–700 (2014).
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L. Gao, J. Liang, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Single-shot compressed ultrafast photography at one hundred billion frames per second,” Nature 516, 74–77 (2014).
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N. Šiaulys, L. Gallais, and A. Melninkaitis, “Direct holographic imaging of ultrafast laser damage process in thin films,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2164–2167 (2014).
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X. Wang, L. Yan, J. Si, S. Matsuo, H. Xu, and X. Hou, “High-frame-rate observation of single femtosecond laser pulse propagation in fused silica using an echelon and optical polarigraphy technique,” Appl. Opt. 53, 8395–8399 (2014).
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J. Takeda, W. Oba, Y. Minami, T. Saiki, and I. Katayama, “Ultrafast crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition in Ge2Sb2Te5 chalcogenide alloy thin film using single-shot imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 261903 (2014).
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2013 (6)

M. Xiaofeng and C. Xiang, “Big data management: concepts, techniques and challenges,” J. Comput. Res. Dev. 1, 146–169 (2013).

A. Kadambi, R. Whyte, A. Bhandari, L. Streeter, C. Barsi, A. Dorrington, and R. Raskar, “Coded time of flight cameras: sparse deconvolution to address multipath interference and recover time profiles,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32, 1–10 (2013).
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M. Versluis, “High-speed imaging in fluids,” Exp. Fluids 54, 1458 (2013).
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J. Hunt, T. Driscoll, A. Mrozack, G. Lipworth, M. Reynolds, D. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial apertures for computational imaging,” Science 339, 310–313 (2013).
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H. Fujita, S. Kanazawa, K. Ohtani, A. Komiya, and T. Sato, “Spatiotemporal analysis of propagation mechanism of positive primary streamer in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 113304 (2013).
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T. G. Etoh, D. V. Son, T. Yamada, and E. Charbon, “Toward one giga frames per second—evolution of in situ storage image sensors,” Sensors 13, 4640–4658 (2013).
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2012 (7)

T. Kakue, K. Tosa, J. Yuasa, T. Tahara, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, and T. Kubota, “Digital light-in-flight recording by holography by use of a femtosecond pulsed laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 479–485 (2012).
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R. Scott, F. Perez, J. Santos, C. Ridgers, J. Davies, K. Lancaster, S. Baton, P. Nicolai, R. Trines, and A. Bell, “A study of fast electron energy transport in relativistically intense laser-plasma interactions with large density scalelengths,” Phys. Plasmas 19, 053104 (2012).
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J. Liang, S.-Y. Wu, R. N. Kohn, M. F. Becker, and D. J. Heinzen, “Grayscale laser image formation using a programmable binary mask,” Opt. Eng. 51, 108201 (2012).
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A. Velten, T. Willwacher, O. Gupta, A. Veeraraghavan, M. G. Bawendi, and R. Raskar, “Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 745 (2012).
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L. Fieramonti, A. Bassi, E. A. Foglia, A. Pistocchi, C. D’Andrea, G. Valentini, R. Cubeddu, S. De Silvestri, G. Cerullo, and F. Cotelli, “Time-gated optical projection tomography allows visualization of adult zebrafish internal structures,” PLoS One 7, e50744 (2012).
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D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, “Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486, 386–389 (2012).
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N. Matlis, A. Axley, and W. Leemans, “Single-shot ultrafast tomographic imaging by spectral multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1111 (2012).
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2011 (1)

A. M. Weiner, “Ultrafast optical pulse shaping: a tutorial review,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3669–3692 (2011).
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2010 (2)

B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, K. Goda, K. Tsia, and C. Ropers, “Real-time measurements, rare events and photon economics,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185, 145–157 (2010).
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Z. Li, R. Zgadzaj, X. Wang, S. Reed, P. Dong, and M. C. Downer, “Frequency-domain streak camera for ultrafast imaging of evolving light-velocity objects,” Opt. Lett. 35, 4087–4089 (2010).
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2009 (4)

U. Fruhling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schutte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plonjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven X-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
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K. Goda, K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature 458, 1145–1149 (2009).
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P. Fuller, “An introduction to high speed photography and photonics,” Imaging Sci. J. 57, 293–302 (2009).
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M. El-Desouki, M. J. Deen, Q. Fang, L. Liu, F. Tse, and D. Armstrong, “CMOS image sensors for high speed applications,” Sensors 9, 430–444 (2009).
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2008 (6)

E. J. Candes and M. B. Wakin, “An introduction to compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 21–30 (2008).
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S. V. Patwardhan and J. P. Culver, “Quantitative diffuse optical tomography for small animals using an ultrafast gated image intensifier,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 011009 (2008).
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E. J. Candès, “The restricted isometry property and its implications for compressed sensing,” C. R. Math. Acad. Sci. Paris 346, 589–592 (2008).
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M. Nakatsutsumi, J. Davies, R. Kodama, J. Green, K. Lancaster, K. Akli, F. Beg, S. Chen, D. Clark, and R. Freeman, “Space and time resolved measurements of the heating of solids to ten million kelvin by a petawatt laser,” New J. Phys. 10, 043046 (2008).
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M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope,” Nature 456, 81–84 (2008).
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P. Gabolde and R. Trebino, “Single-frame measurement of the complete spatiotemporal intensity and phase of ultrashort laser pulses using wavelength-multiplexed digital holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, A25–A33 (2008).
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2007 (10)

K. Kim, B. Yellampalle, A. Taylor, G. Rodriguez, and J. Glownia, “Single-shot terahertz pulse characterization via two-dimensional electro-optic imaging with dual echelons,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1968–1970 (2007).
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T. Kubota, K. Komai, M. Yamagiwa, and Y. Awatsuji, “Moving picture recording and observation of three-dimensional image of femtosecond light pulse propagation,” Opt. Express 15, 14348–14354 (2007).
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J. Fuchs, M. Nakatsutsumi, J. Marques, P. Antici, N. Bourgeois, M. Grech, T. Lin, L. Romagnani, V. Tikhonchuk, and S. Weber, “Space-and time-resolved observation of single filaments propagation in an underdense plasma and of beam coupling between neighbouring filaments,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 49, B497–B504 (2007).
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J. M. Bioucas-Dias and M. A. Figueiredo, “A new TwIST: two-step iterative shrinkage/thresholding algorithms for image restoration,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 16, 2992–3004 (2007).
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V. Tiwari, M. Sutton, and S. McNeill, “Assessment of high speed imaging systems for 2D and 3D deformation measurements: methodology development and validation,” Exp. Mech. 47, 561–579 (2007).
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T. G. Etoh, C. Vo Le, Y. Hashishin, N. Otsuka, K. Takehara, H. Ohtake, T. Hayashida, and H. Maruyama, “Evolution of ultra-high-speed CCD imagers,” Plasma Fusion Res. 2, S1021 (2007).
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K. J. Gaffney and H. N. Chapman, “Imaging atomic structure and dynamics with ultrafast X-ray scattering,” Science 316, 1444–1448 (2007).
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A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
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P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007).
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D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450, 1054–1057 (2007).
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2006 (6)

P. R. Poulin and K. A. Nelson, “Irreversible organic crystalline chemistry monitored in real time,” Science 313, 1756–1760 (2006).
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A. H. Zewail, “4D ultrafast electron diffraction, crystallography, and microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 57, 65–103 (2006).
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D. L. Donoho, “Compressed sensing,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 1289–1306 (2006).
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N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, and S. Kalmykov, “Snapshots of laser wakefields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 749–753 (2006).
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R. Raskar, A. Agrawal, and J. Tumblin, “Coded exposure photography: motion deblurring using fluttered shutter,” ACM Trans. Graph. 25, 795–804 (2006).
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P. Gabolde and R. Trebino, “Single-shot measurement of the full spatio-temporal field of ultrashort pulses with multi-spectral digital holography,” Opt. Express 14, 11460–11467 (2006).
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2005 (3)

2003 (2)

T. Feurer, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Spatiotemporal coherent control of lattice vibrational waves,” Science 299, 374–377 (2003).
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C. T. Chin, C. Lancée, J. Borsboom, F. Mastik, M. E. Frijlink, N. de Jong, M. Versluis, and D. Lohse, “Brandaris 128: a digital 25 million frames per second camera with 128 highly sensitive frames,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 5026–5034 (2003).
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2002 (1)

X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave imaging: horizons and hurdles,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3667–3677 (2002).
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1978 (1)

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Categorization of single-shot ultrafast optical imaging in two detection domains and six methods with 11 representative techniques; (b) conceptual illustration of active-detection-based single-shot ultrafast optical imaging. Colors represent different optical markers. (c) Conceptual illustration of passive-detection-based single-shot ultrafast optical imaging.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. SS-FTOP based on space division followed by varied time delays for imaging a single ultrashort pulse’s propagation in a Kerr medium (adapted from [41]). (a) Schematic of experimental setup; (b) two sequences of single ultrashort pulses’ propagation. The time interval between adjacent frames is 0.96 ps. (c) Transverse intensity profiles of the first frames of the two single-shot observations in (b).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. LIF recording by DH based on obliquely sweeping the reference pulse on the imaging plane, a form of space division [51]. (a) Experimental setup for recording the hologram; (b) representative frames of single ultrashort laser pulses’ movement on a USAF resolution target. The time interval between frames is 192 fs. The white arrow points to the features of the USAF resolution target.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. SS-FDT for imaging transient refractive index perturbation based on angle division followed by spectral imaging holography [54]. (a) Schematic of the experimental setup. Upper-left inset, principle of imprinting a phase streak in a probe pulse (adapted from [55]); θ , incident angle of the probe pulse; Δ n , refractive index change; (b) phase streaks induced by the evolving refractive index profile. x pr and z pr ( loc ) , the transverse and the longitudinal coordinates of probe pulses; (c) representative snapshots of the refractive index change using a pump energy of E = 0.7    μJ ; x ob and z ob ( loc ) , the transverse and the longitudinal coordinates of the object.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. STAMP based on temporal wavelength division. (a) System schematic of STAMP [62]; upper inset, normalized intensity profiles of the six probe pulses with an interframe time interval of 229 fs (corresponding to a frame rate of 4.4 Tfps) and an exposure time of 733 fs; lower insets, schematics of the temporal mapping device and the spatial mapping device; (b) single-shot imaging of electronic response and phonon formation at 4.4 Tfps [62]; (c) schematic setup of spectrally filtered (SF)-STAMP [65]; f 1 and f 2 , focal lengths of lenses. BPF, bandpass filter; DOE, diffractive optical element; (d) full sequence of crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition in Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 captured by the SF-STAMP system with an interframe time interval of 133 fs (corresponding to an imaging speed of 7.52 Tfps) and an exposure time of 465 fs [65].
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. THPM based on time delays and spatial frequency division of the reference pulses for imaging laser-induced damage of a mica lamina sample (adapted from [71]). (a) Schematic of experimental setup. Black arrows indicate the pulses’ SOPs. KDP, potassium dihydrogen phosphate; lower-right inset, generation of four reference pulses; (b) recorded hologram of a USAF resolution target. The zoom-in picture shows the detailed interferometric pattern of this hologram. (c) Spatial frequency spectrum of (b); (d) time-resolved multicontrast imaging of ultrafast laser-induced damage in a mica lamina sample.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. FRAME imaging based on spatial frequency division of the probe pulses [73]. (a) System schematic; (b) sequence of reconstructed frames of a propagating femtosecond light pulse in a Kerr medium at 5 Tfps. The white dashed arc in the 600-fs frame indicates the pulse’s position at 0 fs. (c) Vertically summed intensity profiles of (b).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Structure of DALSA’s ISIS CCD camera based on on-chip charge transfer and storage (adapted from [77]). The sensor has 64    pixels × 64    pixels , while six are shown here. Arrows indicate the charge transfer directions.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. UFC based on beam splitting along with ultrafast time gating. (a) Schematic of a UFC [79]; (b) schematic of shadowgraph imaging of cylindrical shock waves using a UFC (adapted from [85]); inset, configuration of the multilayered target; (c) sequence of captured shadowgraph frames showing the convergence and subsequent divergence of the shock waves generated by a laser excitation ring (red dashed circle in the first frame) in the target [85]. The shock front is pointed by the white arrows. Additional rings and structure instabilities are shown by the blue arrows and orange arrows, respectively.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. HISAC based on remapping the scene from 2D to 1D in space and streak imaging. (a) Schematic of a streak camera; (b) schematic of a HISAC system; (c) formation process of individual frames from the streak data; (d) sequence showing shock wave breakthrough. The time interval between frames is 336    ps . The laser focus is outlined by the white dashed circle. (b)–(d) are adapted from [88].
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. CUP for single-shot real-time ultrafast optical imaging based on spatial encoding and 2D streaking followed by compressed-sensing reconstruction. (a) Schematic of the lossless-encoding CUP system [98]; DMD, digital micromirror device; upper inset, Illustration of complementary spatial encoding; lower inset, close-up of the configuration before the streak camera’s entrance port (black box); (b) CUP of a propagating photonic Mach cone [97]; (c) CUP of dynamic volumetric imaging [105]; (d) CUP of spectrally resolved pulse-laser-pumped fluorescence emission [96]. Scale bar: 10 mm.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. MA-CS CMOS sensor based on temporally encoding each of the image replicas (adapted from [106]). (a) System schematic. PD, photodiode; FD, float diffuser; SD, storage diode; (b) temporally resolved frame of laser-pulse-induced plasma emission. The inter-frame time interval is 5 ns.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. Comparison of representative single-shot ultrafast optical imaging techniques in imaging speeds and sequence depths. Triangles and circles represent active and passive detection domains. Blue and black colors represent the direct and reconstruction imaging methods, respectively. Solid and hollow marks represent high and low (including medium) light throughputs. The numbers in the parentheses are the years in which the techniques were published. CUP, compressed ultrafast photography; T-CUP, trillion-frame-per-second CUP; FRAME, frequency recognition algorithm for multiple exposures; HISAC, high-speed sampling camera; ISIS CCD, in situ storage image sensor CCD; LIF-DH, light-in-flight recording by digital holography; MA-CS CMOS, multi-aperture compressed sensing CMOS; SS-FDT, single-shot Fourier-domain tomography; SS-FTOP, single-shot femtosecond time-resolved optical polarimetry; STAMP, sequentially timed all-optical mapping photography; SF-STAMP, spectral-filtering STAMP; THPM, time-resolved holographic polarization microscopy; UFC, ultrafast framing camera.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Comparative Summary of Representative Single-Shot Ultrafast Optical Imaging Techniques

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