Abstract

Linear optical circuits that can provide reconfigurable interference between several optical modes are emerging as a powerful tool for both classical and quantum optics. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a modular architecture for building these circuits. Each module contains independent phase-controlled Mach–Zehnder interferometers, and several modules can be interfaced to build large reconfigurable interferometers. We demonstrate our approach by fabricating three modules in the form of ultraviolet-written silica-on-silicon chips. We characterize these chips, connect them to each other, and implement a wide range of linear optical transformations. Our work facilitates the development of large-scale linear optical circuits for quantum optics.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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References

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2017 (4)

Y. Shen, N. C. Harris, S. Skirlo, M. Prabhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, X. Sun, S. Zhao, H. Larochelle, D. Englund, and M. Soljačić, Nat. Photonics 11, 441 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Burgwal, W. R. Clements, D. H. Smith, J. C. Gates, W. S. Kolthammer, J. J. Renema, and I. A. Walmsley, Opt. Express 25, 28236 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. J. Russell, L. Chakhmakhchyan, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, New J. Phys. 19, 033007 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. J. Menssen, A. E. Jones, B. J. Metcalf, M. C. Tichy, S. Barz, W. S. Kolthammer, and I. A. Walmsley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 153603 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (2)

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, Science 349, 711 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. A. B. Miller, Optica 2, 747 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

B. J. Metcalf, J. B. Spring, P. C. Humphreys, N. Thomas-Peter, M. Barbieri, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, Nat. Photonics 8, 770 (2014).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

J. L. O’Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vučković, Nat. Photonics 3, 687 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. O. Kundys, J. C. Gates, S. Dasgupta, C. B. E. Gawith, and P. G. R. Smith, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 947 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. J. Smith, D. Kundys, N. T. Peter, and I. A. Walmsley, Opt. Express 17, 264 (2009).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

D. Zauner, K. Kulstad, J. Rathje, and M. Svalgaard, Electron. Lett. 34, 1582 (1998).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Y. Shen, N. C. Harris, S. Skirlo, M. Prabhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, X. Sun, S. Zhao, H. Larochelle, D. Englund, and M. Soljačić, Nat. Photonics 11, 441 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barbieri, M.

B. J. Metcalf, J. B. Spring, P. C. Humphreys, N. Thomas-Peter, M. Barbieri, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, Nat. Photonics 8, 770 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barz, S.

A. J. Menssen, A. E. Jones, B. J. Metcalf, M. C. Tichy, S. Barz, W. S. Kolthammer, and I. A. Walmsley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 153603 (2017).
[Crossref]

Burgwal, R.

Capmany, J.

J. Capmany, I. Gasulla, and D. Pérez, Nat. Photonics 10, 6 (2016).
[Crossref]

Carolan, J.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, Science 349, 711 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chakhmakhchyan, L.

N. J. Russell, L. Chakhmakhchyan, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, New J. Phys. 19, 033007 (2017).
[Crossref]

Clements, W. R.

Dasgupta, S.

D. O. Kundys, J. C. Gates, S. Dasgupta, C. B. E. Gawith, and P. G. R. Smith, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 947 (2009).
[Crossref]

Englund, D.

Y. Shen, N. C. Harris, S. Skirlo, M. Prabhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, X. Sun, S. Zhao, H. Larochelle, D. Englund, and M. Soljačić, Nat. Photonics 11, 441 (2017).
[Crossref]

Flamini, F.

F. Flamini, N. Spagnolo, and F. Sciarrino, “Photonic quantum information processing: a review,” arXiv:1803.02790 (2018).

Furusawa, A.

J. L. O’Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vučković, Nat. Photonics 3, 687 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gasulla, I.

J. Capmany, I. Gasulla, and D. Pérez, Nat. Photonics 10, 6 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gates, J. C.

R. Burgwal, W. R. Clements, D. H. Smith, J. C. Gates, W. S. Kolthammer, J. J. Renema, and I. A. Walmsley, Opt. Express 25, 28236 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. J. Metcalf, J. B. Spring, P. C. Humphreys, N. Thomas-Peter, M. Barbieri, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, Nat. Photonics 8, 770 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. O. Kundys, J. C. Gates, S. Dasgupta, C. B. E. Gawith, and P. G. R. Smith, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 947 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gawith, C. B. E.

D. O. Kundys, J. C. Gates, S. Dasgupta, C. B. E. Gawith, and P. G. R. Smith, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 947 (2009).
[Crossref]

Harris, N. C.

Y. Shen, N. C. Harris, S. Skirlo, M. Prabhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, X. Sun, S. Zhao, H. Larochelle, D. Englund, and M. Soljačić, Nat. Photonics 11, 441 (2017).
[Crossref]

Harrold, C.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, Science 349, 711 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hashimoto, T.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, Science 349, 711 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hochberg, M.

Y. Shen, N. C. Harris, S. Skirlo, M. Prabhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, X. Sun, S. Zhao, H. Larochelle, D. Englund, and M. Soljačić, Nat. Photonics 11, 441 (2017).
[Crossref]

Humphreys, P. C.

W. R. Clements, P. C. Humphreys, B. J. Metcalf, W. S. Kolthammer, and I. A. Walmsley, Optica 3, 1460 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. J. Metcalf, J. B. Spring, P. C. Humphreys, N. Thomas-Peter, M. Barbieri, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, Nat. Photonics 8, 770 (2014).
[Crossref]

Itoh, M.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, Science 349, 711 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jin, X.-M.

B. J. Metcalf, J. B. Spring, P. C. Humphreys, N. Thomas-Peter, M. Barbieri, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, Nat. Photonics 8, 770 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jones, A. E.

A. J. Menssen, A. E. Jones, B. J. Metcalf, M. C. Tichy, S. Barz, W. S. Kolthammer, and I. A. Walmsley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 153603 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kolthammer, W. S.

A. J. Menssen, A. E. Jones, B. J. Metcalf, M. C. Tichy, S. Barz, W. S. Kolthammer, and I. A. Walmsley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 153603 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Burgwal, W. R. Clements, D. H. Smith, J. C. Gates, W. S. Kolthammer, J. J. Renema, and I. A. Walmsley, Opt. Express 25, 28236 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. R. Clements, P. C. Humphreys, B. J. Metcalf, W. S. Kolthammer, and I. A. Walmsley, Optica 3, 1460 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. J. Metcalf, J. B. Spring, P. C. Humphreys, N. Thomas-Peter, M. Barbieri, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, Nat. Photonics 8, 770 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kulstad, K.

D. Zauner, K. Kulstad, J. Rathje, and M. Svalgaard, Electron. Lett. 34, 1582 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kundys, D.

B. J. Metcalf, J. B. Spring, P. C. Humphreys, N. Thomas-Peter, M. Barbieri, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, Nat. Photonics 8, 770 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. J. Smith, D. Kundys, N. T. Peter, and I. A. Walmsley, Opt. Express 17, 264 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kundys, D. O.

D. O. Kundys, J. C. Gates, S. Dasgupta, C. B. E. Gawith, and P. G. R. Smith, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 947 (2009).
[Crossref]

Laing, A.

N. J. Russell, L. Chakhmakhchyan, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, New J. Phys. 19, 033007 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, Science 349, 711 (2015).
[Crossref]

Langford, N. K.

B. J. Metcalf, J. B. Spring, P. C. Humphreys, N. Thomas-Peter, M. Barbieri, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, Nat. Photonics 8, 770 (2014).
[Crossref]

Larochelle, H.

Y. Shen, N. C. Harris, S. Skirlo, M. Prabhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, X. Sun, S. Zhao, H. Larochelle, D. Englund, and M. Soljačić, Nat. Photonics 11, 441 (2017).
[Crossref]

Marshall, G. D.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, Science 349, 711 (2015).
[Crossref]

Martín-López, E.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, Science 349, 711 (2015).
[Crossref]

Matsuda, N.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, Science 349, 711 (2015).
[Crossref]

Matthews, J. C. F.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, Science 349, 711 (2015).
[Crossref]

Menssen, A. J.

A. J. Menssen, A. E. Jones, B. J. Metcalf, M. C. Tichy, S. Barz, W. S. Kolthammer, and I. A. Walmsley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 153603 (2017).
[Crossref]

Metcalf, B. J.

A. J. Menssen, A. E. Jones, B. J. Metcalf, M. C. Tichy, S. Barz, W. S. Kolthammer, and I. A. Walmsley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 153603 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. R. Clements, P. C. Humphreys, B. J. Metcalf, W. S. Kolthammer, and I. A. Walmsley, Optica 3, 1460 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. J. Metcalf, J. B. Spring, P. C. Humphreys, N. Thomas-Peter, M. Barbieri, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, Nat. Photonics 8, 770 (2014).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. A. B.

O’Brien, J. L.

N. J. Russell, L. Chakhmakhchyan, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, New J. Phys. 19, 033007 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, Science 349, 711 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. L. O’Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vučković, Nat. Photonics 3, 687 (2009).
[Crossref]

Oguma, M.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, Science 349, 711 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pérez, D.

J. Capmany, I. Gasulla, and D. Pérez, Nat. Photonics 10, 6 (2016).
[Crossref]

Peter, N. T.

B. J. Smith, D. Kundys, N. T. Peter, and I. A. Walmsley, Opt. Express 17, 264 (2009).
[Crossref]

Prabhu, M.

Y. Shen, N. C. Harris, S. Skirlo, M. Prabhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, X. Sun, S. Zhao, H. Larochelle, D. Englund, and M. Soljačić, Nat. Photonics 11, 441 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rathje, J.

D. Zauner, K. Kulstad, J. Rathje, and M. Svalgaard, Electron. Lett. 34, 1582 (1998).
[Crossref]

Renema, J. J.

Russell, N. J.

N. J. Russell, L. Chakhmakhchyan, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, New J. Phys. 19, 033007 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, Science 349, 711 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sciarrino, F.

F. Flamini, N. Spagnolo, and F. Sciarrino, “Photonic quantum information processing: a review,” arXiv:1803.02790 (2018).

Shadbolt, P. J.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, Science 349, 711 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y.

Y. Shen, N. C. Harris, S. Skirlo, M. Prabhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, X. Sun, S. Zhao, H. Larochelle, D. Englund, and M. Soljačić, Nat. Photonics 11, 441 (2017).
[Crossref]

Silverstone, J. W.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, Science 349, 711 (2015).
[Crossref]

Skirlo, S.

Y. Shen, N. C. Harris, S. Skirlo, M. Prabhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, X. Sun, S. Zhao, H. Larochelle, D. Englund, and M. Soljačić, Nat. Photonics 11, 441 (2017).
[Crossref]

Smith, B. J.

B. J. Metcalf, J. B. Spring, P. C. Humphreys, N. Thomas-Peter, M. Barbieri, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, Nat. Photonics 8, 770 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. J. Smith, D. Kundys, N. T. Peter, and I. A. Walmsley, Opt. Express 17, 264 (2009).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. H.

Smith, P. G. R.

B. J. Metcalf, J. B. Spring, P. C. Humphreys, N. Thomas-Peter, M. Barbieri, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, Nat. Photonics 8, 770 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. O. Kundys, J. C. Gates, S. Dasgupta, C. B. E. Gawith, and P. G. R. Smith, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 947 (2009).
[Crossref]

Soljacic, M.

Y. Shen, N. C. Harris, S. Skirlo, M. Prabhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, X. Sun, S. Zhao, H. Larochelle, D. Englund, and M. Soljačić, Nat. Photonics 11, 441 (2017).
[Crossref]

Spagnolo, N.

F. Flamini, N. Spagnolo, and F. Sciarrino, “Photonic quantum information processing: a review,” arXiv:1803.02790 (2018).

Sparrow, C.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, Science 349, 711 (2015).
[Crossref]

Spring, J. B.

B. J. Metcalf, J. B. Spring, P. C. Humphreys, N. Thomas-Peter, M. Barbieri, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, Nat. Photonics 8, 770 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

Y. Shen, N. C. Harris, S. Skirlo, M. Prabhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, X. Sun, S. Zhao, H. Larochelle, D. Englund, and M. Soljačić, Nat. Photonics 11, 441 (2017).
[Crossref]

Svalgaard, M.

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Opt. Express (2)

Optica (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

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Science (1)

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Dataset for Modular Linear Optical Circuits, https://doi.org/10.5258/SOTON/D0474.

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       Supplementary material

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Three modules of our modular, reconfigurable quantum circuits are connected to build a large and programmable multiport interferometer with 20 inputs and outputs. This three-module device is glued to two fiber V-groove assemblies, and the phase shifters are controlled via electrical ribbon cables. The connectivity of the interferometer is determined by the number of modules.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Rendered impression of concatenated modular chips. The phase shifters are shown in red, and the waveguide pitch has been exaggerated for clarity. Each second chip is offset by one waveguide (127 μm) to form a multiport interferometer.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental results demonstrating the programmability of our three-chip device. (a) Our device can be configured to act as a 1 × 6 switch. The six relevant phase shifter pairs that we use to program the switch are schematically represented by red bars in the circuit. (b) Bar plots of the output intensities when the device is configured to switch the light towards a given output, for all six possible outputs. (c) Our device can also be configured to act as a balanced 3 × 3 interferometer (a tritter) using the four phase shifter pairs shown in this circuit. (d) Bar plots of the output intensities for all three inputs when the device is configured as a tritter. For experimental details, please see Sections 5 and 6 of Supplement 1.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Typical Measured Parameters of Interest for Fabricated Modular Chips, as Determined from Module Characterization, at an Operating Wavelength of 780 nm a

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