Abstract

The 2 μm wavelength band has become a promising candidate to be the next communication window. We demonstrate high-speed modulators based on a 220 nm silicon-on-insulator platform working at a wavelength of 1950 nm, using the free carrier plasma dispersion effect in silicon. A Mach–Zehnder interferometer modulator and a microring modulator have been characterized. At 1950 nm, the carrier-depletion modulator operates at a data rate of 20 Gbit/s with an extinction ratio of 5.8 dB and insertion loss of 13 dB. The modulation efficiency (Vπ·Lπ) is 2.68 V·cm at 4 V reverse bias. The device operation is broadband, and we also characterize its performance at 1550 nm. At 1550 nm, an open eye is obtained at 30 Gbit/s. The difference in bandwidth is caused by the bandwidth limit of the 2 μm measurement setup. We also show a ring modulator paired with a low power integrated driver working in hybrid carrier depletion and injection mode at a data rate of 3 Gbit/s with power consumption of 2.38 pJ/bit in the 2 μm wavelength range. This work is a proof of principle demonstration and paves a route toward a full silicon-based transceiver in the 2 μm window.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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References

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2016 (5)

2015 (7)

H. Zhang, N. Kavanagh, Z. Li, J. Zhao, N. Ye, Y. Chen, N. V. Wheeler, J. P. Wooler, J. R. Hayes, S. R. Sandoghchi, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, R. Phelan, J. O’Carroll, B. Kelly, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. J. Richardson, B. Corbett, and F. C. G. Gunning, “100  Gbit/s WDM transmission at 2  μm transmission studies in both low-loss hollow core photonic bandgap fiber and solid core fiber,” Opt. Express 23, 4946–4951 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Yahyaoui, N. Sfina, J.-L. Lazzari, A. Bournel, and M. Said, “Stark shift of the absorption spectra in Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge type-i single QW cell for mid-wavelength infra-red modulators,” Superlattices Microstruct. 85, 629–637 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared all-optical modulation in low-loss germanium-on-silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40, 268–271 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9, 393–396 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, Y. Chen, Z. Li, B. Kelly, R. Phelan, J. OCarroll, T. Bradley, J. P. Wooler, N. V. Wheeler, A. M. Heidt, T. Richter, C. Schubert, M. Becker, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. Ul Alam, D. J. Richardson, and R. Slavik, “High-capacity directly modulated optical transmitter for 2  μm spectral region,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1373–1379 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Group IV photonics: enabling 2  μm communications,” Nat. Photonics 9, 358–359 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Slavík, G. Marra, E. N. Fokoua, N. Baddela, N. V. Wheeler, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, “Ultralow thermal sensitivity of phase and propagation delay in hollow core optical fibres,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15447 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2  μm-25  μm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22, 10825–10830 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, N. Simakov, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Diode-pumped wideband thulium-doped fiber amplifiers for optical communications in the 1800-2050  nm window,” Opt. Express 21, 26450–26455 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, J. M. O. Daniel, Y. Jung, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Thulium-doped fiber amplifier for optical communications at 2  μm,” Opt. Express 21, 9289–9297 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Olanterä, C. Sigaud, J. Troska, F. Vasey, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, J. P. Wooler, and D. J. Richardson, “Gamma irradiation of minimal latency hollow-core photonic bandgap fibres,” J. Instrum. 8, C12010 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7, 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

M. A. V. Camp, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, S. M. Shank, P. M. Rice, T. Topuria, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of electrooptic modulation at 2165  nm using a silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Express 20, 28009–28016 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. D. Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electrorefraction and electroabsorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1-14-μm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 1171–1180 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

D. J. Richardson, “Filling the light pipe,” Science 330, 327–328 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

K. Nagayama, M. Kakui, M. Matsui, T. Saitoh, and Y. Chigusa, “Ultra-low-loss (0.1484  dB/km) pure silica core fibre and extension of transmission distance,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1168–1169 (2002).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Ackert, J. J.

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9, 393–396 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2  μm-25  μm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22, 10825–10830 (2014).
[Crossref]

Alam, S.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alam, S. U.

Alam, S.-U.

Assefa, S.

Baddela, N.

R. Slavík, G. Marra, E. N. Fokoua, N. Baddela, N. V. Wheeler, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, “Ultralow thermal sensitivity of phase and propagation delay in hollow core optical fibres,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15447 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7, 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. D. Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Banakar, M.

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017).

Barwicz, T.

Becker, M.

Bennett, B.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. D. Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bigo, S.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. D. Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bournel, A.

N. Yahyaoui, N. Sfina, J.-L. Lazzari, A. Bournel, and M. Said, “Stark shift of the absorption spectra in Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge type-i single QW cell for mid-wavelength infra-red modulators,” Superlattices Microstruct. 85, 629–637 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bradley, T.

Bradley, T. D.

Camp, M. A. V.

Cao, W.

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017).

Chen, D.

X. Xiao, M. Li, L. Wang, D. Chen, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “High speed silicon photonic modulators,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2017).

Chen, S.-W.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, Z. Liu, S. R. Sandoghchi, G. T. Jasion, T. D. Bradley, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, N. V. Wheeler, D. R. Gray, B. J. Mangan, R. Slavik, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Multi-kilometer long, longitudinally uniform hollow core photonic bandgap fibers for broadband low latency data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 104–113 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. U. Sadiq, H. Zhang, J. O’Callaghan, B. Roycroft, N. Kavanagh, K. Thomas, A. Gocalinska, Y. Chen, T. Bradley, J. R. Hayes, Z. Li, S.-U. Alam, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, E. Pelucchi, P. O’Brien, F. H. Peters, F. Gunning, and B. Corbett, “40  Gb/s WDM transmission over 1.15-km HC-PBGF using an InP-based Mach-Zehnder modulator at 2  μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 1706–1711 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, Y. Chen, Z. Li, B. Kelly, R. Phelan, J. OCarroll, T. Bradley, J. P. Wooler, N. V. Wheeler, A. M. Heidt, T. Richter, C. Schubert, M. Becker, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. Ul Alam, D. J. Richardson, and R. Slavik, “High-capacity directly modulated optical transmitter for 2  μm spectral region,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1373–1379 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, N. Kavanagh, Z. Li, J. Zhao, N. Ye, Y. Chen, N. V. Wheeler, J. P. Wooler, J. R. Hayes, S. R. Sandoghchi, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, R. Phelan, J. O’Carroll, B. Kelly, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. J. Richardson, B. Corbett, and F. C. G. Gunning, “100  Gbit/s WDM transmission at 2  μm transmission studies in both low-loss hollow core photonic bandgap fiber and solid core fiber,” Opt. Express 23, 4946–4951 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z.

Chigusa, Y.

K. Nagayama, M. Kakui, M. Matsui, T. Saitoh, and Y. Chigusa, “Ultra-low-loss (0.1484  dB/km) pure silica core fibre and extension of transmission distance,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1168–1169 (2002).
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Claes, T.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. D. Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
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Corbett, B.

Corzine, S.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
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Couny, F.

Daniel, J. M. O.

Dentai, A.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
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Desurvire, E.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. D. Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
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Ellis, A.

A. Ellis, D. Rafique, and S. Sygletos, “Capacity in fiber optic communications—the case for a radically new fiber,” in IEEE Photonic Society 24th Annual Meeting (IEEE, 2011).

Evans, P.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
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Fallahkhair, A. B.

Farr, L.

Fokoua, E. N.

Y. Chen, Z. Liu, S. R. Sandoghchi, G. T. Jasion, T. D. Bradley, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, N. V. Wheeler, D. R. Gray, B. J. Mangan, R. Slavik, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Multi-kilometer long, longitudinally uniform hollow core photonic bandgap fibers for broadband low latency data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 104–113 (2016).
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R. Slavík, G. Marra, E. N. Fokoua, N. Baddela, N. V. Wheeler, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, “Ultralow thermal sensitivity of phase and propagation delay in hollow core optical fibres,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15447 (2015).
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F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7, 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

Gallagher, M. T.

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
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T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017).

Gill, D. M.

Gocalinska, A.

Grabska, K.

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017).

Gray, D. R.

Y. Chen, Z. Liu, S. R. Sandoghchi, G. T. Jasion, T. D. Bradley, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, N. V. Wheeler, D. R. Gray, B. J. Mangan, R. Slavik, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Multi-kilometer long, longitudinally uniform hollow core photonic bandgap fibers for broadband low latency data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 104–113 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7, 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

Green, W. M. J.

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

Gunning, F.

Gunning, F. C. G.

Hagan, D. E.

D. E. Hagan and A. P. Knights, “Mechanisms for optical loss in SOI waveguides for mid-infrared wavelengths around 2  μm,” J. Opt. 19, 025801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hattasan, N.

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017).

Hayes, J. R.

Y. Chen, Z. Liu, S. R. Sandoghchi, G. T. Jasion, T. D. Bradley, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, N. V. Wheeler, D. R. Gray, B. J. Mangan, R. Slavik, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Multi-kilometer long, longitudinally uniform hollow core photonic bandgap fibers for broadband low latency data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 104–113 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. U. Sadiq, H. Zhang, J. O’Callaghan, B. Roycroft, N. Kavanagh, K. Thomas, A. Gocalinska, Y. Chen, T. Bradley, J. R. Hayes, Z. Li, S.-U. Alam, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, E. Pelucchi, P. O’Brien, F. H. Peters, F. Gunning, and B. Corbett, “40  Gb/s WDM transmission over 1.15-km HC-PBGF using an InP-based Mach-Zehnder modulator at 2  μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 1706–1711 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, N. Kavanagh, Z. Li, J. Zhao, N. Ye, Y. Chen, N. V. Wheeler, J. P. Wooler, J. R. Hayes, S. R. Sandoghchi, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, R. Phelan, J. O’Carroll, B. Kelly, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. J. Richardson, B. Corbett, and F. C. G. Gunning, “100  Gbit/s WDM transmission at 2  μm transmission studies in both low-loss hollow core photonic bandgap fiber and solid core fiber,” Opt. Express 23, 4946–4951 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7, 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

Healy, N.

Heidt, A. M.

Hensley, C. J.

Heyn, P. D.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. D. Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hsu, S. S.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huante-Ceron, E.

Jasion, G. T.

Jessop, P. E.

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9, 393–396 (2015).
[Crossref]

Joyner, C.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
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Jung, Y.

Kakui, M.

K. Nagayama, M. Kakui, M. Matsui, T. Saitoh, and Y. Chigusa, “Ultra-low-loss (0.1484  dB/km) pure silica core fibre and extension of transmission distance,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1168–1169 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kang, J.

Kato, M.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
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Kavanagh, N.

Kazmierski, C.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kelly, B.

Khokhar, A. Z.

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017).

Kish, F.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
[Crossref]

Knight, J. C.

Knights, A. P.

D. E. Hagan and A. P. Knights, “Mechanisms for optical loss in SOI waveguides for mid-infrared wavelengths around 2  μm,” J. Opt. 19, 025801 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9, 393–396 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2  μm-25  μm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22, 10825–10830 (2014).
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Koch, K. W.

Lazzari, J.-L.

N. Yahyaoui, N. Sfina, J.-L. Lazzari, A. Bournel, and M. Said, “Stark shift of the absorption spectra in Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge type-i single QW cell for mid-wavelength infra-red modulators,” Superlattices Microstruct. 85, 629–637 (2015).
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Lelarge, F.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
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Li, K.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
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Li, K. S.

Li, M.

X. Xiao, M. Li, L. Wang, D. Chen, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “High speed silicon photonic modulators,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2017).

Li, T.

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017).

Li, Z.

M. U. Sadiq, H. Zhang, J. O’Callaghan, B. Roycroft, N. Kavanagh, K. Thomas, A. Gocalinska, Y. Chen, T. Bradley, J. R. Hayes, Z. Li, S.-U. Alam, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, E. Pelucchi, P. O’Brien, F. H. Peters, F. Gunning, and B. Corbett, “40  Gb/s WDM transmission over 1.15-km HC-PBGF using an InP-based Mach-Zehnder modulator at 2  μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 1706–1711 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, Y. Chen, Z. Li, B. Kelly, R. Phelan, J. OCarroll, T. Bradley, J. P. Wooler, N. V. Wheeler, A. M. Heidt, T. Richter, C. Schubert, M. Becker, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. Ul Alam, D. J. Richardson, and R. Slavik, “High-capacity directly modulated optical transmitter for 2  μm spectral region,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1373–1379 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, N. Kavanagh, Z. Li, J. Zhao, N. Ye, Y. Chen, N. V. Wheeler, J. P. Wooler, J. R. Hayes, S. R. Sandoghchi, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, R. Phelan, J. O’Carroll, B. Kelly, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. J. Richardson, B. Corbett, and F. C. G. Gunning, “100  Gbit/s WDM transmission at 2  μm transmission studies in both low-loss hollow core photonic bandgap fiber and solid core fiber,” Opt. Express 23, 4946–4951 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, J. M. O. Daniel, Y. Jung, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Thulium-doped fiber amplifier for optical communications at 2  μm,” Opt. Express 21, 9289–9297 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, N. Simakov, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Diode-pumped wideband thulium-doped fiber amplifiers for optical communications in the 1800-2050  nm window,” Opt. Express 21, 26450–26455 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7, 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

Littlejohns, C. G.

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017).

Liu, S.

Liu, Z.

Loh, W.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mangan, B. J.

Marcadet, X.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
[Crossref]

Marra, G.

R. Slavík, G. Marra, E. N. Fokoua, N. Baddela, N. V. Wheeler, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, “Ultralow thermal sensitivity of phase and propagation delay in hollow core optical fibres,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15447 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mashanovich, G. Z.

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9, 393–396 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared all-optical modulation in low-loss germanium-on-silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40, 268–271 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2  μm-25  μm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22, 10825–10830 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electrorefraction and electroabsorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1-14-μm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 1171–1180 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017).

Mason, M. W.

Mastronardi, L.

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017).

Matsui, M.

K. Nagayama, M. Kakui, M. Matsui, T. Saitoh, and Y. Chigusa, “Ultra-low-loss (0.1484  dB/km) pure silica core fibre and extension of transmission distance,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1168–1169 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mitchell, C. J.

Murphy, T. E.

Muthiah, R.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nagarajan, R.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nagayama, K.

K. Nagayama, M. Kakui, M. Matsui, T. Saitoh, and Y. Chigusa, “Ultra-low-loss (0.1484  dB/km) pure silica core fibre and extension of transmission distance,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1168–1169 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nakazawa, M.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nedeljkovic, M.

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared all-optical modulation in low-loss germanium-on-silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40, 268–271 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2  μm-25  μm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22, 10825–10830 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electrorefraction and electroabsorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1-14-μm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 1171–1180 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017).

O’Brien, P.

O’Callaghan, J.

O’Carroll, J.

OCarroll, J.

Olanterä, L.

L. Olanterä, C. Sigaud, J. Troska, F. Vasey, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, J. P. Wooler, and D. J. Richardson, “Gamma irradiation of minimal latency hollow-core photonic bandgap fibres,” J. Instrum. 8, C12010 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ouzounov, D. G.

Payne, D.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
[Crossref]

Peacock, A. C.

Pelucchi, E.

Penades, J. S.

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared all-optical modulation in low-loss germanium-on-silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40, 268–271 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017).

Peters, F. H.

Petrovich, M.

R. Slavík, G. Marra, E. N. Fokoua, N. Baddela, N. V. Wheeler, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, “Ultralow thermal sensitivity of phase and propagation delay in hollow core optical fibres,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15447 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
[Crossref]

Petrovich, M. N.

M. U. Sadiq, H. Zhang, J. O’Callaghan, B. Roycroft, N. Kavanagh, K. Thomas, A. Gocalinska, Y. Chen, T. Bradley, J. R. Hayes, Z. Li, S.-U. Alam, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, E. Pelucchi, P. O’Brien, F. H. Peters, F. Gunning, and B. Corbett, “40  Gb/s WDM transmission over 1.15-km HC-PBGF using an InP-based Mach-Zehnder modulator at 2  μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 1706–1711 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Z. Liu, S. R. Sandoghchi, G. T. Jasion, T. D. Bradley, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, N. V. Wheeler, D. R. Gray, B. J. Mangan, R. Slavik, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Multi-kilometer long, longitudinally uniform hollow core photonic bandgap fibers for broadband low latency data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 104–113 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, Y. Chen, Z. Li, B. Kelly, R. Phelan, J. OCarroll, T. Bradley, J. P. Wooler, N. V. Wheeler, A. M. Heidt, T. Richter, C. Schubert, M. Becker, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. Ul Alam, D. J. Richardson, and R. Slavik, “High-capacity directly modulated optical transmitter for 2  μm spectral region,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1373–1379 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, N. Kavanagh, Z. Li, J. Zhao, N. Ye, Y. Chen, N. V. Wheeler, J. P. Wooler, J. R. Hayes, S. R. Sandoghchi, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, R. Phelan, J. O’Carroll, B. Kelly, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. J. Richardson, B. Corbett, and F. C. G. Gunning, “100  Gbit/s WDM transmission at 2  μm transmission studies in both low-loss hollow core photonic bandgap fiber and solid core fiber,” Opt. Express 23, 4946–4951 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7, 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Olanterä, C. Sigaud, J. Troska, F. Vasey, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, J. P. Wooler, and D. J. Richardson, “Gamma irradiation of minimal latency hollow-core photonic bandgap fibres,” J. Instrum. 8, C12010 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phelan, R.

Pleumeekers, J.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
[Crossref]

Poletti, F.

M. U. Sadiq, H. Zhang, J. O’Callaghan, B. Roycroft, N. Kavanagh, K. Thomas, A. Gocalinska, Y. Chen, T. Bradley, J. R. Hayes, Z. Li, S.-U. Alam, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, E. Pelucchi, P. O’Brien, F. H. Peters, F. Gunning, and B. Corbett, “40  Gb/s WDM transmission over 1.15-km HC-PBGF using an InP-based Mach-Zehnder modulator at 2  μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 1706–1711 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Z. Liu, S. R. Sandoghchi, G. T. Jasion, T. D. Bradley, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, N. V. Wheeler, D. R. Gray, B. J. Mangan, R. Slavik, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Multi-kilometer long, longitudinally uniform hollow core photonic bandgap fibers for broadband low latency data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 104–113 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, Y. Chen, Z. Li, B. Kelly, R. Phelan, J. OCarroll, T. Bradley, J. P. Wooler, N. V. Wheeler, A. M. Heidt, T. Richter, C. Schubert, M. Becker, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. Ul Alam, D. J. Richardson, and R. Slavik, “High-capacity directly modulated optical transmitter for 2  μm spectral region,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1373–1379 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, N. Kavanagh, Z. Li, J. Zhao, N. Ye, Y. Chen, N. V. Wheeler, J. P. Wooler, J. R. Hayes, S. R. Sandoghchi, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, R. Phelan, J. O’Carroll, B. Kelly, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. J. Richardson, B. Corbett, and F. C. G. Gunning, “100  Gbit/s WDM transmission at 2  μm transmission studies in both low-loss hollow core photonic bandgap fiber and solid core fiber,” Opt. Express 23, 4946–4951 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Slavík, G. Marra, E. N. Fokoua, N. Baddela, N. V. Wheeler, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, “Ultralow thermal sensitivity of phase and propagation delay in hollow core optical fibres,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15447 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Olanterä, C. Sigaud, J. Troska, F. Vasey, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, J. P. Wooler, and D. J. Richardson, “Gamma irradiation of minimal latency hollow-core photonic bandgap fibres,” J. Instrum. 8, C12010 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7, 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
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Qu, Z.

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017).

Rafique, D.

A. Ellis, D. Rafique, and S. Sygletos, “Capacity in fiber optic communications—the case for a radically new fiber,” in IEEE Photonic Society 24th Annual Meeting (IEEE, 2011).

Reed, G. T.

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9, 393–396 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017).

Reynolds, S. A.

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017).

Rice, P. M.

Richardson, D.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
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Richardson, D. J.

M. U. Sadiq, H. Zhang, J. O’Callaghan, B. Roycroft, N. Kavanagh, K. Thomas, A. Gocalinska, Y. Chen, T. Bradley, J. R. Hayes, Z. Li, S.-U. Alam, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, E. Pelucchi, P. O’Brien, F. H. Peters, F. Gunning, and B. Corbett, “40  Gb/s WDM transmission over 1.15-km HC-PBGF using an InP-based Mach-Zehnder modulator at 2  μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 1706–1711 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Z. Liu, S. R. Sandoghchi, G. T. Jasion, T. D. Bradley, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, N. V. Wheeler, D. R. Gray, B. J. Mangan, R. Slavik, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Multi-kilometer long, longitudinally uniform hollow core photonic bandgap fibers for broadband low latency data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 104–113 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, Y. Chen, Z. Li, B. Kelly, R. Phelan, J. OCarroll, T. Bradley, J. P. Wooler, N. V. Wheeler, A. M. Heidt, T. Richter, C. Schubert, M. Becker, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. Ul Alam, D. J. Richardson, and R. Slavik, “High-capacity directly modulated optical transmitter for 2  μm spectral region,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1373–1379 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, N. Kavanagh, Z. Li, J. Zhao, N. Ye, Y. Chen, N. V. Wheeler, J. P. Wooler, J. R. Hayes, S. R. Sandoghchi, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, R. Phelan, J. O’Carroll, B. Kelly, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. J. Richardson, B. Corbett, and F. C. G. Gunning, “100  Gbit/s WDM transmission at 2  μm transmission studies in both low-loss hollow core photonic bandgap fiber and solid core fiber,” Opt. Express 23, 4946–4951 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Slavík, G. Marra, E. N. Fokoua, N. Baddela, N. V. Wheeler, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, “Ultralow thermal sensitivity of phase and propagation delay in hollow core optical fibres,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15447 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7, 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Olanterä, C. Sigaud, J. Troska, F. Vasey, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, J. P. Wooler, and D. J. Richardson, “Gamma irradiation of minimal latency hollow-core photonic bandgap fibres,” J. Instrum. 8, C12010 (2013).
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Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, J. M. O. Daniel, Y. Jung, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Thulium-doped fiber amplifier for optical communications at 2  μm,” Opt. Express 21, 9289–9297 (2013).
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Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, N. Simakov, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Diode-pumped wideband thulium-doped fiber amplifiers for optical communications in the 1800-2050  nm window,” Opt. Express 21, 26450–26455 (2013).
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D. J. Richardson, “Filling the light pipe,” Science 330, 327–328 (2010).
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Richter, T.

Roberts, P. J.

Roycroft, B.

Russell, P. St. J.

Sabert, H.

Sadiq, M. U.

Said, M.

N. Yahyaoui, N. Sfina, J.-L. Lazzari, A. Bournel, and M. Said, “Stark shift of the absorption spectra in Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge type-i single QW cell for mid-wavelength infra-red modulators,” Superlattices Microstruct. 85, 629–637 (2015).
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Saitoh, T.

K. Nagayama, M. Kakui, M. Matsui, T. Saitoh, and Y. Chigusa, “Ultra-low-loss (0.1484  dB/km) pure silica core fibre and extension of transmission distance,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1168–1169 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sandoghchi, S. R.

Scavennec, A.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
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Schneider, R.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
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Schubert, C.

Selvaraja, S. K.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. D. Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
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Sfina, N.

N. Yahyaoui, N. Sfina, J.-L. Lazzari, A. Bournel, and M. Said, “Stark shift of the absorption spectra in Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge type-i single QW cell for mid-wavelength infra-red modulators,” Superlattices Microstruct. 85, 629–637 (2015).
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Shank, S. M.

Shen, L.

Sigaud, C.

L. Olanterä, C. Sigaud, J. Troska, F. Vasey, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, J. P. Wooler, and D. J. Richardson, “Gamma irradiation of minimal latency hollow-core photonic bandgap fibres,” J. Instrum. 8, C12010 (2013).
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Simakov, N.

Slavik, R.

Slavík, R.

R. Slavík, G. Marra, E. N. Fokoua, N. Baddela, N. V. Wheeler, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, “Ultralow thermal sensitivity of phase and propagation delay in hollow core optical fibres,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15447 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7, 279–284 (2013).
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Soref, R.

R. Soref, “Group IV photonics: enabling 2  μm communications,” Nat. Photonics 9, 358–359 (2015).
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M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electrorefraction and electroabsorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1-14-μm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 1171–1180 (2011).
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Stankovic, S.

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017).

Sygletos, S.

A. Ellis, D. Rafique, and S. Sygletos, “Capacity in fiber optic communications—the case for a radically new fiber,” in IEEE Photonic Society 24th Annual Meeting (IEEE, 2011).

Takagi, S.

Takenaka, M.

Thomas, K.

Thomson, D. J.

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9, 393–396 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2  μm-25  μm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22, 10825–10830 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017).

Thourhout, D. V.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. D. Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tomlinson, A.

Topuria, T.

Troska, J.

L. Olanterä, C. Sigaud, J. Troska, F. Vasey, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, J. P. Wooler, and D. J. Richardson, “Gamma irradiation of minimal latency hollow-core photonic bandgap fibres,” J. Instrum. 8, C12010 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tsang, H.

Ul Alam, S.

Vaerenbergh, T. V.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. D. Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vasey, F.

L. Olanterä, C. Sigaud, J. Troska, F. Vasey, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, J. P. Wooler, and D. J. Richardson, “Gamma irradiation of minimal latency hollow-core photonic bandgap fibres,” J. Instrum. 8, C12010 (2013).
[Crossref]

Venkataraman, N.

Vos, K. D.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. D. Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

X. Xiao, M. Li, L. Wang, D. Chen, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “High speed silicon photonic modulators,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2017).

Welch, D.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wheeler, N. V.

Y. Chen, Z. Liu, S. R. Sandoghchi, G. T. Jasion, T. D. Bradley, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, N. V. Wheeler, D. R. Gray, B. J. Mangan, R. Slavik, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Multi-kilometer long, longitudinally uniform hollow core photonic bandgap fibers for broadband low latency data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 104–113 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, Y. Chen, Z. Li, B. Kelly, R. Phelan, J. OCarroll, T. Bradley, J. P. Wooler, N. V. Wheeler, A. M. Heidt, T. Richter, C. Schubert, M. Becker, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. Ul Alam, D. J. Richardson, and R. Slavik, “High-capacity directly modulated optical transmitter for 2  μm spectral region,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1373–1379 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, N. Kavanagh, Z. Li, J. Zhao, N. Ye, Y. Chen, N. V. Wheeler, J. P. Wooler, J. R. Hayes, S. R. Sandoghchi, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, R. Phelan, J. O’Carroll, B. Kelly, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. J. Richardson, B. Corbett, and F. C. G. Gunning, “100  Gbit/s WDM transmission at 2  μm transmission studies in both low-loss hollow core photonic bandgap fiber and solid core fiber,” Opt. Express 23, 4946–4951 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Slavík, G. Marra, E. N. Fokoua, N. Baddela, N. V. Wheeler, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, “Ultralow thermal sensitivity of phase and propagation delay in hollow core optical fibres,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15447 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Olanterä, C. Sigaud, J. Troska, F. Vasey, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, J. P. Wooler, and D. J. Richardson, “Gamma irradiation of minimal latency hollow-core photonic bandgap fibres,” J. Instrum. 8, C12010 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7, 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

Williams, D. P.

Wilson, P. R.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wooler, J. P.

Wu, H.

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017).

Xiao, X.

X. Xiao, M. Li, L. Wang, D. Chen, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “High speed silicon photonic modulators,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2017).

Xu, K.

Yahyaoui, N.

N. Yahyaoui, N. Sfina, J.-L. Lazzari, A. Bournel, and M. Said, “Stark shift of the absorption spectra in Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge type-i single QW cell for mid-wavelength infra-red modulators,” Superlattices Microstruct. 85, 629–637 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q.

X. Xiao, M. Li, L. Wang, D. Chen, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “High speed silicon photonic modulators,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2017).

Ye, N.

Yu, S.

X. Xiao, M. Li, L. Wang, D. Chen, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “High speed silicon photonic modulators,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2017).

Zhang, H.

Zhao, J.

Zhou, Z.

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017).

Ziari, M.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. R. Physique (1)

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, S. Corzine, M. Kato, P. Evans, M. Ziari, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, S. Alam, W. Loh, and D. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Physique 12, 387–416 (2011).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Nagayama, M. Kakui, M. Matsui, T. Saitoh, and Y. Chigusa, “Ultra-low-loss (0.1484  dB/km) pure silica core fibre and extension of transmission distance,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1168–1169 (2002).
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M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electrorefraction and electroabsorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1-14-μm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 1171–1180 (2011).
[Crossref]

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L. Olanterä, C. Sigaud, J. Troska, F. Vasey, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, J. P. Wooler, and D. J. Richardson, “Gamma irradiation of minimal latency hollow-core photonic bandgap fibres,” J. Instrum. 8, C12010 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Z. Liu, Y. Chen, Z. Li, B. Kelly, R. Phelan, J. OCarroll, T. Bradley, J. P. Wooler, N. V. Wheeler, A. M. Heidt, T. Richter, C. Schubert, M. Becker, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. Ul Alam, D. J. Richardson, and R. Slavik, “High-capacity directly modulated optical transmitter for 2  μm spectral region,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1373–1379 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Z. Liu, S. R. Sandoghchi, G. T. Jasion, T. D. Bradley, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, N. V. Wheeler, D. R. Gray, B. J. Mangan, R. Slavik, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Multi-kilometer long, longitudinally uniform hollow core photonic bandgap fibers for broadband low latency data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 104–113 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. U. Sadiq, H. Zhang, J. O’Callaghan, B. Roycroft, N. Kavanagh, K. Thomas, A. Gocalinska, Y. Chen, T. Bradley, J. R. Hayes, Z. Li, S.-U. Alam, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, E. Pelucchi, P. O’Brien, F. H. Peters, F. Gunning, and B. Corbett, “40  Gb/s WDM transmission over 1.15-km HC-PBGF using an InP-based Mach-Zehnder modulator at 2  μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 1706–1711 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, K. Xu, Q. Song, Z. Cheng, and H. Tsang, “Design of mid-infrared electro-optic modulators based on aluminum nitride waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 3837–3842 (2016).
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D. E. Hagan and A. P. Knights, “Mechanisms for optical loss in SOI waveguides for mid-infrared wavelengths around 2  μm,” J. Opt. 19, 025801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. D. Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nanophotonics (1)

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9, 393–396 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7, 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Group IV photonics: enabling 2  μm communications,” Nat. Photonics 9, 358–359 (2015).
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Opt. Express (8)

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, N. Simakov, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Diode-pumped wideband thulium-doped fiber amplifiers for optical communications in the 1800-2050  nm window,” Opt. Express 21, 26450–26455 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, J. M. O. Daniel, Y. Jung, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Thulium-doped fiber amplifier for optical communications at 2  μm,” Opt. Express 21, 9289–9297 (2013).
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C. J. Hensley, D. G. Ouzounov, A. L. Gaeta, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, and K. W. Koch, “Silica-glass contribution to the effective nonlinearity of hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Opt. Express 15, 3507–3512 (2007).
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H. Zhang, N. Kavanagh, Z. Li, J. Zhao, N. Ye, Y. Chen, N. V. Wheeler, J. P. Wooler, J. R. Hayes, S. R. Sandoghchi, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, R. Phelan, J. O’Carroll, B. Kelly, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. J. Richardson, B. Corbett, and F. C. G. Gunning, “100  Gbit/s WDM transmission at 2  μm transmission studies in both low-loss hollow core photonic bandgap fiber and solid core fiber,” Opt. Express 23, 4946–4951 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2  μm-25  μm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22, 10825–10830 (2014).
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J. Kang, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Novel Ge waveguide platform on Ge-on-insulator wafer for mid-infrared photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 24, 11855–11864 (2016).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

R. Slavík, G. Marra, E. N. Fokoua, N. Baddela, N. V. Wheeler, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, “Ultralow thermal sensitivity of phase and propagation delay in hollow core optical fibres,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15447 (2015).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. J. Richardson, “Filling the light pipe,” Science 330, 327–328 (2010).
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Superlattices Microstruct. (1)

N. Yahyaoui, N. Sfina, J.-L. Lazzari, A. Bournel, and M. Said, “Stark shift of the absorption spectra in Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge type-i single QW cell for mid-wavelength infra-red modulators,” Superlattices Microstruct. 85, 629–637 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

T. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Hattasan, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, S. Stankovic, M. Banakar, W. Cao, Z. Qu, C. G. Littlejohns, J. S. Penades, K. Grabska, L. Mastronardi, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, H. Wu, Z. Zhou, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared Ge-on-Si electro-absorption modulator,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2017).

A. Ellis, D. Rafique, and S. Sygletos, “Capacity in fiber optic communications—the case for a radically new fiber,” in IEEE Photonic Society 24th Annual Meeting (IEEE, 2011).

X. Xiao, M. Li, L. Wang, D. Chen, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “High speed silicon photonic modulators,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2017).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Cross-section of the phase shifter for MZI and ring modulator.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Mode analysis of a rib waveguide in the 220 nm SOI platform with 90 nm slab thickness. The calculated loss does not consider roughness. (a) Simulated optical mode effective refractive index with fixed waveguide width of 550 nm. (b) Simulated optical mode loss with fixed waveguide width of 550 nm. (c) Simulated optical mode effective refractive index with fixed wavelength of 1950 nm. (d) Simulated optical mode loss with fixed wavelength of 1950 nm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Simulated net carrier concentration of the phase shifter under various reverse biases. (a) Reverse bias 0 V. (b) Reverse bias 2 V. (c) Reverse bias 4 V.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Simulated effective refractive index change and loss of a phase shifter with the adopted design due to carrier effect under 4 V reverse bias across the 1450–2250 nm wavelength range. The blue line shows the refractive index change for the 550 nm wide waveguide. The light gray line shows the refractive index change for a waveguide width optimized at each wavelength, with a width ranging from 450–650 nm. The red-dotted line shows loss with the adopted 550 nm wide waveguide. The dark blue-dashed line is the simulated loss from a similar phase shifter design but with larger 1.7 μm S dop P and S dop N to serve as the reference loss of the low-doped region.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. MZI modulator phase shifter simulation in 1950 nm. (a) Simulated loss versus high concentration doping separation with fixed junction offset 0. (b) Simulated L π versus high concentration doping separation with fixed junction offset 0. (c) Simulated loss versus junction offset with fixed high concentration doping separation ( S dop N ) 1.125 μm for n + and ( S dop P ) 1.025 μm for p + . (d) Simulated L π versus high concentration doping separation with fixed junction offset 0.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Optical microscope image of the MZI modulator.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Optical microscope image of the ring modulator.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. High-speed RF measurement set up for 2 μm wavelength modulator.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Experimental and simulated phase shift for a MZI modulator with 0.15 cm long phase shifter. (a) Phase shift at 1550 nm. (b) Phase shift at 1950 nm.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Eye diagram for MZI modulator at data rate of 20 Gb/s at 1950 nm wavelength. Extinction ratio is 5.8 dB.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Eye diagram for MZI modulator at 1550 nm wavelength. (a) Data rate is 20 Gb/s, extinction ratio is 10.3 dB. (b) Data rate is 30 Gb/s, extinction ratio is 7.1 dB.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Experiment and simulated resonance shift for a 10 μm radius ring modulator with 64% PN junction coverage for a wavelength of 1937 nm.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. DC characterization results for the microring modulator. (a) Ring response shift under various forward bias voltages. (b) Extinction ratio of the transmitted power between 0–1.5 V forward bias.
Fig. 14.
Fig. 14. Eye diagrams for the microring modulator at 1954 nm wavelength. (a) Data rate is 1 Gb/s, extinction ratio is 4.14 dB. (b) Data rate is 3 Gb/s, extinction ratio is 2.30 dB.

Equations (4)

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Δ n ( 2    μm ) = Δ n e ( 2    μm ) + Δ n h ( 2    μm ) = 1.91 × 10 21 × Δ N e 0.992 + 2.28 × 10 18 × Δ N h 0.841 ,
Δ α ( 2    μm ) = Δ α e ( 2    μm ) + Δ α h ( 2    μm ) = 3.22 × 10 20 × Δ N e 1.149 + 6.21 × 10 20 × Δ N h 1.119 ,
V π L π = V · FSR · π R Δ λ ,
Δ λ res = Δ n eff · λ res n g ,

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