Abstract

Systematic understanding and real-time feedback capability for x-ray free electron laser (FEL) accelerator and optical components are critical for scientific experiments and instrument performance. Single-shot wavefront sensing enables characterization of the intensity and local electric field distribution at the sample plane, something that is important for understanding scientific experiments such as nonlinear studies. It can also provide feedback for alignment and tuning of the FEL beam and instrumentation optics, leading to optimal instrument performance and greater operational efficiency. A robust, sensitive, and accurate single-shot wavefront sensor for x-ray FEL beams using single grating Talbot interferometry has been developed. Experiments performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) demonstrate 3σ sensitivity and accuracy, both better than λ/100, and retrieval of hard x-ray (λ=0.13  nm, E=9.5  keV) wavefronts in 3D. Exhibiting high performance from both unfocused and focused beams, the same setup can be used to systematically study the wavefront from the FEL output, beam transport optics, and endstation focusing optics. This technique can be extended for use with softer and harder x rays with modified grating configurations.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (2)

T. Ling, J. Jiang, R. Zhang, and Y. Yang, “Quadriwave lateral shearing interferometric microscopy with wideband sensitivity enhancement for quantitative phase imaging in real time,” Sci. Rep. 7, 9 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect x-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

C. Hardin, V. N. Srinivasan, L. Amores, N. M. Kelez, D. Morton, P. M. Stefan, J. Nicolas, L. Zhang, and D. Cocco, “Optimizing x-ray mirror thermal performance using variable length cooling for second generation FELs,” Proc. SPIE 9965, 996505 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Keitel, E. Plönjes, S. Kreis, M. Kuhlmann, K. Tiedtke, T. Mey, B. Schäfer, and K. Mann, “Hartmann wavefront sensors and their application at FLASH,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 23, 43–49 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Assoufid, X. Shi, S. Marathea, E. Benda, M. J. Wojcik, K. Lang, R. Xu, W. Liu, A. T. Macrander, and J. Z. Tischler, “Development and implementation of a portable grating interferometer system as a standard tool for testing optics at the Advanced Photon Source beamline 1-BM,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 052004 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Pellegrini, A. Marinelli, and S. Reiche, “The physics of x-ray free-electron lasers,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 015006 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Bostedt, S. Boutet, D. M. Fritz, Z. Huang, H. J. Lee, H. T. Lemke, A. Robert, W. F. Schlotter, J. J. Turner, and G. J. Williams, “Linac coherent light source: the first five years,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 015007 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Kayser, S. Rutishauser, T. Katayama, T. Kameshima, H. Ohashi, U. Flechsig, M. Yabashi, and C. David, “Shot-to-shot diagnostic of the longitudinal photon source position at the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free Electron Laser by means of x-ray grating interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 41, 733–736 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, and P. Cloetens, “X-ray pulse wavefront metrology using speckle tracking,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 886–894 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Morimoto, S. Fujino, A. Yamazaki, Y. Ito, T. Hosoi, H. Watanabe, and T. Shimura, “Two dimensional x-ray phase imaging using single grating interferometer with embedded x-ray targets,” Opt. Express 23, 16582–16588 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Chollet, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Cammarata, D. Damiani, J. Defever, J. T. Delor, Y. Feng, J. M. Glownia, J. B. Langton, S. Nelson, K. Ramsey, A. Robert, M. Sikorski, S. Song, D. Stefanescu, V. Srinivasan, D. Zhu, H. T. Lemke, and D. M. Fritz, “The x-ray pump-probe instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 503–507 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Mochi and K. A. Goldberg, “Modal wavefront reconstruction from its gradient,” Appl. Opt. 54, 3780–3785 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

P. C. L. Stephenson, “Recurrence relations for the Cartesian derivatives of the Zernike polynomials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 708–715 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Zhu, Y. Feng, S. Stoupin, S. A. Terentyev, H. T. Lemke, D. M. Fritz, M. Chollet, J. M. Glownia, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Sikorski, S. Song, T. B. van Driel, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, S. Boutet, V. D. Blank, Y. V. Shvyd’ko, and A. Robert, “Performance of a beam-multiplexing diamond crystal monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 063106 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Idir, K. Kaznatcheev, G. Dovillaire, J. Legrand, and R. Rungsawang, “A 2 D high accuracy slope measuring system based on a stitching Shack Hartmann optical head,” Opt. Express 22, 2770–2781 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

J. Rizzi, P. Mercère, M. Idir, P. Da Silva, G. Vincent, and J. Primot, “X-ray phase contrast imaging and noise evaluation using a single phase grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 21, 17340–17351 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, F. Berenguer, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21, 13592–13606 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

S. Rutishauser, L. Samoylova, J. Krzywinski, O. Bunk, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, and C. David, “Exploring the wavefront of hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation,” Nat. Commun. 3, 947 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard x-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Tono, T. Kudo, M. Yabashi, T. Tachibana, Y. Feng, D. Fritz, J. Hastings, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-shot beam-position monitor for x-ray free electron laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 023108 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2000 (1)

1982 (1)

Alonso-Mori, R.

M. Chollet, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Cammarata, D. Damiani, J. Defever, J. T. Delor, Y. Feng, J. M. Glownia, J. B. Langton, S. Nelson, K. Ramsey, A. Robert, M. Sikorski, S. Song, D. Stefanescu, V. Srinivasan, D. Zhu, H. T. Lemke, and D. M. Fritz, “The x-ray pump-probe instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 503–507 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Zhu, Y. Feng, S. Stoupin, S. A. Terentyev, H. T. Lemke, D. M. Fritz, M. Chollet, J. M. Glownia, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Sikorski, S. Song, T. B. van Driel, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, S. Boutet, V. D. Blank, Y. V. Shvyd’ko, and A. Robert, “Performance of a beam-multiplexing diamond crystal monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 063106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Amores, L.

C. Hardin, V. N. Srinivasan, L. Amores, N. M. Kelez, D. Morton, P. M. Stefan, J. Nicolas, L. Zhang, and D. Cocco, “Optimizing x-ray mirror thermal performance using variable length cooling for second generation FELs,” Proc. SPIE 9965, 996505 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arnold, B.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref]

Assoufid, L.

L. Assoufid, X. Shi, S. Marathea, E. Benda, M. J. Wojcik, K. Lang, R. Xu, W. Liu, A. T. Macrander, and J. Z. Tischler, “Development and implementation of a portable grating interferometer system as a standard tool for testing optics at the Advanced Photon Source beamline 1-BM,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 052004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Attwood, D.

D. Attwood and A. Sakdinawat, X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University, 2017).

Baker, S. L.

Barrett, R.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard x-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
[Crossref]

Barty, A.

Bean, R.

Benda, E.

L. Assoufid, X. Shi, S. Marathea, E. Benda, M. J. Wojcik, K. Lang, R. Xu, W. Liu, A. T. Macrander, and J. Z. Tischler, “Development and implementation of a portable grating interferometer system as a standard tool for testing optics at the Advanced Photon Source beamline 1-BM,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 052004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Berenguer, F.

Berujon, S.

S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, and P. Cloetens, “X-ray pulse wavefront metrology using speckle tracking,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 886–894 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bionta, R.

Blank, V. D.

D. Zhu, Y. Feng, S. Stoupin, S. A. Terentyev, H. T. Lemke, D. M. Fritz, M. Chollet, J. M. Glownia, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Sikorski, S. Song, T. B. van Driel, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, S. Boutet, V. D. Blank, Y. V. Shvyd’ko, and A. Robert, “Performance of a beam-multiplexing diamond crystal monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 063106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boesenberg, U.

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect x-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bon, P.

Bostedt, C.

C. Bostedt, S. Boutet, D. M. Fritz, Z. Huang, H. J. Lee, H. T. Lemke, A. Robert, W. F. Schlotter, J. J. Turner, and G. J. Williams, “Linac coherent light source: the first five years,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 015007 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boutet, S.

C. Bostedt, S. Boutet, D. M. Fritz, Z. Huang, H. J. Lee, H. T. Lemke, A. Robert, W. F. Schlotter, J. J. Turner, and G. J. Williams, “Linac coherent light source: the first five years,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 015007 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Zhu, Y. Feng, S. Stoupin, S. A. Terentyev, H. T. Lemke, D. M. Fritz, M. Chollet, J. M. Glownia, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Sikorski, S. Song, T. B. van Driel, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, S. Boutet, V. D. Blank, Y. V. Shvyd’ko, and A. Robert, “Performance of a beam-multiplexing diamond crystal monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 063106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bunk, O.

S. Rutishauser, L. Samoylova, J. Krzywinski, O. Bunk, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, and C. David, “Exploring the wavefront of hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation,” Nat. Commun. 3, 947 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard x-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
[Crossref]

Burian, T.

Cammarata, M.

M. Chollet, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Cammarata, D. Damiani, J. Defever, J. T. Delor, Y. Feng, J. M. Glownia, J. B. Langton, S. Nelson, K. Ramsey, A. Robert, M. Sikorski, S. Song, D. Stefanescu, V. Srinivasan, D. Zhu, H. T. Lemke, and D. M. Fritz, “The x-ray pump-probe instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 503–507 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Rutishauser, L. Samoylova, J. Krzywinski, O. Bunk, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, and C. David, “Exploring the wavefront of hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation,” Nat. Commun. 3, 947 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard x-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chalupský, J.

Chanteloup, J.-C.

Chen, B.

Chollet, M.

M. Chollet, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Cammarata, D. Damiani, J. Defever, J. T. Delor, Y. Feng, J. M. Glownia, J. B. Langton, S. Nelson, K. Ramsey, A. Robert, M. Sikorski, S. Song, D. Stefanescu, V. Srinivasan, D. Zhu, H. T. Lemke, and D. M. Fritz, “The x-ray pump-probe instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 503–507 (2015).
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D. Zhu, Y. Feng, S. Stoupin, S. A. Terentyev, H. T. Lemke, D. M. Fritz, M. Chollet, J. M. Glownia, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Sikorski, S. Song, T. B. van Driel, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, S. Boutet, V. D. Blank, Y. V. Shvyd’ko, and A. Robert, “Performance of a beam-multiplexing diamond crystal monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 063106 (2014).
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Cihelka, J.

Cloetens, P.

S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, and P. Cloetens, “X-ray pulse wavefront metrology using speckle tracking,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 886–894 (2015).
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Cocco, D.

C. Hardin, V. N. Srinivasan, L. Amores, N. M. Kelez, D. Morton, P. M. Stefan, J. Nicolas, L. Zhang, and D. Cocco, “Optimizing x-ray mirror thermal performance using variable length cooling for second generation FELs,” Proc. SPIE 9965, 996505 (2016).
[Crossref]

Da Silva, P.

Damiani, D.

M. Chollet, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Cammarata, D. Damiani, J. Defever, J. T. Delor, Y. Feng, J. M. Glownia, J. B. Langton, S. Nelson, K. Ramsey, A. Robert, M. Sikorski, S. Song, D. Stefanescu, V. Srinivasan, D. Zhu, H. T. Lemke, and D. M. Fritz, “The x-ray pump-probe instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 503–507 (2015).
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David, C.

Y. Kayser, S. Rutishauser, T. Katayama, T. Kameshima, H. Ohashi, U. Flechsig, M. Yabashi, and C. David, “Shot-to-shot diagnostic of the longitudinal photon source position at the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free Electron Laser by means of x-ray grating interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 41, 733–736 (2016).
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S. Rutishauser, L. Samoylova, J. Krzywinski, O. Bunk, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, and C. David, “Exploring the wavefront of hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation,” Nat. Commun. 3, 947 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard x-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
[Crossref]

Defever, J.

M. Chollet, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Cammarata, D. Damiani, J. Defever, J. T. Delor, Y. Feng, J. M. Glownia, J. B. Langton, S. Nelson, K. Ramsey, A. Robert, M. Sikorski, S. Song, D. Stefanescu, V. Srinivasan, D. Zhu, H. T. Lemke, and D. M. Fritz, “The x-ray pump-probe instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 503–507 (2015).
[Crossref]

Delor, J. T.

M. Chollet, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Cammarata, D. Damiani, J. Defever, J. T. Delor, Y. Feng, J. M. Glownia, J. B. Langton, S. Nelson, K. Ramsey, A. Robert, M. Sikorski, S. Song, D. Stefanescu, V. Srinivasan, D. Zhu, H. T. Lemke, and D. M. Fritz, “The x-ray pump-probe instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 503–507 (2015).
[Crossref]

Diaz, A.

Dovillaire, G.

Dunet, G.

Falkenberg, G.

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect x-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref]

Färm, E.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard x-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

M. Chollet, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Cammarata, D. Damiani, J. Defever, J. T. Delor, Y. Feng, J. M. Glownia, J. B. Langton, S. Nelson, K. Ramsey, A. Robert, M. Sikorski, S. Song, D. Stefanescu, V. Srinivasan, D. Zhu, H. T. Lemke, and D. M. Fritz, “The x-ray pump-probe instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 503–507 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Zhu, Y. Feng, S. Stoupin, S. A. Terentyev, H. T. Lemke, D. M. Fritz, M. Chollet, J. M. Glownia, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Sikorski, S. Song, T. B. van Driel, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, S. Boutet, V. D. Blank, Y. V. Shvyd’ko, and A. Robert, “Performance of a beam-multiplexing diamond crystal monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 063106 (2014).
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K. Tono, T. Kudo, M. Yabashi, T. Tachibana, Y. Feng, D. Fritz, J. Hastings, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-shot beam-position monitor for x-ray free electron laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 023108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Flechsig, U.

Fritz, D.

K. Tono, T. Kudo, M. Yabashi, T. Tachibana, Y. Feng, D. Fritz, J. Hastings, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-shot beam-position monitor for x-ray free electron laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 023108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fritz, D. M.

C. Bostedt, S. Boutet, D. M. Fritz, Z. Huang, H. J. Lee, H. T. Lemke, A. Robert, W. F. Schlotter, J. J. Turner, and G. J. Williams, “Linac coherent light source: the first five years,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 015007 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Chollet, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Cammarata, D. Damiani, J. Defever, J. T. Delor, Y. Feng, J. M. Glownia, J. B. Langton, S. Nelson, K. Ramsey, A. Robert, M. Sikorski, S. Song, D. Stefanescu, V. Srinivasan, D. Zhu, H. T. Lemke, and D. M. Fritz, “The x-ray pump-probe instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 503–507 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Zhu, Y. Feng, S. Stoupin, S. A. Terentyev, H. T. Lemke, D. M. Fritz, M. Chollet, J. M. Glownia, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Sikorski, S. Song, T. B. van Driel, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, S. Boutet, V. D. Blank, Y. V. Shvyd’ko, and A. Robert, “Performance of a beam-multiplexing diamond crystal monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 063106 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Rutishauser, L. Samoylova, J. Krzywinski, O. Bunk, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, and C. David, “Exploring the wavefront of hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation,” Nat. Commun. 3, 947 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard x-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fujino, S.

Galtier, E. C.

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect x-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref]

Garrevoet, J.

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect x-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gaudin, J.

Giakoumidis, S.

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect x-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gleeson, A.

Glownia, J. M.

M. Chollet, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Cammarata, D. Damiani, J. Defever, J. T. Delor, Y. Feng, J. M. Glownia, J. B. Langton, S. Nelson, K. Ramsey, A. Robert, M. Sikorski, S. Song, D. Stefanescu, V. Srinivasan, D. Zhu, H. T. Lemke, and D. M. Fritz, “The x-ray pump-probe instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 503–507 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Zhu, Y. Feng, S. Stoupin, S. A. Terentyev, H. T. Lemke, D. M. Fritz, M. Chollet, J. M. Glownia, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Sikorski, S. Song, T. B. van Driel, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, S. Boutet, V. D. Blank, Y. V. Shvyd’ko, and A. Robert, “Performance of a beam-multiplexing diamond crystal monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 063106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Goldberg, K. A.

Gorelick, S.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard x-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grünert, J.

S. Rutishauser, L. Samoylova, J. Krzywinski, O. Bunk, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, and C. David, “Exploring the wavefront of hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation,” Nat. Commun. 3, 947 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard x-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
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Guérineau, N.

Gúerineau, N.

Guzenko, V. A.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard x-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
[Crossref]

Haïdar, R.

Hájková, V.

Hardin, C.

C. Hardin, V. N. Srinivasan, L. Amores, N. M. Kelez, D. Morton, P. M. Stefan, J. Nicolas, L. Zhang, and D. Cocco, “Optimizing x-ray mirror thermal performance using variable length cooling for second generation FELs,” Proc. SPIE 9965, 996505 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hastings, J.

K. Tono, T. Kudo, M. Yabashi, T. Tachibana, Y. Feng, D. Fritz, J. Hastings, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-shot beam-position monitor for x-ray free electron laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 023108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hastings, J. B.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
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Hertz, H. M.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
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Hoppe, R.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
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Hosoi, T.

Huang, Z.

C. Bostedt, S. Boutet, D. M. Fritz, Z. Huang, H. J. Lee, H. T. Lemke, A. Robert, W. F. Schlotter, J. J. Turner, and G. J. Williams, “Linac coherent light source: the first five years,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 015007 (2016).
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K. Kim, Z. Huang, and R. Lindberg, Synchrotron Radiation and Free-electron Lasers: Principles of Coherent X-ray Generation (Cambridge University, 2017).

Idir, M.

Ina, H.

Ishikawa, T.

K. Tono, T. Kudo, M. Yabashi, T. Tachibana, Y. Feng, D. Fritz, J. Hastings, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-shot beam-position monitor for x-ray free electron laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 023108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ito, Y.

Jiang, J.

T. Ling, J. Jiang, R. Zhang, and Y. Yang, “Quadriwave lateral shearing interferometric microscopy with wideband sensitivity enhancement for quantitative phase imaging in real time,” Sci. Rep. 7, 9 (2017).
[Crossref]

Juha, L.

Jurek, M.

Kameshima, T.

Katayama, T.

Kayser, Y.

Kaznatcheev, K.

Keitel, B.

B. Keitel, E. Plönjes, S. Kreis, M. Kuhlmann, K. Tiedtke, T. Mey, B. Schäfer, and K. Mann, “Hartmann wavefront sensors and their application at FLASH,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 23, 43–49 (2016).
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Kelez, N. M.

C. Hardin, V. N. Srinivasan, L. Amores, N. M. Kelez, D. Morton, P. M. Stefan, J. Nicolas, L. Zhang, and D. Cocco, “Optimizing x-ray mirror thermal performance using variable length cooling for second generation FELs,” Proc. SPIE 9965, 996505 (2016).
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Khorsand, A. R.

Kim, K.

K. Kim, Z. Huang, and R. Lindberg, Synchrotron Radiation and Free-electron Lasers: Principles of Coherent X-ray Generation (Cambridge University, 2017).

Klinger, D.

Kobayashi, S.

Kreis, S.

B. Keitel, E. Plönjes, S. Kreis, M. Kuhlmann, K. Tiedtke, T. Mey, B. Schäfer, and K. Mann, “Hartmann wavefront sensors and their application at FLASH,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 23, 43–49 (2016).
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Krzywinski, J.

S. Rutishauser, L. Samoylova, J. Krzywinski, O. Bunk, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, and C. David, “Exploring the wavefront of hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation,” Nat. Commun. 3, 947 (2012).
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C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard x-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
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J. Chalupský, J. Krzywinski, L. Juha, V. Hájková, J. Cihelka, T. Burian, L. Vyšín, J. Gaudin, A. Gleeson, M. Jurek, A. R. Khorsand, D. Klinger, H. Wabnitz, R. Sobierajski, M. Störmer, K. Tiedtke, and S. Toleikis, “Spot size characterization of focused non-Gaussian x-ray laser beams,” Opt. Express 18, 27836–27845 (2010).
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Kudo, T.

K. Tono, T. Kudo, M. Yabashi, T. Tachibana, Y. Feng, D. Fritz, J. Hastings, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-shot beam-position monitor for x-ray free electron laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 023108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kuhlmann, M.

B. Keitel, E. Plönjes, S. Kreis, M. Kuhlmann, K. Tiedtke, T. Mey, B. Schäfer, and K. Mann, “Hartmann wavefront sensors and their application at FLASH,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 23, 43–49 (2016).
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Lang, K.

L. Assoufid, X. Shi, S. Marathea, E. Benda, M. J. Wojcik, K. Lang, R. Xu, W. Liu, A. T. Macrander, and J. Z. Tischler, “Development and implementation of a portable grating interferometer system as a standard tool for testing optics at the Advanced Photon Source beamline 1-BM,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 052004 (2016).
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Langton, J. B.

M. Chollet, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Cammarata, D. Damiani, J. Defever, J. T. Delor, Y. Feng, J. M. Glownia, J. B. Langton, S. Nelson, K. Ramsey, A. Robert, M. Sikorski, S. Song, D. Stefanescu, V. Srinivasan, D. Zhu, H. T. Lemke, and D. M. Fritz, “The x-ray pump-probe instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 503–507 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. J.

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect x-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Bostedt, S. Boutet, D. M. Fritz, Z. Huang, H. J. Lee, H. T. Lemke, A. Robert, W. F. Schlotter, J. J. Turner, and G. J. Williams, “Linac coherent light source: the first five years,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 015007 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref]

Legrand, J.

Lemke, H. T.

C. Bostedt, S. Boutet, D. M. Fritz, Z. Huang, H. J. Lee, H. T. Lemke, A. Robert, W. F. Schlotter, J. J. Turner, and G. J. Williams, “Linac coherent light source: the first five years,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 015007 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Chollet, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Cammarata, D. Damiani, J. Defever, J. T. Delor, Y. Feng, J. M. Glownia, J. B. Langton, S. Nelson, K. Ramsey, A. Robert, M. Sikorski, S. Song, D. Stefanescu, V. Srinivasan, D. Zhu, H. T. Lemke, and D. M. Fritz, “The x-ray pump-probe instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 503–507 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Zhu, Y. Feng, S. Stoupin, S. A. Terentyev, H. T. Lemke, D. M. Fritz, M. Chollet, J. M. Glownia, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Sikorski, S. Song, T. B. van Driel, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, S. Boutet, V. D. Blank, Y. V. Shvyd’ko, and A. Robert, “Performance of a beam-multiplexing diamond crystal monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 063106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lindberg, R.

K. Kim, Z. Huang, and R. Lindberg, Synchrotron Radiation and Free-electron Lasers: Principles of Coherent X-ray Generation (Cambridge University, 2017).

Ling, T.

T. Ling, J. Jiang, R. Zhang, and Y. Yang, “Quadriwave lateral shearing interferometric microscopy with wideband sensitivity enhancement for quantitative phase imaging in real time,” Sci. Rep. 7, 9 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

L. Assoufid, X. Shi, S. Marathea, E. Benda, M. J. Wojcik, K. Lang, R. Xu, W. Liu, A. T. Macrander, and J. Z. Tischler, “Development and implementation of a portable grating interferometer system as a standard tool for testing optics at the Advanced Photon Source beamline 1-BM,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 052004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Macrander, A. T.

L. Assoufid, X. Shi, S. Marathea, E. Benda, M. J. Wojcik, K. Lang, R. Xu, W. Liu, A. T. Macrander, and J. Z. Tischler, “Development and implementation of a portable grating interferometer system as a standard tool for testing optics at the Advanced Photon Source beamline 1-BM,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 052004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mann, K.

B. Keitel, E. Plönjes, S. Kreis, M. Kuhlmann, K. Tiedtke, T. Mey, B. Schäfer, and K. Mann, “Hartmann wavefront sensors and their application at FLASH,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 23, 43–49 (2016).
[Crossref]

Marathea, S.

L. Assoufid, X. Shi, S. Marathea, E. Benda, M. J. Wojcik, K. Lang, R. Xu, W. Liu, A. T. Macrander, and J. Z. Tischler, “Development and implementation of a portable grating interferometer system as a standard tool for testing optics at the Advanced Photon Source beamline 1-BM,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 052004 (2016).
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C. Pellegrini, A. Marinelli, and S. Reiche, “The physics of x-ray free-electron lasers,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 015006 (2016).
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Maucort, G.

McCarville, T.

Meier, V.

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C. Bostedt, S. Boutet, D. M. Fritz, Z. Huang, H. J. Lee, H. T. Lemke, A. Robert, W. F. Schlotter, J. J. Turner, and G. J. Williams, “Linac coherent light source: the first five years,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 015007 (2016).
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Song, S.

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Srinivasan, V.

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Stefan, P. M.

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M. Chollet, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Cammarata, D. Damiani, J. Defever, J. T. Delor, Y. Feng, J. M. Glownia, J. B. Langton, S. Nelson, K. Ramsey, A. Robert, M. Sikorski, S. Song, D. Stefanescu, V. Srinivasan, D. Zhu, H. T. Lemke, and D. M. Fritz, “The x-ray pump-probe instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 503–507 (2015).
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Vila-Comamala, J.

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, F. Berenguer, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21, 13592–13606 (2013).
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C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard x-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
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F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect x-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
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Watanabe, H.

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Wittwer, F.

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect x-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
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L. Assoufid, X. Shi, S. Marathea, E. Benda, M. J. Wojcik, K. Lang, R. Xu, W. Liu, A. T. Macrander, and J. Z. Tischler, “Development and implementation of a portable grating interferometer system as a standard tool for testing optics at the Advanced Photon Source beamline 1-BM,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 052004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wünsche, M.

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect x-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
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Xu, R.

L. Assoufid, X. Shi, S. Marathea, E. Benda, M. J. Wojcik, K. Lang, R. Xu, W. Liu, A. T. Macrander, and J. Z. Tischler, “Development and implementation of a portable grating interferometer system as a standard tool for testing optics at the Advanced Photon Source beamline 1-BM,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 052004 (2016).
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Yabashi, M.

Yamazaki, A.

Yang, Y.

T. Ling, J. Jiang, R. Zhang, and Y. Yang, “Quadriwave lateral shearing interferometric microscopy with wideband sensitivity enhancement for quantitative phase imaging in real time,” Sci. Rep. 7, 9 (2017).
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Zastrau, U.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
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Zhang, F.

Zhang, L.

C. Hardin, V. N. Srinivasan, L. Amores, N. M. Kelez, D. Morton, P. M. Stefan, J. Nicolas, L. Zhang, and D. Cocco, “Optimizing x-ray mirror thermal performance using variable length cooling for second generation FELs,” Proc. SPIE 9965, 996505 (2016).
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Zhang, R.

T. Ling, J. Jiang, R. Zhang, and Y. Yang, “Quadriwave lateral shearing interferometric microscopy with wideband sensitivity enhancement for quantitative phase imaging in real time,” Sci. Rep. 7, 9 (2017).
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Zhu, D.

M. Chollet, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Cammarata, D. Damiani, J. Defever, J. T. Delor, Y. Feng, J. M. Glownia, J. B. Langton, S. Nelson, K. Ramsey, A. Robert, M. Sikorski, S. Song, D. Stefanescu, V. Srinivasan, D. Zhu, H. T. Lemke, and D. M. Fritz, “The x-ray pump-probe instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 503–507 (2015).
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D. Zhu, Y. Feng, S. Stoupin, S. A. Terentyev, H. T. Lemke, D. M. Fritz, M. Chollet, J. M. Glownia, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Sikorski, S. Song, T. B. van Driel, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, S. Boutet, V. D. Blank, Y. V. Shvyd’ko, and A. Robert, “Performance of a beam-multiplexing diamond crystal monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 063106 (2014).
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Ziegler, E.

S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, and P. Cloetens, “X-ray pulse wavefront metrology using speckle tracking,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 886–894 (2015).
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Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Synchrotron Rad. (3)

M. Chollet, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Cammarata, D. Damiani, J. Defever, J. T. Delor, Y. Feng, J. M. Glownia, J. B. Langton, S. Nelson, K. Ramsey, A. Robert, M. Sikorski, S. Song, D. Stefanescu, V. Srinivasan, D. Zhu, H. T. Lemke, and D. M. Fritz, “The x-ray pump-probe instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 503–507 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, and P. Cloetens, “X-ray pulse wavefront metrology using speckle tracking,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 886–894 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Keitel, E. Plönjes, S. Kreis, M. Kuhlmann, K. Tiedtke, T. Mey, B. Schäfer, and K. Mann, “Hartmann wavefront sensors and their application at FLASH,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 23, 43–49 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

S. Rutishauser, L. Samoylova, J. Krzywinski, O. Bunk, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, and C. David, “Exploring the wavefront of hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation,” Nat. Commun. 3, 947 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect x-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

A. Barty, R. Soufli, T. McCarville, S. L. Baker, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, and R. Bionta, “Predicting the coherent x-ray wavefront focal properties at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser,” Opt. Express 17, 15508–15519 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, F. Berenguer, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21, 13592–13606 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Idir, K. Kaznatcheev, G. Dovillaire, J. Legrand, and R. Rungsawang, “A 2 D high accuracy slope measuring system based on a stitching Shack Hartmann optical head,” Opt. Express 22, 2770–2781 (2014).
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J. Chalupský, J. Krzywinski, L. Juha, V. Hájková, J. Cihelka, T. Burian, L. Vyšín, J. Gaudin, A. Gleeson, M. Jurek, A. R. Khorsand, D. Klinger, H. Wabnitz, R. Sobierajski, M. Störmer, K. Tiedtke, and S. Toleikis, “Spot size characterization of focused non-Gaussian x-ray laser beams,” Opt. Express 18, 27836–27845 (2010).
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P. Bon, G. Maucort, B. Wattellier, and S. Monneret, “Quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry for quantitative phase microscopy of living cells,” Opt. Express 17, 13080–13094 (2009).
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J. Rizzi, P. Mercère, M. Idir, P. Da Silva, G. Vincent, and J. Primot, “X-ray phase contrast imaging and noise evaluation using a single phase grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 21, 17340–17351 (2013).
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N. Morimoto, S. Fujino, A. Yamazaki, Y. Ito, T. Hosoi, H. Watanabe, and T. Shimura, “Two dimensional x-ray phase imaging using single grating interferometer with embedded x-ray targets,” Opt. Express 23, 16582–16588 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. Hardin, V. N. Srinivasan, L. Amores, N. M. Kelez, D. Morton, P. M. Stefan, J. Nicolas, L. Zhang, and D. Cocco, “Optimizing x-ray mirror thermal performance using variable length cooling for second generation FELs,” Proc. SPIE 9965, 996505 (2016).
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Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

C. Pellegrini, A. Marinelli, and S. Reiche, “The physics of x-ray free-electron lasers,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 015006 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Bostedt, S. Boutet, D. M. Fritz, Z. Huang, H. J. Lee, H. T. Lemke, A. Robert, W. F. Schlotter, J. J. Turner, and G. J. Williams, “Linac coherent light source: the first five years,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 015007 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

L. Assoufid, X. Shi, S. Marathea, E. Benda, M. J. Wojcik, K. Lang, R. Xu, W. Liu, A. T. Macrander, and J. Z. Tischler, “Development and implementation of a portable grating interferometer system as a standard tool for testing optics at the Advanced Photon Source beamline 1-BM,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 052004 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Zhu, Y. Feng, S. Stoupin, S. A. Terentyev, H. T. Lemke, D. M. Fritz, M. Chollet, J. M. Glownia, R. Alonso-Mori, M. Sikorski, S. Song, T. B. van Driel, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, S. Boutet, V. D. Blank, Y. V. Shvyd’ko, and A. Robert, “Performance of a beam-multiplexing diamond crystal monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 063106 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Tono, T. Kudo, M. Yabashi, T. Tachibana, Y. Feng, D. Fritz, J. Hastings, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-shot beam-position monitor for x-ray free electron laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 023108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (3)

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Ling, J. Jiang, R. Zhang, and Y. Yang, “Quadriwave lateral shearing interferometric microscopy with wideband sensitivity enhancement for quantitative phase imaging in real time,” Sci. Rep. 7, 9 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard x-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

K. Kim, Z. Huang, and R. Lindberg, Synchrotron Radiation and Free-electron Lasers: Principles of Coherent X-ray Generation (Cambridge University, 2017).

D. Attwood and A. Sakdinawat, X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University, 2017).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Wavefront sensor based on single grating Talbot interferometry and its possible insertion points along a FEL facility to perform systematic studies on beam wavefronts. In this paper we included results from points 2 and 3. The exit of undulator is defined as Z=0  m in this paper. The size and location of the end station, shown by dashed box, is not to scale in the z axis; it is approximately in the same location as point 2. (b) A sample Talbot image as recorded on the CCD of the imaging microscope and the retrieved 2D wavefront error from it. The scale bar has a length of 100 μm. The dashed white box is where a single column was chosen for detailed analysis that was then used to test the repeatability of phase retrieval results. (c) Retrieved aspherical phase terms from 40 randomly picked single shots. The solid line is the average result, and the error bars at each location indicate ±1σ (standard deviation) of the 40 measurements. The overall variation of the measurements is found to be 2.98×103 waves, or λ/335.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Achieving high accuracy via calibration. (a) Recorded Talbot image using a reference beam generated from a X/Y adjustable slit pair 17.30 m from the grating. (b) The aspherical phase errors as seen in Fig. 1(c) can be calibrated out using the reference Talbot image, reducing a λ/14  pv phase error to a noise floor of λ/100. (c), (d) Quadratic phase errors can also be calibrated out through reference images. Uncalibrated measurements showed a large variation in Talbot image pitches across the field locations, but using a stitched reference image(c) by a scanned slit, we can reproduce the systematic error and remove it. Calibrated measurements reach a pitch accuracy of 0.01% across the field. Both scale bars in (a) and (c) are 100 μm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Source location changes under different undulator configurations. (a) Different undulator configurations used in the experiments. The tapering (slight change in undulator K values) is slightly different for the three cases. (b) The WFS correctly detected source location changes under these configurations. Zx and Zy differences are caused by downstream HOMS mirrors. (c) The relatively large shot-to-shot fluctuations in source locations seem to have a definite correlation with beam parameters. Here we show the statistics for 9,000 shots under each undulator configuration, binned into intervals of 100 A of electron bunch peak current. The error bars indicate standard deviation of Zy, centered at the average value of Zy within each bin. In all cases, there is a correlation between source locations and electron bunch peak current, for which systematic drift of source location due to change of peak current can account for large part of the observed source location fluctuation.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Bending of the LCLS HOMS mirror caused weak focusing of the beam. Four settings of the bender of one of the two HOMS mirrors were used, 0–3 mm, gradually making the mirror more concave. We randomly picked 26 single-shot Talbot images and retrieved the wavefronts. (a) Measured source locations (Zy and Zx) under the four bender settings. Zx followed the adjustments and moved gradually upstream, as the weak focusing starts to compensate the convex shape of the mirror. Zy was not affected as the HOMS mirrors bend the beam in only a horizontal direction. (b) Measured phase changes (versus bender at 0 position) when the bender was at 1–3 mm. The average profile at each bender setting is used for this comparison. Changes as small as λ/100 can be clearly detected in both phase profile and source location measurements.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Raw image of Talbot pattern recorded using a CRL stack (3.85 m focal length) to focus the pink beam (scale bar 100 μm). (b) Recovered intensity profile at the focus (scale bar 2 μm). The recovered amplitude and unwrapped phase at the detector plane are shown in (c) and (d), respectively. Note that an overall quadratic phase has been subtracted from the phase profile in (d). The scale bar from (a) is shared with (c) and (d). (e) Correlation of vertical (blue) and horizontal (orange) focus position with LCLS photon energy, displaying 2  cm astigmatism consistent with the unfocused measurement shown in Fig. 3(a). The distance to focus is calculated relative to the position of the scintillator detector, and is based on the Zernike defocus and astigmatism coefficients. The e-beam energy is well-correlated with the photon energy; the chromaticity of the CRLs combined with photon energy jitter leads to jitter in the focus position. (f) Calculated single-shot peak intensities at best focus for 9.49  keV. Shots with lower and higher photon energy focus upstream and downstream of this plane, respectively.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Through-focus and focal plane intensity profiles retrieved using (a) and (b) the Talbot WFS and (c) and (d) ptychography. The through-focus profiles are displayed along the transverse coordinate shown by the dashed line in (b), and the transverse profiles correspond to the plane indicated by the dashed line in (a) and (c). The images are normalized such that the color scales are equal for (a) and (c), and (b) and (d). The scale bar in (a) has length 5 mm along the beam axis and 2 μm in the transverse direction, and the scale bar in (b) has length 500 nm. (e) Comparison between Zernike coefficients for both ptychography and Talbot WFS measurements, up to fourth order. The defocus term (Z4) is outside the range of the vertical axis since the comparison is made at the WFS detector plane (1.5  m downstream of focus). Note that the ptychography scan produced a single reconstruction, whereas the wavefront sensor measurements were made on a single-shot basis. The coefficients from single shots were averaged to produce what is shown in the plot, with error bars representing the standard deviation. Note the good agreements on the dominating aberrations Z3, Z5, and Z12. (f) Correlation plot between calculated focus position and relative pulse energy (as measured on the scintillator detector) in the monochromatic case, with histograms at right. The light blue histogram results from only accepting shots having between 30% and 80% of the maximum pulse energy. The standard deviation of the focus position when the data is filtered in this way is only 70 μm, corresponding to a sensitivity of 0.005%.

Equations (3)

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Rtest=DPrefPtest(1+DRref)1,
Pt=P0(1+DR),
R=D/(Pt/P01).

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