Abstract

Bidirectional phase-stabilized optical fiber links allow state-of-the-art optical clocks to be compared on a continental scale. However, intercontinental comparisons are still based on satellite techniques, preventing optical clocks from being compared without degradation. We performed the first optical frequency transfer experiment over submarine links, measuring levels of environmentally induced noise substantially lower than for on-land links. From these measurements, we predict the transfer stability that can be achieved over transoceanic links. We also performed the first optical frequency transfer over fibers installed in power cables, observing optical perturbations caused by the high-voltage field. Finally, we show that the low background noise of fibers on the seafloor allows applications in geophysical sensing.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Hafner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. 14, 437–441 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. He, K. G. H. Baldwin, B. J. Orr, R. B. Warrington, M. J. Wouters, A. N. Luiten, P. Mirtschin, T. Tzioumis, C. Phillips, J. Stevens, B. Lennon, S. Munting, G. Aben, T. Newlands, and T. Rayner, “Long-distance telecom-fiber transfer of a radio-frequency reference for radio astronomy,” Optica 5, 138–146 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (8)

D. Gozzard, S. W. Schediwy, B. Wallace, R. Gamatham, and K. Grainge, “Characterization of optical frequency transfer over 154  km of aerial fiber,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2197–2200 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Guéna, S. Weyers, M. Abgrall, C. Grebing, V. Gerginov, P. Rosenbusch, S. Bize, B. Lipphardt, H. Denker, N. Quintin, S. M. F. Raupach, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, N. Chiodo, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, O. Lopez, P. E. Pottie, and G. Grosche, “First international comparison of fountain primary frequency standards via a long distance optical fiber link,” Metrologia 54, 348–354 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Schioppo, R. C. Brown, W. F. McGrew, N. Hinkley, R. J. Fasano, K. Beloy, T. H. Yoon, G. Milani, D. Nicolodi, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “Ultrastable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles,” Nat. Photonics 11, 48–52 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, R. Ambrosini, T. Artz, A. Bertarini, C. Bortolotti, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, G. Maccaferri, M. Nanni, M. Negusini, F. Perini, M. Roma, M. Stagni, M. Zucco, and D. Calonico, “A VLBI experiment using a remote atomic clock via a coherent fiber link,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40992 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, J. Kołodziej, M. Lipiński, Ł. Śliwczyński, J. Nawrocki, P. Nogaś, A. Marecki, E. Pazderski, P. Ablewski, M. Bober, R. Ciuryło, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, P. Morzyński, M. Zawada, R. M. Campbell, J. Pieczerak, A. Binczewski, and K. Turza, “Fibre-optic delivery of time and frequency to VLBI station,” Astron. Astrophys. 603, A48 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Tampellini, C. Clivati, D. Calonico, A. Mura, and F. Levi, “Effect of a timebase mismatch in two-way optical frequency transfer,” Metrologia 54, 805–809 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Deen, E. Wielandt, E. Stutzmann, W. Crawford, G. Barruoll, and K. Sigloch, “First observation of the Earth’s permanent free oscillations on ocean bottom seismometers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 44, 10988–10996 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

C. Calosso, C. Clivati, and S. Micalizio, “Avoiding aliasing in Allan variance: an application to fiber link data analysis,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 63, 646–655 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. F. Livi, G. Cappellini, M. Diem, L. Franchi, C. Clivati, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, D. Calonico, J. Catani, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “Synthetic dimensions and spin-orbit coupling with an optical clock transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 220401 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Huntemann, C. Sanner, B. Lipphardt, C. Tamm, and E. Peik, “Single-ion atomic clock with 3 × 10−18 systematic uncertainty,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Gill, “Is the time right for a redefinition of the second by optical atomic clocks?” J. Phys. 723, 012053 (2016).

T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10, 662–666 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9, 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Erbe, A. Verma, R. McCauley, A. Gavrilov, and I. Parnum, “The marine soundscape of the Perth Canyon,” Progr. Oceanogr. 137, 38–51 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Petit, A. Kanj, S. Loyer, J. Delporte, F. Mercier, and F. Perosanz, “1 × 10-16 frequency transfer by GPS PPP with integer ambiguity resolution,” Metrologia 52, 301–309 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, G. Bolognini, D. Calonico, S. Faralli, A. Mura, and F. Levi, “In-field Raman amplification on coherent optical fiber links for frequency metrology,” Opt. Express 23, 10604–10615 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

C. E. Calosso, E. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Frequency transfer via a two-way optical phase comparison on a multiplexed fiber network,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1177–1180 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Bercy, F. Stefani, O. Lopez, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Two-way optical frequency comparisons at 5 × 10−21 relative stability over 100-km telecommunication network fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061802(R) (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. A. Godone Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. M. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hänsch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920-km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hansch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

F. Ardhuin, A. Balanche, E. Stutzmann, and M. Obrebski, “From seismic noise to ocean wave parameters: general methods and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, C05002 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, B. Chanteau, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable long distance optical frequency distribution using the Internet fiber network,” Opt. Express 20, 23518–23526 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. Friebe, M. Riedmann, T. Wübbena, A. Pape, H. Kelkar, W. Ertmer, O. Terra, U. Sterr, S. Weyers, and G. Grosche, “Remote frequency measurement of the 1S01→3P1 transition in laser-cooled 24Mg,” New J. Phys. 13, 125010 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, “Coherent microwave transfer over a 204-km telecom fiber link by a cascaded system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 168–174 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

P. A. M. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “High-stability transfer of an optical frequency over long fiber-optic links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1284–1293 (2008).
[Crossref]

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H. W. Broek, “Bottom temperature fluctuations on the continental slope of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35, 388–394 (2005).
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K. Numata, A. Kemery, and J. Camp, “Thermal-noise limit in the frequency stabilization of lasers with rigid cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250602 (2004).
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K. Nishida, N. Kobayashi, and Y. Fukao, “Resonant oscillations between the solid Earth and atmosphere,” Science 287, 2244–2246 (2000).
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J. Prat and J. Comellas, “Dispersion-shifted fiber polarization scrambler based on Faraday effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 845–847 (1999).
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1997 (1)

C. Delisle and J. Conradi, “Model for bidirectional transmission in an open cascade of optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 749–757 (1997).
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C. N. Pannell, J. D. C. Jones, and D. A. Jackson, “The effect of environmental acoustic noise on optical fibre based velocity and vibration sensor systems,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 5, 412–417 (1994).
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1966 (1)

W. H. K. Lee and C. S. Cox, “Time variation of ocean temperatures and its relation to internal waves and oceanic heat flow measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 71, 2101–2111 (1966).
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K. Hasselmann, “A statistical analysis of the generation of micro-seisms,” Rev. Geophys. 1, 177–210 (1963).
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Abgrall, M.

J. Guéna, S. Weyers, M. Abgrall, C. Grebing, V. Gerginov, P. Rosenbusch, S. Bize, B. Lipphardt, H. Denker, N. Quintin, S. M. F. Raupach, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, N. Chiodo, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, O. Lopez, P. E. Pottie, and G. Grosche, “First international comparison of fountain primary frequency standards via a long distance optical fiber link,” Metrologia 54, 348–354 (2017).
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C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
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B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9, 456–460 (2015).
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A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hänsch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920-km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
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Ablewski, P.

P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, J. Kołodziej, M. Lipiński, Ł. Śliwczyński, J. Nawrocki, P. Nogaś, A. Marecki, E. Pazderski, P. Ablewski, M. Bober, R. Ciuryło, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, P. Morzyński, M. Zawada, R. M. Campbell, J. Pieczerak, A. Binczewski, and K. Turza, “Fibre-optic delivery of time and frequency to VLBI station,” Astron. Astrophys. 603, A48 (2017).
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T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10, 662–666 (2016).
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Al-Masoudi, A.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
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C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
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Alnis, J.

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hänsch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920-km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
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Altschul, B.

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hänsch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920-km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
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Ambrosini, R.

C. Clivati, R. Ambrosini, T. Artz, A. Bertarini, C. Bortolotti, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, G. Maccaferri, M. Nanni, M. Negusini, F. Perini, M. Roma, M. Stagni, M. Zucco, and D. Calonico, “A VLBI experiment using a remote atomic clock via a coherent fiber link,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40992 (2017).
[Crossref]

Amemiya, M.

M. Amemiya, M. Imae, Y. Fujii, T. Suzuyama, and S. Ohshima, “Simple time and frequency dissemination method using optical fiber network,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 57, 878–883 (2008).
[Crossref]

Amy-Klein, A.

J. Guéna, S. Weyers, M. Abgrall, C. Grebing, V. Gerginov, P. Rosenbusch, S. Bize, B. Lipphardt, H. Denker, N. Quintin, S. M. F. Raupach, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, N. Chiodo, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, O. Lopez, P. E. Pottie, and G. Grosche, “First international comparison of fountain primary frequency standards via a long distance optical fiber link,” Metrologia 54, 348–354 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9, 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Bercy, F. Stefani, O. Lopez, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Two-way optical frequency comparisons at 5 × 10−21 relative stability over 100-km telecommunication network fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061802(R) (2014).
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O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, B. Chanteau, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable long distance optical frequency distribution using the Internet fiber network,” Opt. Express 20, 23518–23526 (2012).
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Ardhuin, F.

F. Ardhuin, A. Balanche, E. Stutzmann, and M. Obrebski, “From seismic noise to ocean wave parameters: general methods and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, C05002 (2012).
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Argence, B.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9, 456–460 (2015).
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Artz, T.

C. Clivati, R. Ambrosini, T. Artz, A. Bertarini, C. Bortolotti, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, G. Maccaferri, M. Nanni, M. Negusini, F. Perini, M. Roma, M. Stagni, M. Zucco, and D. Calonico, “A VLBI experiment using a remote atomic clock via a coherent fiber link,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40992 (2017).
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Balanche, A.

F. Ardhuin, A. Balanche, E. Stutzmann, and M. Obrebski, “From seismic noise to ocean wave parameters: general methods and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, C05002 (2012).
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Baldwin, K. G. H.

Barbieri, P.

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Hafner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. 14, 437–441 (2018).
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Barruoll, G.

M. Deen, E. Wielandt, E. Stutzmann, W. Crawford, G. Barruoll, and K. Sigloch, “First observation of the Earth’s permanent free oscillations on ocean bottom seismometers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 44, 10988–10996 (2017).
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Baynes, F. N.

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Hafner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. 14, 437–441 (2018).
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P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
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M. Schioppo, R. C. Brown, W. F. McGrew, N. Hinkley, R. J. Fasano, K. Beloy, T. H. Yoon, G. Milani, D. Nicolodi, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “Ultrastable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles,” Nat. Photonics 11, 48–52 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bercy, A.

A. Bercy, F. Stefani, O. Lopez, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Two-way optical frequency comparisons at 5 × 10−21 relative stability over 100-km telecommunication network fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061802(R) (2014).
[Crossref]

Bertacco, E.

Bertacco, E. K.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. A. Godone Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. M. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 979–986 (2014).
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Bertarini, A.

C. Clivati, R. Ambrosini, T. Artz, A. Bertarini, C. Bortolotti, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, G. Maccaferri, M. Nanni, M. Negusini, F. Perini, M. Roma, M. Stagni, M. Zucco, and D. Calonico, “A VLBI experiment using a remote atomic clock via a coherent fiber link,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40992 (2017).
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Beyer, A.

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hänsch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920-km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
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Bilicki, S.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
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Binczewski, A.

P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, J. Kołodziej, M. Lipiński, Ł. Śliwczyński, J. Nawrocki, P. Nogaś, A. Marecki, E. Pazderski, P. Ablewski, M. Bober, R. Ciuryło, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, P. Morzyński, M. Zawada, R. M. Campbell, J. Pieczerak, A. Binczewski, and K. Turza, “Fibre-optic delivery of time and frequency to VLBI station,” Astron. Astrophys. 603, A48 (2017).
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L. Sliwczynski, P. Krehlik, K. Turza, and A. Binczewski, “Characterization of the frequency transfer over 300  km of aerial suspended fiber, ” in European Frequency and Time Forum (EFTF), York, UK (2016).

Bize, S.

J. Guéna, S. Weyers, M. Abgrall, C. Grebing, V. Gerginov, P. Rosenbusch, S. Bize, B. Lipphardt, H. Denker, N. Quintin, S. M. F. Raupach, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, N. Chiodo, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, O. Lopez, P. E. Pottie, and G. Grosche, “First international comparison of fountain primary frequency standards via a long distance optical fiber link,” Metrologia 54, 348–354 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bober, M.

P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, J. Kołodziej, M. Lipiński, Ł. Śliwczyński, J. Nawrocki, P. Nogaś, A. Marecki, E. Pazderski, P. Ablewski, M. Bober, R. Ciuryło, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, P. Morzyński, M. Zawada, R. M. Campbell, J. Pieczerak, A. Binczewski, and K. Turza, “Fibre-optic delivery of time and frequency to VLBI station,” Astron. Astrophys. 603, A48 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bolognini, G.

Bookjans, E.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bortolotti, C.

C. Clivati, R. Ambrosini, T. Artz, A. Bertarini, C. Bortolotti, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, G. Maccaferri, M. Nanni, M. Negusini, F. Perini, M. Roma, M. Stagni, M. Zucco, and D. Calonico, “A VLBI experiment using a remote atomic clock via a coherent fiber link,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40992 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bowden, W.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bregolin, F.

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Hafner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. 14, 437–441 (2018).
[Crossref]

Broek, H. W.

H. W. Broek, “Bottom temperature fluctuations on the continental slope of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35, 388–394 (2005).
[Crossref]

Brown, R. C.

M. Schioppo, R. C. Brown, W. F. McGrew, N. Hinkley, R. J. Fasano, K. Beloy, T. H. Yoon, G. Milani, D. Nicolodi, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “Ultrastable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles,” Nat. Photonics 11, 48–52 (2017).
[Crossref]

Buczek, L.

P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, J. Kołodziej, M. Lipiński, Ł. Śliwczyński, J. Nawrocki, P. Nogaś, A. Marecki, E. Pazderski, P. Ablewski, M. Bober, R. Ciuryło, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, P. Morzyński, M. Zawada, R. M. Campbell, J. Pieczerak, A. Binczewski, and K. Turza, “Fibre-optic delivery of time and frequency to VLBI station,” Astron. Astrophys. 603, A48 (2017).
[Crossref]

Calonico, D.

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Hafner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. 14, 437–441 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, R. Ambrosini, T. Artz, A. Bertarini, C. Bortolotti, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, G. Maccaferri, M. Nanni, M. Negusini, F. Perini, M. Roma, M. Stagni, M. Zucco, and D. Calonico, “A VLBI experiment using a remote atomic clock via a coherent fiber link,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40992 (2017).
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A. Tampellini, C. Clivati, D. Calonico, A. Mura, and F. Levi, “Effect of a timebase mismatch in two-way optical frequency transfer,” Metrologia 54, 805–809 (2017).
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[Crossref]

L. F. Livi, G. Cappellini, M. Diem, L. Franchi, C. Clivati, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, D. Calonico, J. Catani, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “Synthetic dimensions and spin-orbit coupling with an optical clock transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 220401 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Calosso, C. Clivati, and S. Micalizio, “Avoiding aliasing in Allan variance: an application to fiber link data analysis,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 63, 646–655 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, G. Bolognini, D. Calonico, S. Faralli, A. Mura, and F. Levi, “In-field Raman amplification on coherent optical fiber links for frequency metrology,” Opt. Express 23, 10604–10615 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. E. Calosso, E. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Frequency transfer via a two-way optical phase comparison on a multiplexed fiber network,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1177–1180 (2014).
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B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9, 456–460 (2015).
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C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
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J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Hafner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. 14, 437–441 (2018).
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P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
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J. Guéna, S. Weyers, M. Abgrall, C. Grebing, V. Gerginov, P. Rosenbusch, S. Bize, B. Lipphardt, H. Denker, N. Quintin, S. M. F. Raupach, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, N. Chiodo, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, O. Lopez, P. E. Pottie, and G. Grosche, “First international comparison of fountain primary frequency standards via a long distance optical fiber link,” Metrologia 54, 348–354 (2017).
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J. Friebe, M. Riedmann, T. Wübbena, A. Pape, H. Kelkar, W. Ertmer, O. Terra, U. Sterr, S. Weyers, and G. Grosche, “Remote frequency measurement of the 1S01→3P1 transition in laser-cooled 24Mg,” New J. Phys. 13, 125010 (2011).
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C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
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C. Clivati, R. Ambrosini, T. Artz, A. Bertarini, C. Bortolotti, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, G. Maccaferri, M. Nanni, M. Negusini, F. Perini, M. Roma, M. Stagni, M. Zucco, and D. Calonico, “A VLBI experiment using a remote atomic clock via a coherent fiber link,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40992 (2017).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Map of the two testbeds: L1 (green) is a 96.4-km-long telecom cable deployed almost entirely in sea. L2 (red) is a telecom cable housed in a HV line. The length is 117.5 km, of which 19 km are on land. The seafloor is extremely flat in the area, with a maximum depth of 200 m. (Imagery © 2018 Landsat/Copernicus, Data SIO, NOAA, U.S. Navy, NGA, GEBCO, IBCAO, Map data © 2018 Google.)
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Sketch of our experiment: ultrastable radiation was generated by locking a fiber laser (laser 1) to a Fabry–Perot cavity (FPC), then sent from University of Malta to the landing station in Malta via a Doppler-stabilized link and here regenerated by a second fiber laser (laser 2). The regenerated light was sent over the submarine link and compared to the local one to detect the fiber-induced noise after a round trip. FM, Faraday mirrors; PD, photodiodes; AOM, acousto-optic modulators (frequency shifters); EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier (used on L2 only).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Round-trip phase noise of various fiber testbeds. Red line: submarine 2×96.4  km link; green line: 2×150  km fiber along highway; black line: 2×92  km fiber along highway (other area). The gray line indicates the noise floor, measured by excluding the submarine cable while leaving the 2×25  m patch cords in place. L and S indicate land and submarine links, respectively. (b) A comparison of the phase noise per-unit-length of some long-haul links at 1 Hz and 10 Hz. NIST-Boulder-NIST: US, 76 km [20]; INRIM-LENS-INRIM: Italy, 1284 km [9]; MPQ-PTB-MPQ: Germany, 1840 km [31]; LPL-Reims-LPL: France, 540 km [30]; NICT-UniTokyo-NICT: Japan, partly aerial fibers, 114 km [32].
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Frequency instability of the submarine fiber over 24 h (black, squares). Also shown is the instability of the short link composed of the 2×25  m patch cords connecting our apparatus to the submarine cables (red circles).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Simplified sketch (left) and a picture (right) of the cable used in our experiment. 1: external protection, 2: steel-wire armor, 3: filler, 4: optical cables, 5: lead-alloy sheath, 6: cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) dielectric insulation, 7: copper conductors.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. PSD of the submarine fiber noise on a submarine telecom optical scale (L1, black) and on an optical cable deployed inside a high-voltage submarine power line, also including 19 km of onshore fiber (L2, red).
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) The temperature variations estimated from the observed phase evolution (black line) and the measured variations obtained by a distributed Brillouin sensor placed along the cable (red line). (b) The corresponding frequency shift.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Phase noise and Allan deviation for various configurations. Gray and light gray: measured values for the L1 and L2 testbeds, established over a 100  km looped fiber; black line: mathematical model for the observed noise; green line: extrapolated noise of a free-running 7000 km transoceanic fiber; orange and red lines: expected behavior of a two-way frequency comparison over a 7000 km transoceanic fiber, established over a single fiber or a fiber pair, respectively. The estimated spectra in the graph are plotted only for Fourier frequency f<3  Hz, where the low-frequency approximation is valid.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Black line, “FIBER”: the PSD of the optical phase; blue line, “IV.HPAC” the displacement of a seismometer located on the shore in Pachino, Sicily (IV.HPAC); red line, “MN.WDD” the displacement of a seismometer located in Malta (MN.WDD). The spectra were calculated in the same time window and have been re-normalized for better visualization.

Equations (4)

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ΔT=Δϕ/(2πν2LcnT),
SL(f)=LL0SL0(f),
Sδ(f)=(1k)2Sϕ(f),
Spair,tw(f)=14[(1k)2+13(2πfLv)2]Sϕ(f).

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