Abstract

Highly tunable coherent light generation is crucial for many important photonic applications. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) is a dominant approach for this purpose, which, however, exhibits a trade-off between conversion efficiency and wavelength tunability in a conventional nonlinear platform. Recent development of the integrated lithium niobate (LN) technology makes it possible to achieve a large wavelength tuning while maintaining a high conversion efficiency. Here we report on-chip SHG that simultaneously achieves a large tunability and a high conversion efficiency inside a single device. We utilize the unique strong thermo-optic birefringence of LN to achieve flexible temperature tuning of type-I intermodal phase matching. We experimentally demonstrate spectral tuning with a tuning slope of 0.84 nm/K for a telecom-band pump, and a nonlinear conversion efficiency of 4.7%  W1, in an LN nanophotonic waveguide only 8 mm long. Our device shows great promise for efficient on-chip wavelength conversion to produce highly tunable coherent visible light for broad applications, while taking advantage of the mature and cost-effective telecom laser technology.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

2017 (9)

C. Wang, X. Xiong, N. Andrade, V. Venkataraman, X.-F. Ren, G.-C. Guo, and M. Lončar, “Second harmonic generation in nano-structured thin-film lithium niobate waveguides,” Opt. Express 25, 6963–6973 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Luo, H. Jiang, H. Liang, Y. Chen, and Q. Lin, “Self-referenced temperature sensing with a lithium niobate microdisk resonator,” Opt. Lett. 42, 1281–1284 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Luo, H. Jiang, S. Rogers, H. Liang, Y. He, and Q. Lin, “On-chip second-harmonic generation and broadband parametric down-conversion in a lithium niobate microresonator,” Opt. Express 25, 24531–24539 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Wolf, I. Breunig, H. Zappe, and K. Buse, “Cascaded second-order optical nonlinearities in on-chip micro rings,” Opt. Express 25, 29927–29933 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, C. Wang, R. Cheng, A. Shams-Ansari, and M. Lončar, “Monolithic ultra-high-Q lithium niobate microring resonator,” Optica 4, 1536–1537 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Timurdogan, C. V. Poulton, M. Byrd, and M. Watts, “Electric field-induced second-order nonlinear optical effects in silicon waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 11, 200–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Billat, D. Grassani, M. H. Pfeiffer, S. Kharitonov, T. J. Kippenberg, and C.-S. Brès, “Large second harmonic generation enhancement in Si3N4 waveguides by all-optically induced quasi-phase-matching,” Nat. Commun. 8, 1016 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Rao, J. Chiles, S. Khan, S. Toroghi, M. Malinowski, G. F. Camacho-González, and S. Fathpour, “Second-harmonic generation in single-mode integrated waveguides based on mode-shape modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 111109 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, Z. Li, M.-H. Kim, X. Xiong, X.-F. Ren, G.-C. Guo, N. Yu, and M. Lončar, “Metasurface-assisted phase-matching-free second harmonic generation in lithium niobate waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 2098 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO3microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, Y. Li, N. Volet, L. Wang, J. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Thin film wavelength converters for photonic integrated circuits,” Optica 3, 531–535 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Guo, C.-L. Zou, and H. X. Tang, “Second-harmonic generation in aluminum nitride microrings with 2500%/W conversion efficiency,” Optica 3, 1126–1131 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. C. Evans, C. Liu, and J. Suntivich, “TiO2 nanophotonic sensors for efficient integrated evanescent Raman spectroscopy,” ACS Photon. 3, 1662–1669 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Yu, W. C. Jiang, Q. Lin, and T. Lu, “Cavity optomechanical spring sensing of single molecules,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12311 (2016).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, and K. J. Vahala, “Microresonator soliton dual-comb spectroscopy,” Science 354, 600–603 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Geiss, S. Saravi, A. Sergeyev, S. Diziain, F. Setzpfandt, F. Schrempel, R. Grange, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Fabrication of nanoscale lithium niobate waveguides for second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2715–2718 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

X.-C. Yu, B.-B. Li, P. Wang, L. Tong, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Li, Q. Gong, and Y.-F. Xiao, “Single nanoparticle detection and sizing using a nanofiber pair in an aqueous environment,” Adv. Mater. 26, 7462–7467 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 012004 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5, 591–596 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

L. Moretti, M. Iodice, F. G. D. Corte, and I. Rendina, “Temperature dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient of lithium niobate, from 300 to 515  K in the visible and infrared regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 036101 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

1999 (1)

M. H. Dunn and M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Parametric generation of tunable light from continuous-wave to femtosecond pulses,” Science 286, 1513–1517 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

1995 (1)

1992 (2)

D. A. Roberts, “Simplified characterization of uniaxial and biaxial nonlinear optical crystals: a plea for standardization of nomenclature and conventions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2057–2074 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. M. Fejer, G. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

1969 (1)

Y. Kim and R. Smith, “Thermal expansion of lithium tantalate and lithium niobate single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4637–4641 (1969).
[Crossref]

1960 (1)

T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated optical radiation in ruby,” Nature 187, 493–494 (1960).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, “Infrared and optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 112, 1940–1949 (1958).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2012).

Aimez, V.

Andrade, N.

Angelis, C. D.

Arès, R.

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5, 591–596 (2008).
[Crossref]

Baida, F. I.

Bernal, M.-P.

Billat, A.

A. Billat, D. Grassani, M. H. Pfeiffer, S. Kharitonov, T. J. Kippenberg, and C.-S. Brès, “Large second harmonic generation enhancement in Si3N4 waveguides by all-optically induced quasi-phase-matching,” Nat. Commun. 8, 1016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bosenberg, W.

Bowers, J. E.

Boyd, R.

R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2008).

Brès, C.-S.

A. Billat, D. Grassani, M. H. Pfeiffer, S. Kharitonov, T. J. Kippenberg, and C.-S. Brès, “Large second harmonic generation enhancement in Si3N4 waveguides by all-optically induced quasi-phase-matching,” Nat. Commun. 8, 1016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Breunig, I.

R. Wolf, I. Breunig, H. Zappe, and K. Buse, “Cascaded second-order optical nonlinearities in on-chip micro rings,” Opt. Express 25, 29927–29933 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Breunig, D. Haertle, and K. Buse, “Continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators: recent developments and prospects,” Appl. Phys. B 105, 99–111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Buse, K.

R. Wolf, I. Breunig, H. Zappe, and K. Buse, “Cascaded second-order optical nonlinearities in on-chip micro rings,” Opt. Express 25, 29927–29933 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Breunig, D. Haertle, and K. Buse, “Continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators: recent developments and prospects,” Appl. Phys. B 105, 99–111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Byer, R.

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, G. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

R. L. Byer, Optical Parametric Oscillators (Academic, 1975), Vol. 1.

Byrd, M.

E. Timurdogan, C. V. Poulton, M. Byrd, and M. Watts, “Electric field-induced second-order nonlinear optical effects in silicon waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 11, 200–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

Camacho-González, G. F.

A. Rao, J. Chiles, S. Khan, S. Toroghi, M. Malinowski, G. F. Camacho-González, and S. Fathpour, “Second-harmonic generation in single-mode integrated waveguides based on mode-shape modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 111109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cha, M.

Chaker, M.

Chang, L.

Chen, Y.

Cheng, R.

Cheng, Y.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO3microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chiles, J.

A. Rao, J. Chiles, S. Khan, S. Toroghi, M. Malinowski, G. F. Camacho-González, and S. Fathpour, “Second-harmonic generation in single-mode integrated waveguides based on mode-shape modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 111109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Christodoulides, D. N.

Collet, M.

Corte, F. G. D.

L. Moretti, M. Iodice, F. G. D. Corte, and I. Rendina, “Temperature dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient of lithium niobate, from 300 to 515  K in the visible and infrared regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 036101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Courjal, N.

Delprat, S.

Diziain, S.

Duchesne, D.

Dunn, M. H.

M. H. Dunn and M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Parametric generation of tunable light from continuous-wave to femtosecond pulses,” Science 286, 1513–1517 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ebrahimzadeh, M.

M. H. Dunn and M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Parametric generation of tunable light from continuous-wave to femtosecond pulses,” Science 286, 1513–1517 (1999).
[Crossref]

Eckardt, R.

Evans, C. C.

C. C. Evans, C. Liu, and J. Suntivich, “TiO2 nanophotonic sensors for efficient integrated evanescent Raman spectroscopy,” ACS Photon. 3, 1662–1669 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

Fang, W.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO3microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fang, Z.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO3microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fathpour, S.

A. Rao, J. Chiles, S. Khan, S. Toroghi, M. Malinowski, G. F. Camacho-González, and S. Fathpour, “Second-harmonic generation in single-mode integrated waveguides based on mode-shape modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 111109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fejer, M.

Fejer, M. M.

K. R. Parameswaran, J. R. Kurz, R. V. Roussev, and M. M. Fejer, “Observation of 99% pump depletion in single-pass second-harmonic generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 27, 43–45 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. M. Fejer, G. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

Foster, M. A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Geiss, R.

Gong, Q.

X.-C. Yu, B.-B. Li, P. Wang, L. Tong, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Li, Q. Gong, and Y.-F. Xiao, “Single nanoparticle detection and sizing using a nanofiber pair in an aqueous environment,” Adv. Mater. 26, 7462–7467 (2014).
[Crossref]

Grange, R.

Grassani, D.

A. Billat, D. Grassani, M. H. Pfeiffer, S. Kharitonov, T. J. Kippenberg, and C.-S. Brès, “Large second harmonic generation enhancement in Si3N4 waveguides by all-optically induced quasi-phase-matching,” Nat. Commun. 8, 1016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gui, L.

L. Gui, “Periodically poled ridge waveguides and photonic wires in LiNbO3 for efficient nonlinear interactions,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Paderborn, 2010).

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Adv. Mater. (1)

X.-C. Yu, B.-B. Li, P. Wang, L. Tong, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Li, Q. Gong, and Y.-F. Xiao, “Single nanoparticle detection and sizing using a nanofiber pair in an aqueous environment,” Adv. Mater. 26, 7462–7467 (2014).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

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Nat. Commun. (3)

A. Billat, D. Grassani, M. H. Pfeiffer, S. Kharitonov, T. J. Kippenberg, and C.-S. Brès, “Large second harmonic generation enhancement in Si3N4 waveguides by all-optically induced quasi-phase-matching,” Nat. Commun. 8, 1016 (2017).
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C. Wang, Z. Li, M.-H. Kim, X. Xiong, X.-F. Ren, G.-C. Guo, N. Yu, and M. Lončar, “Metasurface-assisted phase-matching-free second harmonic generation in lithium niobate waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 2098 (2017).
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Nat. Methods (1)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5, 591–596 (2008).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

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Opt. Express (9)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of our Z-cut LN waveguide. FEM simulations of (b) mode profiles, and (c) effective indices as functions of wavelength, of TE 0 , tele in the telecom and TM j , vis ( j = 0 , 1 , 2 ) in the visible, where w t = 1200    nm , h 1 = 460    nm , h 2 = 100    nm , and θ = 75 ° , at 20°C. Discontinuity in the curve of TM 1 , vis is due to its coupling with TE 2 , vis (not shown). Zoom-in of the wavelength-dependent effective indices of TE 0 , tele and TM 2 , vis at (d) 20°C, and (e) 70°C, with black arrows indicating phase matching; (f) simulated phase-matched pump wavelength λ PM as a function of temperature. In (c)–(f), the FEM simulations take into account the temperature and wavelength dependence of the material refractive indices, for both ordinary and extraordinary light [14,40].
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Experimental setup for device characterization and SHG measurement. Scanning electron microscope pictures showing the waveguide (b) top view, (c) facet, and (d) sidewall. (e) Fiber-to-fiber loss as a function of the differential length L d , relative to that of L d = 0 , for waveguides schematically illustrated in the inset, where L f and R are kept as 8 mm and 100 μm, respectively. (f) Telecom-band transmission spectrum of the TE polarization for a straight waveguide with a length of L 8    mm , whose schematic is shown in the inset. VOA, variable optical attenuator; LF, lensed fiber; WDM, wavelength division multiplexer.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. SHG from a straight LN nanophotonic waveguide with a length of 8 mm. (a) Conversion efficiency spectrum at T = 18.7 ° C , with the center wavelength of the sinc 2 function aligned to the measured peak; (b) SHG spectrum at a fixed pump wavelength of 1559.06 nm at T = 18.7 ° C ; (c) second-harmonic power as a function of pump power, with experimental data compared with a quadratic fitting, exhibiting a conversion efficiency of 4.7 %    W 1 .
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Thermal tuning of SHG. (a) Conversion efficiency spectra at different temperatures. Each spectrum is normalized by its peak value for clear comparison. (b) Measured phase-matched pump wavelength λ PM as a function of temperature.

Equations (3)

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Γ P 2 P 1 2 = η L 2 [ sin ( Δ L / 2 ) Δ L / 2 ] 2 ,
η = 8 π 2 ε 0 c n 1 2 n 2 λ 2 ζ 2 d eff 2 A eff ,
ζ = χ ( 2 ) ( E 1 x * ) 2 E 2 y d x d z | χ ( 2 ) | E 1 | 2 E 1 d x d z | 2 3 | χ ( 2 ) | E 2 | 2 E 2 d x d z | 1 3 ,

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