Abstract

Hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) can enhance the radiative recombination rate of a near-field coupled emitter due to its large photonic density of states (PDOS). Thus far, this enhancement has only been demonstrated qualitatively on account of the difficulties to achieve an equal emitter–HMM distance as well as the same polarization for all emitters. Here, we report on the deterministic coupling of epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs) with HMM, for which a quantitative investigation of the rate enhancement is possible. Advantages of epitaxial QDs over other emitters to investigate HMM coupling include a precise QD–HMM distance, the same polarization direction, and single-exponential decay of photoluminescence. In order to isolate metal-related effects, we have fixed the thickness of the silver (Ag) layer and have varied only that of the germanium (Ge) layer in the HMM to investigate the effect of the PDOS, which depends on the dispersion relation, which in turn depends on the thickness ratio. The recombination rate enhancement, as measured by lifetime reduction, varied from 2.2 to 4.2, depending on the thickness ratio of Ag and Ge in the HMM. These findings match well with simulation results, clearly supporting the role of HMM in the rate enhancement. The coupling of high-quality epitaxial QDs with HMM, demonstrated here for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, may bring about diverse future applications.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2016 (1)

V. Devaraj, J. Lee, J. Baek, and D. Lee, Appl. Sci. Converg. Technol. 25, 32 (2016).

2013 (1)

A. Poddubny, I. Iorsh, P. Belov, and Y. Kivshar, Nat. Photonics 7, 948 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

Z. Jacob, I. I. Smolyaninov, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181105 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, V. P. Drachev, Z. Jacob, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, Opt. Express 20, 8100 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. N. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, Science 336, 205 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Yang, J. Yao, J. Rho, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 6, 450 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

A. A. Orlov, P. M. Voroshilov, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. B 84, 045424 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. V. Chebykin, A. A. Orlov, A. V. Vozianova, S. I. Maslovski, Y. S. Kivshar, and P. A. Belov, Phys. Rev. B 84, 115438 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, X. Yang, X. Yin, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 11327 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

Z. Jacob, J. Y. Kim, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, Appl. Phys. B 100, 215 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Commun. 1, 143 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, M. D. Thoreson, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Opt. Express 18, 5124 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

L. F. Shen, T. J. Yang, and Y. F. Chau, Phys. Rev. B 77, 205124 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Schilling, Phys. Rev. E 74, 046618 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Jang, E. G. Lee, J. S. Yim, D. Lee, W. G. Jeong, S. H. Pyun, and J. W. Jang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091920 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

E. G. Lee, M. D. Kim, D. Lee, and S. G. Kim, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 073709 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. J. Mowbray and M. S. Skolnick, J. Phys. D 38, 2059 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

M. D. Kim, S. K. Noh, S. C. Hong, and T. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 553 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

D. Leonard, M. Krishnamurthy, C. M. Reaves, S. P. Denbaars, and P. M. Petroff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3203 (1993).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[Crossref]

Baek, J.

V. Devaraj, J. Lee, J. Baek, and D. Lee, Appl. Sci. Converg. Technol. 25, 32 (2016).

Bartal, G.

J. Yao, X. Yang, X. Yin, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 11327 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Commun. 1, 143 (2010).
[Crossref]

Belov, P.

A. Poddubny, I. Iorsh, P. Belov, and Y. Kivshar, Nat. Photonics 7, 948 (2013).
[Crossref]

Belov, P. A.

A. A. Orlov, P. M. Voroshilov, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. B 84, 045424 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. V. Chebykin, A. A. Orlov, A. V. Vozianova, S. I. Maslovski, Y. S. Kivshar, and P. A. Belov, Phys. Rev. B 84, 115438 (2011).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

J. Kim, V. P. Drachev, Z. Jacob, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, Opt. Express 20, 8100 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Jacob, J. Y. Kim, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, Appl. Phys. B 100, 215 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chau, Y. F.

L. F. Shen, T. J. Yang, and Y. F. Chau, Phys. Rev. B 77, 205124 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chebykin, A. V.

A. V. Chebykin, A. A. Orlov, A. V. Vozianova, S. I. Maslovski, Y. S. Kivshar, and P. A. Belov, Phys. Rev. B 84, 115438 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

Choi, H.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Commun. 1, 143 (2010).
[Crossref]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[Crossref]

Denbaars, S. P.

D. Leonard, M. Krishnamurthy, C. M. Reaves, S. P. Denbaars, and P. M. Petroff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3203 (1993).
[Crossref]

Devaraj, V.

V. Devaraj, J. Lee, J. Baek, and D. Lee, Appl. Sci. Converg. Technol. 25, 32 (2016).

Drachev, V. P.

Economou, E. N.

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).
[Crossref]

Engheta, N.

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Foteinopoulou, S.

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hong, S. C.

M. D. Kim, S. K. Noh, S. C. Hong, and T. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 553 (2003).
[Crossref]

Iorsh, I.

A. Poddubny, I. Iorsh, P. Belov, and Y. Kivshar, Nat. Photonics 7, 948 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ishii, S.

Jacob, Z.

Z. Jacob, I. I. Smolyaninov, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181105 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, V. P. Drachev, Z. Jacob, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, Opt. Express 20, 8100 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. N. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, Science 336, 205 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Jacob, J. Y. Kim, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, Appl. Phys. B 100, 215 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS) (2010).

Jang, J. W.

Y. D. Jang, E. G. Lee, J. S. Yim, D. Lee, W. G. Jeong, S. H. Pyun, and J. W. Jang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091920 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jang, Y. D.

Y. D. Jang, E. G. Lee, J. S. Yim, D. Lee, W. G. Jeong, S. H. Pyun, and J. W. Jang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091920 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jeong, W. G.

Y. D. Jang, E. G. Lee, J. S. Yim, D. Lee, W. G. Jeong, S. H. Pyun, and J. W. Jang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091920 (2006).
[Crossref]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[Crossref]

Kildishev, A. V.

Kim, J.

Kim, J. Y.

Z. Jacob, J. Y. Kim, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, Appl. Phys. B 100, 215 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. D.

E. G. Lee, M. D. Kim, D. Lee, and S. G. Kim, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 073709 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. D. Kim, S. K. Noh, S. C. Hong, and T. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 553 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. G.

E. G. Lee, M. D. Kim, D. Lee, and S. G. Kim, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 073709 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, T. W.

M. D. Kim, S. K. Noh, S. C. Hong, and T. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 553 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kivshar, Y.

A. Poddubny, I. Iorsh, P. Belov, and Y. Kivshar, Nat. Photonics 7, 948 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kivshar, Y. S.

A. A. Orlov, P. M. Voroshilov, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. B 84, 045424 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. V. Chebykin, A. A. Orlov, A. V. Vozianova, S. I. Maslovski, Y. S. Kivshar, and P. A. Belov, Phys. Rev. B 84, 115438 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kretzschmar, I.

H. N. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, Science 336, 205 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS) (2010).

Krishnamoorthy, H. N.

H. N. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, Science 336, 205 (2012).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, H. N. S.

H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS) (2010).

Krishnamurthy, M.

D. Leonard, M. Krishnamurthy, C. M. Reaves, S. P. Denbaars, and P. M. Petroff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3203 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lee, D.

V. Devaraj, J. Lee, J. Baek, and D. Lee, Appl. Sci. Converg. Technol. 25, 32 (2016).

Y. D. Jang, E. G. Lee, J. S. Yim, D. Lee, W. G. Jeong, S. H. Pyun, and J. W. Jang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091920 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. G. Lee, M. D. Kim, D. Lee, and S. G. Kim, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 073709 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, E. G.

Y. D. Jang, E. G. Lee, J. S. Yim, D. Lee, W. G. Jeong, S. H. Pyun, and J. W. Jang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091920 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. G. Lee, M. D. Kim, D. Lee, and S. G. Kim, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 073709 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

V. Devaraj, J. Lee, J. Baek, and D. Lee, Appl. Sci. Converg. Technol. 25, 32 (2016).

Leonard, D.

D. Leonard, M. Krishnamurthy, C. M. Reaves, S. P. Denbaars, and P. M. Petroff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3203 (1993).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Commun. 1, 143 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[Crossref]

Maslovski, S. I.

A. V. Chebykin, A. A. Orlov, A. V. Vozianova, S. I. Maslovski, Y. S. Kivshar, and P. A. Belov, Phys. Rev. B 84, 115438 (2011).
[Crossref]

Menon, V. M.

H. N. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, Science 336, 205 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS) (2010).

Mowbray, D. J.

D. J. Mowbray and M. S. Skolnick, J. Phys. D 38, 2059 (2005).
[Crossref]

Naik, G. V.

J. Kim, V. P. Drachev, Z. Jacob, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, Opt. Express 20, 8100 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Jacob, J. Y. Kim, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, Appl. Phys. B 100, 215 (2010).
[Crossref]

Narimanov, E.

H. N. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, Science 336, 205 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS) (2010).

Narimanov, E. E.

J. Kim, V. P. Drachev, Z. Jacob, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, Opt. Express 20, 8100 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Jacob, I. I. Smolyaninov, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Jacob, J. Y. Kim, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, Appl. Phys. B 100, 215 (2010).
[Crossref]

Noh, S. K.

M. D. Kim, S. K. Noh, S. C. Hong, and T. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 553 (2003).
[Crossref]

Orlov, A. A.

A. V. Chebykin, A. A. Orlov, A. V. Vozianova, S. I. Maslovski, Y. S. Kivshar, and P. A. Belov, Phys. Rev. B 84, 115438 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. A. Orlov, P. M. Voroshilov, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. B 84, 045424 (2011).
[Crossref]

Petroff, P. M.

D. Leonard, M. Krishnamurthy, C. M. Reaves, S. P. Denbaars, and P. M. Petroff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3203 (1993).
[Crossref]

Poddubny, A.

A. Poddubny, I. Iorsh, P. Belov, and Y. Kivshar, Nat. Photonics 7, 948 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pyun, S. H.

Y. D. Jang, E. G. Lee, J. S. Yim, D. Lee, W. G. Jeong, S. H. Pyun, and J. W. Jang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091920 (2006).
[Crossref]

Reaves, C. M.

D. Leonard, M. Krishnamurthy, C. M. Reaves, S. P. Denbaars, and P. M. Petroff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3203 (1993).
[Crossref]

Rho, J.

X. Yang, J. Yao, J. Rho, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 6, 450 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Commun. 1, 143 (2010).
[Crossref]

Salandrino, A.

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schilling, J.

J. Schilling, Phys. Rev. E 74, 046618 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shen, L. F.

L. F. Shen, T. J. Yang, and Y. F. Chau, Phys. Rev. B 77, 205124 (2008).
[Crossref]

Skolnick, M. S.

D. J. Mowbray and M. S. Skolnick, J. Phys. D 38, 2059 (2005).
[Crossref]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

Z. Jacob, I. I. Smolyaninov, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Soukoulis, C. M.

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[Crossref]

Thoreson, M. D.

Voroshilov, P. M.

A. A. Orlov, P. M. Voroshilov, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. B 84, 045424 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vozianova, A. V.

A. V. Chebykin, A. A. Orlov, A. V. Vozianova, S. I. Maslovski, Y. S. Kivshar, and P. A. Belov, Phys. Rev. B 84, 115438 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xiong, Y.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Commun. 1, 143 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, T. J.

L. F. Shen, T. J. Yang, and Y. F. Chau, Phys. Rev. B 77, 205124 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, J. Yao, J. Rho, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 6, 450 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, X. Yang, X. Yin, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 11327 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

X. Yang, J. Yao, J. Rho, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 6, 450 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, X. Yang, X. Yin, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 11327 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ye, Z.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Commun. 1, 143 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yim, J. S.

Y. D. Jang, E. G. Lee, J. S. Yim, D. Lee, W. G. Jeong, S. H. Pyun, and J. W. Jang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091920 (2006).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the HMM-coupled QD structure under consideration. The green arrow indicates excitation direction, and the purple arrow shows the measurement direction. A thin Ge layer of 2 nm is deposited before HMM deposition.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) PF spectra simulated by the FDTD method and plotted as a function of Ge thickness with Ag thickness fixed at 15 nm. (b) PFs of QD emission as a function of Ge thickness at 1030 nm. A dipole emitter is positioned 18.4 nm below the HMM composed of five periods of Ag (15 nm)/Ge (A nm) layers.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Measured PL transients from the HMM samples with different Ge thickness (10, 20, and 30 nm). Epi indicates PL decay from an original QD sample, and Laser is for instrument response function.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Comparison of the measured lifetimes of QD exciton (normalized to the value of bare QDs, 790 ps) and the calculated lifetimes for different Ge thickness samples.

Equations (1)

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ϵxx=ϵyy=ϵmdm+ϵddddm+dd,1ϵzz=dm/ϵm+dd/ϵmdm+dd,