Abstract

Varifocal lenses are essential components of dynamic optical systems with applications in photography, mixed reality, and microscopy. Metasurface optics has strong potential for creating tunable flat optics. Existing tunable metalenses, however, typically require microelectromechanical actuators, which cannot be scaled to large area devices, or rely on high voltages to stretch a flexible substrate and achieve a sufficient tuning range. Here, we build a 1 cm aperture varifocal metalens system at 1550 nm wavelength inspired by an Alvarez lens, fabricated using high-throughput stepper photolithography. We demonstrate a nonlinear change in focal length by minimally actuating two cubic phase metasurfaces laterally, with focusing efficiency as high as 57% and a wide focal length change of more than 6 cm (>200%). We also test a lens design at visible wavelength and conduct varifocal zoom imaging with a demonstrated 4× zoom capability without any other optical elements in the imaging path.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2018 (5)

A. She, S. Zhang, S. Shian, D. R. Clarke, and F. Capasso, “Adaptive metalenses with simultaneous electrical control of focal length, astigmatism, and shift,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaap9957 (2018).

T. Roy, S. Zhang, I. W. Jung, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, and D. Lopez, “Dynamic metasurface lens based on MEMS technology,” APL Photon. 3, 021302 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, M. Faraji-Dana, and A. Faraon, “MEMS-tunable dielectric metasurface lens,” Nat. Commun. 9, 812 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. She, S. Zhang, S. Shian, D. R. Clarke, and F. Capasso, “Large area metalenses: design, characterization, and mass manufacturing,” Opt. Express 26, 1573–1585 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y.-W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z.-W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18, 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

A. Zhan, S. Colburn, C. M. Dodson, and A. Majumdar, “Metasurface freeform nanophotonics,” Sci. Rep. 7, 1673 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Yang and J. A. Fan, “Analysis of material selection on dielectric metasurface performance,” Opt. Express 25, 23899–23909 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Hong, S. Colburn, and A. Majumdar, “Flat metaform near-eye visor,” Appl. Opt. 56, 8822–8827 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, M. Melli, E. Poliakov, P. S. Hilaire, S. Dhuey, C. Peroz, S. Cabrini, M. Brongersma, and M. Klug, “Optical metasurfaces for high angle steering at visible wavelengths,” Sci. Rep. 7, 2286 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, A. Zaidi, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metalens over 60  nm bandwidth in the visible and metalens with reverse chromatic dispersion,” Nano Lett. 17, 1819–1824 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically tunable dielectric resonator metasurfaces at visible frequencies,” ACS Nano 10, 133–141 (2016).
[Crossref]

H.-S. Ee and R. Agarwal, “Tunable metasurface and flat optical zoom lens on a stretchable substrate,” Nano Lett. 16, 2818–2823 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Highly tunable elastic dielectric metasurface lenses,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 1002–1008 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Multiwavelength polarization-insensitive lenses based on dielectric metasurfaces with meta-molecules,” Optica 3, 628–633 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, “All-dielectric metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 23–36 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

A. Arbabi, R. M. Briggs, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Efficient dielectric metasurface collimating lenses for mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 23, 33310–33317 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8069 (2015).

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15, 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15, 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1375–1378 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14, 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. R. West, J. L. Stewart, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, V. V. Shkunov, F. Strohkendl, Y. A. Zakharenkov, R. K. Dodds, and R. Byren, “All-dielectric subwavelength metasurface focusing lens,” Opt. Express 22, 26212–26221 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y.-B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-enabled plasmonic metasurfaces for manipulating orbital angular momentum of light,” Nano Lett. 13, 4148–4151 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Liu and S. Fan, “S4: a free electromagnetic solver for layered periodic structures,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183, 2233–2244 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

2002 (1)

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 235112 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

1996 (1)

R. Legtenberg, A. W. Groeneveld, and M. Elwenspoek, “Comb-drive actuators for large displacements,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 6, 320–329 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

Agarwal, R.

H.-S. Ee and R. Agarwal, “Tunable metasurface and flat optical zoom lens on a stretchable substrate,” Nano Lett. 16, 2818–2823 (2016).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alvarez, L. W.

L. W. Alvarez, “Two-element variable-power spherical lens,” U.S. patent3,305,294 (3December, 1964).

Arbabi, A.

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, M. Faraji-Dana, and A. Faraon, “MEMS-tunable dielectric metasurface lens,” Nat. Commun. 9, 812 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Highly tunable elastic dielectric metasurface lenses,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 1002–1008 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Multiwavelength polarization-insensitive lenses based on dielectric metasurfaces with meta-molecules,” Optica 3, 628–633 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, R. M. Briggs, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Efficient dielectric metasurface collimating lenses for mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 23, 33310–33317 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8069 (2015).

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arbabi, E.

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, M. Faraji-Dana, and A. Faraon, “MEMS-tunable dielectric metasurface lens,” Nat. Commun. 9, 812 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Highly tunable elastic dielectric metasurface lenses,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 1002–1008 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Multiwavelength polarization-insensitive lenses based on dielectric metasurfaces with meta-molecules,” Optica 3, 628–633 (2016).
[Crossref]

Astilean, S.

Athani, V. V.

V. V. Athani, Stepper Motors: Fundamentals, Applications and Design (New Age International, 1997).

Bagheri, M.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8069 (2015).

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, R. M. Briggs, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Efficient dielectric metasurface collimating lenses for mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 23, 33310–33317 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ball, A. J.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8069 (2015).

Bayati, E.

E. Bayati, A. Zhan, S. Colburn, and A. Majumdar, “The role of refractive index in metalens performance,” arXiv:1805.04659 (2018).

Beausoleil, R. G.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1375–1378 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4, 466–470 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bhaskaran, M.

P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically tunable dielectric resonator metasurfaces at visible frequencies,” ACS Nano 10, 133–141 (2016).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, R.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brener, I.

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15, 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref]

Briggs, D. P.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14, 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref]

Briggs, R. M.

Brongersma, M.

D. Lin, M. Melli, E. Poliakov, P. S. Hilaire, S. Dhuey, C. Peroz, S. Cabrini, M. Brongersma, and M. Klug, “Optical metasurfaces for high angle steering at visible wavelengths,” Sci. Rep. 7, 2286 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Byren, R.

Cabrini, S.

D. Lin, M. Melli, E. Poliakov, P. S. Hilaire, S. Dhuey, C. Peroz, S. Cabrini, M. Brongersma, and M. Klug, “Optical metasurfaces for high angle steering at visible wavelengths,” Sci. Rep. 7, 2286 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Campione, S.

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Pandey, A.

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15, 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref]

Peng, Z.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1375–1378 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4, 466–470 (2010).
[Crossref]

Peroz, C.

D. Lin, M. Melli, E. Poliakov, P. S. Hilaire, S. Dhuey, C. Peroz, S. Cabrini, M. Brongersma, and M. Klug, “Optical metasurfaces for high angle steering at visible wavelengths,” Sci. Rep. 7, 2286 (2017).
[Crossref]

Poliakov, E.

D. Lin, M. Melli, E. Poliakov, P. S. Hilaire, S. Dhuey, C. Peroz, S. Cabrini, M. Brongersma, and M. Klug, “Optical metasurfaces for high angle steering at visible wavelengths,” Sci. Rep. 7, 2286 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pun, E. Y.-B.

G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y.-B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-enabled plasmonic metasurfaces for manipulating orbital angular momentum of light,” Nano Lett. 13, 4148–4151 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qiu, C.-W.

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y.-W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z.-W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18, 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref]

Roques-Carmes, C.

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y.-W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z.-W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18, 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref]

Roy, T.

T. Roy, S. Zhang, I. W. Jung, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, and D. Lopez, “Dynamic metasurface lens based on MEMS technology,” APL Photon. 3, 021302 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sanjeev, V.

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y.-W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z.-W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18, 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, A. Zaidi, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metalens over 60  nm bandwidth in the visible and metalens with reverse chromatic dispersion,” Nano Lett. 17, 1819–1824 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schwiegerling, J.

Sedgwick, F. G.

Shalaev, M. I.

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15, 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

P. R. West, J. L. Stewart, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, V. V. Shkunov, F. Strohkendl, Y. A. Zakharenkov, R. K. Dodds, and R. Byren, “All-dielectric subwavelength metasurface focusing lens,” Opt. Express 22, 26212–26221 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

She, A.

A. She, S. Zhang, S. Shian, D. R. Clarke, and F. Capasso, “Adaptive metalenses with simultaneous electrical control of focal length, astigmatism, and shift,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaap9957 (2018).

A. She, S. Zhang, S. Shian, D. R. Clarke, and F. Capasso, “Large area metalenses: design, characterization, and mass manufacturing,” Opt. Express 26, 1573–1585 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shi, Z.

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y.-W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z.-W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18, 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, A. Zaidi, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metalens over 60  nm bandwidth in the visible and metalens with reverse chromatic dispersion,” Nano Lett. 17, 1819–1824 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shian, S.

A. She, S. Zhang, S. Shian, D. R. Clarke, and F. Capasso, “Adaptive metalenses with simultaneous electrical control of focal length, astigmatism, and shift,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaap9957 (2018).

A. She, S. Zhang, S. Shian, D. R. Clarke, and F. Capasso, “Large area metalenses: design, characterization, and mass manufacturing,” Opt. Express 26, 1573–1585 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shimoyama, I.

I. Shimoyama, “Scaling in microrobots,” in Proceedings 1995 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems. Human Robot Interaction and Cooperative Robots (1995), Vol. 2, pp. 208–211.

Shkunov, V. V.

Sorin, W. V.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1375–1378 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sriram, S.

P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically tunable dielectric resonator metasurfaces at visible frequencies,” ACS Nano 10, 133–141 (2016).
[Crossref]

Staude, I.

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15, 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stewart, J. L.

Strohkendl, F.

Subramania, S.

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15, 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15, 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tamagnone, M.

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y.-W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z.-W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18, 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tetienne, J.-P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tran, T.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1375–1378 (2014).
[Crossref]

Troccoli, M.

T. Roy, S. Zhang, I. W. Jung, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, and D. Lopez, “Dynamic metasurface lens based on MEMS technology,” APL Photon. 3, 021302 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tsukernik, A.

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15, 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref]

Valentine, J.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14, 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vo, S.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1375–1378 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. S.

Wang, W.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14, 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref]

West, P. R.

Withayachumnankul, W.

P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically tunable dielectric resonator metasurfaces at visible frequencies,” ACS Nano 10, 133–141 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14, 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zaidi, A.

M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, A. Zaidi, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metalens over 60  nm bandwidth in the visible and metalens with reverse chromatic dispersion,” Nano Lett. 17, 1819–1824 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zakharenkov, Y. A.

Zentgraf, T.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhan, A.

A. Zhan, S. Colburn, C. M. Dodson, and A. Majumdar, “Metasurface freeform nanophotonics,” Sci. Rep. 7, 1673 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Bayati, A. Zhan, S. Colburn, and A. Majumdar, “The role of refractive index in metalens performance,” arXiv:1805.04659 (2018).

Zhang, S.

A. She, S. Zhang, S. Shian, D. R. Clarke, and F. Capasso, “Large area metalenses: design, characterization, and mass manufacturing,” Opt. Express 26, 1573–1585 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Roy, S. Zhang, I. W. Jung, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, and D. Lopez, “Dynamic metasurface lens based on MEMS technology,” APL Photon. 3, 021302 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. She, S. Zhang, S. Shian, D. R. Clarke, and F. Capasso, “Adaptive metalenses with simultaneous electrical control of focal length, astigmatism, and shift,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaap9957 (2018).

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y.-B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-enabled plasmonic metasurfaces for manipulating orbital angular momentum of light,” Nano Lett. 13, 4148–4151 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, A. Y.

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y.-W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z.-W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18, 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, A. Zaidi, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metalens over 60  nm bandwidth in the visible and metalens with reverse chromatic dispersion,” Nano Lett. 17, 1819–1824 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zou, C.

P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically tunable dielectric resonator metasurfaces at visible frequencies,” ACS Nano 10, 133–141 (2016).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically tunable dielectric resonator metasurfaces at visible frequencies,” ACS Nano 10, 133–141 (2016).
[Crossref]

APL Photon. (1)

T. Roy, S. Zhang, I. W. Jung, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, and D. Lopez, “Dynamic metasurface lens based on MEMS technology,” APL Photon. 3, 021302 (2018).
[Crossref]

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H.-S. Ee and R. Agarwal, “Tunable metasurface and flat optical zoom lens on a stretchable substrate,” Nano Lett. 16, 2818–2823 (2016).
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M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15, 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15, 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y.-B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-enabled plasmonic metasurfaces for manipulating orbital angular momentum of light,” Nano Lett. 13, 4148–4151 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14, 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, A. Zaidi, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metalens over 60  nm bandwidth in the visible and metalens with reverse chromatic dispersion,” Nano Lett. 17, 1819–1824 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y.-W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z.-W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18, 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (3)

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2807 (2013).
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A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8069 (2015).

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, M. Faraji-Dana, and A. Faraon, “MEMS-tunable dielectric metasurface lens,” Nat. Commun. 9, 812 (2018).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (3)

S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, “All-dielectric metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 23–36 (2016).
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G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 937–943 (2015).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

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A. She, S. Zhang, S. Shian, D. R. Clarke, and F. Capasso, “Adaptive metalenses with simultaneous electrical control of focal length, astigmatism, and shift,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaap9957 (2018).

Sci. Rep. (2)

D. Lin, M. Melli, E. Poliakov, P. S. Hilaire, S. Dhuey, C. Peroz, S. Cabrini, M. Brongersma, and M. Klug, “Optical metasurfaces for high angle steering at visible wavelengths,” Sci. Rep. 7, 2286 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Zhan, S. Colburn, C. M. Dodson, and A. Majumdar, “Metasurface freeform nanophotonics,” Sci. Rep. 7, 1673 (2017).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       supplemental document
» Visualization 1       Real-time video of an Air Force resolution chart as captured with the Alvarez metalens. One of the cubic metasurfaces is misaligned from -250 to +250 micrometers.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Simulation and design of nanoposts: (a) Schematic representation of our tunable metalens system comprising two cubic metasurface phase plates actuated laterally. (b) Top, side, and isometric views of our silicon nitride nanoposts where T is thickness, D is diameter, and p is lattice constant. The simulated amplitude (c) and phase (d) of the transmission coefficient as a function of nanopost diameter and lattice constant are shown. (e) Phase and amplitude for a fixed lattice constant of 1.3 μm corresponding to the black dashed lines in (c) and (d).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Fabrication of the large area metasurfaces. (a) Schematic of the process flow for fabricating multiple large area metalenses in parallel using high-throughput stepper lithography-based processing. (b) Fully exposed and developed 100 mm wafer, showing the capability to make large area devices. (c) A fully etched and cleaved metasurface cubic phase plate with a hand for scale. Scanning electron micrographs of fabricated nanoposts are shown at (d) normal incidence and (e) 45° incidence. Scale bars 10 μm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental and theoretical focal lengths of the tunable lens designs. Focal lengths as a function of lateral displacement for the infrared (a) and visible (c) designs are shown. Errors bars represent a 95% confidence interval where the 1 σ uncertainty is estimated during measurement by finding the range of distances over which the lens appears to be in focus. (b) Simulated transmission coefficient of the 1.5 μm thick silicon nitride nanoposts on a quartz substrate.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Imaging with different magnifications using the visible lens design. (a) Examples of images captured without any optical elements aside from the tunable lens system in the optical path using an Air Force resolution test chart illuminated in transmission (top row) and a Mona Lisa pattern printed on paper illuminated by scattering light off the pattern (bottom row). (b) Effect of misaligning the regular cubic metasurface phase plate on image quality. The scale bar is 1.2 mm for all images.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Comparison among Different Existing Mechanically Tunable Metalens Systems

Equations (3)

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ϕ reg ( x , y ) = ϕ inv ( x , y ) = A ( 1 3 x 3 + x y 2 ) ,
ϕ Alvarez ( x , y ) = ϕ reg ( x + d , y ) + ϕ inv ( x d , y ) = 2 A d ( x 2 + y 2 ) + 2 3 A d 3 .
f ( d ) = π 2 λ A d ,

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