Abstract

Rare-earth-doped fiber lasers are promising contenders in the development of spectroscopy, free-space communications, and countermeasure applications in the 3–5 μm spectral region. However, given the limited transparency of the commonly used fluorozirconate glass fiber, these systems have only achieved wavelength coverage up to 3.8 μm, hence fueling the development of more suitable fiber glass compositions. To this extent, we propose in this Letter a novel heavily holmium-doped fluoroindate fiber, providing extended transparency up to 5 μm, to demonstrate the longest wavelength room-temperature fiber laser at 3.92 μm. Achieving 200  mW of output power when cladding pumped by a commercial 888 nm laser diode, this demonstration paves the way for powerful mid-infrared fiber lasers emitting at and beyond 4 μm.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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F. Maes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, and R. Vallée, Opt. Lett. 42, 2054 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Gomes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, F. Maes, R. Vallée, S. Poulain, M. Poulain, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Mater. 66, 519 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

L. Gomes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, R. Vallée, S. Poulain, M. Poulain, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Mater. 60, 618 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. H. Sapir, S. D. Jackson, and D. Ottaway, Opt. Lett. 41, 1676 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2012 (2)

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. D. Jackson, Nat. Photonics 6, 423 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

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[Crossref]

T. Ehrenreich, R. Leveille, I. Majid, K. Tankala, G. Rines, and P. Moulton, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758016 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. Piatkowski, K. Wisniewski, M. Rozanski, C. Koepke, M. Kaczkan, M. Klimczak, R. Piramidowicz, and M. Malinowski, J. Phys. 20, 155201 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2004 (1)

H. H. P. T. Bekman, J. C. van den Heuvel, F. J. M. van Putten, and R. Schleijpen, Proc. SPIE 5615, 27 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 162 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

A. Akella, E. A. Downing, and L. Hesselink, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 1 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Schneider, C. Carbonnier, and U. B. Unrau, Appl. Opt. 36, 8595 (1997).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, Phys. Rev. 174, 429 (1968).
[Crossref]

Akella, A.

A. Akella, E. A. Downing, and L. Hesselink, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 1 (1997).
[Crossref]

Androz, G.

Bah, S. T.

Bekman, H. H. P. T.

H. H. P. T. Bekman, J. C. van den Heuvel, F. J. M. van Putten, and R. Schleijpen, Proc. SPIE 5615, 27 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bernier, M.

Bharathan, G.

Carbonnier, C.

Caron, N.

Chin, S. L.

Clarkson, W. A.

Downing, E. A.

A. Akella, E. A. Downing, and L. Hesselink, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 1 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ehrenreich, T.

T. Ehrenreich, R. Leveille, I. Majid, K. Tankala, G. Rines, and P. Moulton, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758016 (2010).
[Crossref]

Faucher, D.

Fortin, V.

L. Gomes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, F. Maes, R. Vallée, S. Poulain, M. Poulain, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Mater. 66, 519 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Maes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, and R. Vallée, Opt. Lett. 42, 2054 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Gomes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, R. Vallée, S. Poulain, M. Poulain, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Mater. 60, 618 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Fortin, M. Bernier, S. T. Bah, and R. Vallée, Opt. Lett. 40, 2882 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fuerbach, A.

Gomes, L.

L. Gomes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, F. Maes, R. Vallée, S. Poulain, M. Poulain, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Mater. 66, 519 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Gomes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, R. Vallée, S. Poulain, M. Poulain, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Mater. 60, 618 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hesselink, L.

A. Akella, E. A. Downing, and L. Hesselink, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 1 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hudson, D. D.

Jackson, S. D.

R. I. Woodward, M. R. Majewski, G. Bharathan, D. D. Hudson, A. Fuerbach, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Lett. 43, 1471 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Gomes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, F. Maes, R. Vallée, S. Poulain, M. Poulain, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Mater. 66, 519 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Gomes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, R. Vallée, S. Poulain, M. Poulain, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Mater. 60, 618 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. H. Sapir, S. D. Jackson, and D. Ottaway, Opt. Lett. 41, 1676 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. D. Jackson, Nat. Photonics 6, 423 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 162 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kaczkan, M.

D. Piatkowski, K. Wisniewski, M. Rozanski, C. Koepke, M. Kaczkan, M. Klimczak, R. Piramidowicz, and M. Malinowski, J. Phys. 20, 155201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Klimczak, M.

D. Piatkowski, K. Wisniewski, M. Rozanski, C. Koepke, M. Kaczkan, M. Klimczak, R. Piramidowicz, and M. Malinowski, J. Phys. 20, 155201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Koepke, C.

D. Piatkowski, K. Wisniewski, M. Rozanski, C. Koepke, M. Kaczkan, M. Klimczak, R. Piramidowicz, and M. Malinowski, J. Phys. 20, 155201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Leveille, R.

T. Ehrenreich, R. Leveille, I. Majid, K. Tankala, G. Rines, and P. Moulton, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758016 (2010).
[Crossref]

Maes, F.

L. Gomes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, F. Maes, R. Vallée, S. Poulain, M. Poulain, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Mater. 66, 519 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Maes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, and R. Vallée, Opt. Lett. 42, 2054 (2017).
[Crossref]

Majewski, M. R.

Majid, I.

T. Ehrenreich, R. Leveille, I. Majid, K. Tankala, G. Rines, and P. Moulton, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758016 (2010).
[Crossref]

Malinowski, M.

D. Piatkowski, K. Wisniewski, M. Rozanski, C. Koepke, M. Kaczkan, M. Klimczak, R. Piramidowicz, and M. Malinowski, J. Phys. 20, 155201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Moos, H. W.

L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, Phys. Rev. 174, 429 (1968).
[Crossref]

Moulton, P.

T. Ehrenreich, R. Leveille, I. Majid, K. Tankala, G. Rines, and P. Moulton, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758016 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nilsson, J.

Ottaway, D.

Piatkowski, D.

D. Piatkowski, K. Wisniewski, M. Rozanski, C. Koepke, M. Kaczkan, M. Klimczak, R. Piramidowicz, and M. Malinowski, J. Phys. 20, 155201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Picqué, N.

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[Crossref]

Piramidowicz, R.

D. Piatkowski, K. Wisniewski, M. Rozanski, C. Koepke, M. Kaczkan, M. Klimczak, R. Piramidowicz, and M. Malinowski, J. Phys. 20, 155201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 162 (2002).
[Crossref]

Poulain, M.

L. Gomes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, F. Maes, R. Vallée, S. Poulain, M. Poulain, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Mater. 66, 519 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Gomes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, R. Vallée, S. Poulain, M. Poulain, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Mater. 60, 618 (2016).
[Crossref]

Poulain, S.

L. Gomes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, F. Maes, R. Vallée, S. Poulain, M. Poulain, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Mater. 66, 519 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Gomes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, R. Vallée, S. Poulain, M. Poulain, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Mater. 60, 618 (2016).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

Rines, G.

T. Ehrenreich, R. Leveille, I. Majid, K. Tankala, G. Rines, and P. Moulton, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758016 (2010).
[Crossref]

Riseberg, L. A.

L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, Phys. Rev. 174, 429 (1968).
[Crossref]

Rozanski, M.

D. Piatkowski, K. Wisniewski, M. Rozanski, C. Koepke, M. Kaczkan, M. Klimczak, R. Piramidowicz, and M. Malinowski, J. Phys. 20, 155201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Saliminia, A.

Sapir, O. H.

Schleijpen, R.

H. H. P. T. Bekman, J. C. van den Heuvel, F. J. M. van Putten, and R. Schleijpen, Proc. SPIE 5615, 27 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schliesser, A.

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schneider, J.

Sheng, Y.

Tankala, K.

T. Ehrenreich, R. Leveille, I. Majid, K. Tankala, G. Rines, and P. Moulton, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758016 (2010).
[Crossref]

Unrau, U. B.

Vallée, R.

van den Heuvel, J. C.

H. H. P. T. Bekman, J. C. van den Heuvel, F. J. M. van Putten, and R. Schleijpen, Proc. SPIE 5615, 27 (2004).
[Crossref]

van Putten, F. J. M.

H. H. P. T. Bekman, J. C. van den Heuvel, F. J. M. van Putten, and R. Schleijpen, Proc. SPIE 5615, 27 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wisniewski, K.

D. Piatkowski, K. Wisniewski, M. Rozanski, C. Koepke, M. Kaczkan, M. Klimczak, R. Piramidowicz, and M. Malinowski, J. Phys. 20, 155201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Woodward, R. I.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 162 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

A. Akella, E. A. Downing, and L. Hesselink, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 1 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. (1)

D. Piatkowski, K. Wisniewski, M. Rozanski, C. Koepke, M. Kaczkan, M. Klimczak, R. Piramidowicz, and M. Malinowski, J. Phys. 20, 155201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. D. Jackson, Nat. Photonics 6, 423 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Opt. Mater. (2)

L. Gomes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, R. Vallée, S. Poulain, M. Poulain, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Mater. 60, 618 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Gomes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, F. Maes, R. Vallée, S. Poulain, M. Poulain, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Mater. 66, 519 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, Phys. Rev. 174, 429 (1968).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

T. Ehrenreich, R. Leveille, I. Majid, K. Tankala, G. Rines, and P. Moulton, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758016 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. H. P. T. Bekman, J. C. van den Heuvel, F. J. M. van Putten, and R. Schleijpen, Proc. SPIE 5615, 27 (2004).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Record continuous-wave output powers from room-temperature RE-doped MIR FLs with respect to emitted wavelength.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Energy level diagram of the Ho 3 + : InF 3 system with relevant physical processes; (b) cross section of the I 5 5 I 6 5 emission; and (c) cross section of the I 8 5 I 5 5 absorption reported in [1315]. GSA, ground state absorption; ESA, excited state absorption; ETU, energy transfer upconversion.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental setup of the room-temperature fiber laser at 3.92 μm. LD, 888 nm multimode laser diode; L1–L2, lenses in 1∶2 de-magnification configuration; M1–M2, gold-sputtered mirrors; DM1, home-sputtered quartz dichroic mirror; DM2, home-sputtered ZnSe dichroic mirror; PF, pump filter.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Core attenuation of the Ho 3 + : InF 3 fiber from 0.5 to 5.0 μm measured by cutback.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Output power at 3.92 μm with respect to the launched pump power.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Spectrum of the Ho 3 + : InF 3 fiber laser for different output powers.

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