Abstract

Sensing with whispering gallery resonators (WGRs) is largely limited by the weak perturbation of the whispering gallery mode (WGM) via the evanescent field. A new sensing regime using quasi-droplet WGMs allows WGRs to move beyond the limitation of the evanescent field and push the detection sensitivity to new heights. We present experimental results on the detection of 100 nm and 500 nm polystyrene particles in aqueous solution using thin-walled, hollow WGRs supporting quasi-droplet modes. The detection sensitivity in terms of mode shift and broadening is measured, with mode shifts of 400 MHz observed for 100 nm particles. In terms of the number of linewidths, this is 276 times larger than similar experiments with microsphere WGRs, thus showing a significant increase in detection sensitivity beyond the capability of standard evanescent field sensing with WGRs.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  16. Y. Yang, S. Saurabh, J. M. Ward, and S. Nic Chormaic, Opt. Express 24, 294 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2016 (4)

J. Su, A. F. Goldberg, and B. M. Stoltz, Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16001 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. D. Helyman, N. Thakkar, E. H. Horak, S. C. Quilin, C. Cherqui, K. A. Knapper, D. J. Masiello, and R. H. Goldsmith, Nat. Photonics 10, 788 (2016).
[Crossref]

B.-Q. Shen, X.-C. Yu, Y. Zhi, L. Wang, D. Kim, Q. Gong, and Y.-F. Xiao, Phys. Rev. Appl. 5, 024011 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, S. Saurabh, J. M. Ward, and S. Nic Chormaic, Opt. Express 24, 294 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

J. M. Ward, N. Dhasmana, and S. Nic Chormaic, Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 223, 1917 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. D. Swaim, J. Knittel, and W. P. Bowen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 183106 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Shao, X.-F. Jiang, X.-C. Yu, B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, Adv. Mater. 25, 5616 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. Baaske and F. Vollmer, Chem. Phys. Chem. 13, 427 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

J. Zhu, Ş. K. Özdemir, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Opt. Express 19, 16195 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 5976 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Lee, Y. Sun, H. Li, K. Reddy, M. Sumetsky, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 091102 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

H. Li and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 011105 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, Y. Nishida, and S. Arnold, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103110 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Li, Y. Guo, Y. Sun, K. Reddy, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 18, 25081 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Arnold, S.

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, Y. Nishida, and S. Arnold, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103110 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Arnold, D. Keng, S. I. Shopova, S. Holler, W. Zurawsky, and F. Vollmer, Opt. Express 17, 6230 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baaske, M.

M. Baaske and F. Vollmer, Chem. Phys. Chem. 13, 427 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bowen, W. P.

J. D. Swaim, J. Knittel, and W. P. Bowen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 183106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.-R.

Chen, T.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 5976 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cherqui, C.

K. D. Helyman, N. Thakkar, E. H. Horak, S. C. Quilin, C. Cherqui, K. A. Knapper, D. J. Masiello, and R. H. Goldsmith, Nat. Photonics 10, 788 (2016).
[Crossref]

Clements, W. R.

L. Shao, X.-F. Jiang, X.-C. Yu, B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, Adv. Mater. 25, 5616 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dhasmana, N.

J. M. Ward, N. Dhasmana, and S. Nic Chormaic, Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 223, 1917 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fan, X.

W. Lee, Y. Sun, H. Li, K. Reddy, M. Sumetsky, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 091102 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Li and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 011105 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Li, Y. Guo, Y. Sun, K. Reddy, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 18, 25081 (2010).
[Crossref]

Flagan, R. C.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 5976 (2011).
[Crossref]

Foreman, M. R.

Fraser, S. E.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 5976 (2011).
[Crossref]

Goldberg, A. F.

J. Su, A. F. Goldberg, and B. M. Stoltz, Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Goldsmith, R. H.

K. D. Helyman, N. Thakkar, E. H. Horak, S. C. Quilin, C. Cherqui, K. A. Knapper, D. J. Masiello, and R. H. Goldsmith, Nat. Photonics 10, 788 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q.

B.-Q. Shen, X.-C. Yu, Y. Zhi, L. Wang, D. Kim, Q. Gong, and Y.-F. Xiao, Phys. Rev. Appl. 5, 024011 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Shao, X.-F. Jiang, X.-C. Yu, B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, Adv. Mater. 25, 5616 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guo, Y.

He, L.

Helyman, K. D.

K. D. Helyman, N. Thakkar, E. H. Horak, S. C. Quilin, C. Cherqui, K. A. Knapper, D. J. Masiello, and R. H. Goldsmith, Nat. Photonics 10, 788 (2016).
[Crossref]

Herchak, S.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 5976 (2011).
[Crossref]

Holler, S.

Horak, E. H.

K. D. Helyman, N. Thakkar, E. H. Horak, S. C. Quilin, C. Cherqui, K. A. Knapper, D. J. Masiello, and R. H. Goldsmith, Nat. Photonics 10, 788 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.-F.

L. Shao, X.-F. Jiang, X.-C. Yu, B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, Adv. Mater. 25, 5616 (2013).
[Crossref]

Keng, D.

Kim, D.

B.-Q. Shen, X.-C. Yu, Y. Zhi, L. Wang, D. Kim, Q. Gong, and Y.-F. Xiao, Phys. Rev. Appl. 5, 024011 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-H.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 5976 (2011).
[Crossref]

Knapper, K. A.

K. D. Helyman, N. Thakkar, E. H. Horak, S. C. Quilin, C. Cherqui, K. A. Knapper, D. J. Masiello, and R. H. Goldsmith, Nat. Photonics 10, 788 (2016).
[Crossref]

Knittel, J.

J. D. Swaim, J. Knittel, and W. P. Bowen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 183106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 5976 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.

W. Lee, Y. Sun, H. Li, K. Reddy, M. Sumetsky, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 091102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, B.-B.

L. Shao, X.-F. Jiang, X.-C. Yu, B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, Adv. Mater. 25, 5616 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

W. Lee, Y. Sun, H. Li, K. Reddy, M. Sumetsky, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 091102 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Li and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 011105 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Li, Y. Guo, Y. Sun, K. Reddy, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 18, 25081 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lu, T.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 5976 (2011).
[Crossref]

Masiello, D. J.

K. D. Helyman, N. Thakkar, E. H. Horak, S. C. Quilin, C. Cherqui, K. A. Knapper, D. J. Masiello, and R. H. Goldsmith, Nat. Photonics 10, 788 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nic Chormaic, S.

Y. Yang, S. Saurabh, J. M. Ward, and S. Nic Chormaic, Opt. Express 24, 294 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ward, N. Dhasmana, and S. Nic Chormaic, Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 223, 1917 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nishida, Y.

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, Y. Nishida, and S. Arnold, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Özdemir, S. K.

Quilin, S. C.

K. D. Helyman, N. Thakkar, E. H. Horak, S. C. Quilin, C. Cherqui, K. A. Knapper, D. J. Masiello, and R. H. Goldsmith, Nat. Photonics 10, 788 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rajmangal, R.

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, Y. Nishida, and S. Arnold, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Reddy, K.

W. Lee, Y. Sun, H. Li, K. Reddy, M. Sumetsky, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 091102 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Li, Y. Guo, Y. Sun, K. Reddy, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 18, 25081 (2010).
[Crossref]

Saurabh, S.

Shao, L.

L. Shao, X.-F. Jiang, X.-C. Yu, B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, Adv. Mater. 25, 5616 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shen, B.-Q.

B.-Q. Shen, X.-C. Yu, Y. Zhi, L. Wang, D. Kim, Q. Gong, and Y.-F. Xiao, Phys. Rev. Appl. 5, 024011 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shopova, S. I.

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, Y. Nishida, and S. Arnold, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103110 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Arnold, D. Keng, S. I. Shopova, S. Holler, W. Zurawsky, and F. Vollmer, Opt. Express 17, 6230 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stoltz, B. M.

J. Su, A. F. Goldberg, and B. M. Stoltz, Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Su, J.

J. Su, A. F. Goldberg, and B. M. Stoltz, Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sumetsky, M.

W. Lee, Y. Sun, H. Li, K. Reddy, M. Sumetsky, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 091102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

W. Lee, Y. Sun, H. Li, K. Reddy, M. Sumetsky, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 091102 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Li, Y. Guo, Y. Sun, K. Reddy, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 18, 25081 (2010).
[Crossref]

Swaim, J. D.

M. R. Foreman, J. D. Swaim, and F. Vollmer, Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 168 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. D. Swaim, J. Knittel, and W. P. Bowen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 183106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thakkar, N.

K. D. Helyman, N. Thakkar, E. H. Horak, S. C. Quilin, C. Cherqui, K. A. Knapper, D. J. Masiello, and R. H. Goldsmith, Nat. Photonics 10, 788 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 5976 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vollmer, F.

M. R. Foreman, J. D. Swaim, and F. Vollmer, Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 168 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Shao, X.-F. Jiang, X.-C. Yu, B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, Adv. Mater. 25, 5616 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Baaske and F. Vollmer, Chem. Phys. Chem. 13, 427 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Arnold, D. Keng, S. I. Shopova, S. Holler, W. Zurawsky, and F. Vollmer, Opt. Express 17, 6230 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

B.-Q. Shen, X.-C. Yu, Y. Zhi, L. Wang, D. Kim, Q. Gong, and Y.-F. Xiao, Phys. Rev. Appl. 5, 024011 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

L. Shao, X.-F. Jiang, X.-C. Yu, B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, Adv. Mater. 25, 5616 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ward, J. M.

Y. Yang, S. Saurabh, J. M. Ward, and S. Nic Chormaic, Opt. Express 24, 294 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ward, N. Dhasmana, and S. Nic Chormaic, Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 223, 1917 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Y.-F.

B.-Q. Shen, X.-C. Yu, Y. Zhi, L. Wang, D. Kim, Q. Gong, and Y.-F. Xiao, Phys. Rev. Appl. 5, 024011 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Shao, X.-F. Jiang, X.-C. Yu, B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, Adv. Mater. 25, 5616 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

Yang, Y.

Yu, X.-C.

B.-Q. Shen, X.-C. Yu, Y. Zhi, L. Wang, D. Kim, Q. Gong, and Y.-F. Xiao, Phys. Rev. Appl. 5, 024011 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Shao, X.-F. Jiang, X.-C. Yu, B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, Adv. Mater. 25, 5616 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhi, Y.

B.-Q. Shen, X.-C. Yu, Y. Zhi, L. Wang, D. Kim, Q. Gong, and Y.-F. Xiao, Phys. Rev. Appl. 5, 024011 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

Zurawsky, W.

Adv. Mater. (1)

L. Shao, X.-F. Jiang, X.-C. Yu, B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, Adv. Mater. 25, 5616 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

W. Lee, Y. Sun, H. Li, K. Reddy, M. Sumetsky, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 091102 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Li and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 011105 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. D. Swaim, J. Knittel, and W. P. Bowen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 183106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Chem. (1)

M. Baaske and F. Vollmer, Chem. Phys. Chem. 13, 427 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. (1)

J. M. Ward, N. Dhasmana, and S. Nic Chormaic, Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 223, 1917 (2014).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

J. Su, A. F. Goldberg, and B. M. Stoltz, Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

K. D. Helyman, N. Thakkar, E. H. Horak, S. C. Quilin, C. Cherqui, K. A. Knapper, D. J. Masiello, and R. H. Goldsmith, Nat. Photonics 10, 788 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

B.-Q. Shen, X.-C. Yu, Y. Zhi, L. Wang, D. Kim, Q. Gong, and Y.-F. Xiao, Phys. Rev. Appl. 5, 024011 (2016).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 5976 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, Y. Nishida, and S. Arnold, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103110 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the tapered fiber coupled to MBR setup.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Frequency shift for two different WGMs with 500 nm particles.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (Top) Mode spectra for a single 500 nm particle detection event; (bottom) linewidth and Q-factor for mode 1 above.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Detection of 100 nm particles. (Top) Frequency shift over time; (bottom) linewidth change over time.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (Top) Mode profile of first three radial order modes; (middle) frequency shift; (bottom) scattering Q-factor derived from simulation for a 500 nm particle.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. State of the Art: Nanoparticle Detection Sensitivitya

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