Abstract

As the lateral resolution of full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) with spatially incoherent illumination has been shown to be insensitive to aberrations, we demonstrate high-resolution en face FFOCT retinal imaging without wavefront correction in the human eye in vivo for the first time, to our knowledge. A combination of FFOCT with spectral-domain OCT (SDOCT) is applied for real-time matching of the optical path lengths (OPLs) of FFOCT. Through the real-time cross-sectional SDOCT images, the OPL of the FFOCT reference arm is matched with different retinal layers in the FFOCT sample arm. Thus, diffraction-limited FFOCT images of multiple retinal layers are acquired at both the near periphery and the fovea. The en face FFOCT retinal images reveal information about various structures, such as the nerve fiber orientation, the blood vessel distribution, and the photoreceptor mosaic.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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Cua, M.

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R. de Kinkelder, J. Kalkman, D. J. Faber, O. Schraa, P. H. B. Kok, F. D. Verbraak, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52, 3908 (2011).
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Fink, M.

P. Xiao, M. Fink, and A. C. Boccara, Opt. Lett. 41, 3920 (2016).
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P. Xiao, M. Fink, and A. C. Boccara, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 121505 (2016).
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Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pulisfito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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Fujimoto, J. G.

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2733 (2012).
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C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Ophthalmology 102, 217 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pulisfito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, Optical Coherence Tomography of Ocular Diseases (Slack, 2004).

Ginner, L.

Götzinger, E.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pulisfito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Grulkowski, I.

Hain, C.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 35209 (2016).
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Hee, M. R.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Ophthalmology 102, 217 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pulisfito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hillmann, D.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 35209 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hitzenberger, C.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pulisfito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Huber, R.

Hughes, G. W.

Hüttmann, G.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 35209 (2016).
[Crossref]

Izatt, J.

Izatt, J. A.

Jayaraman, V.

Jian, Y.

Jiang, J.

Jones, S.

Jonnal, R. S.

R. S. Jonnal, O. P. Kocaoglu, R. J. Zawadzki, Z. Liu, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57, OCT51 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, Opt. Express 13, 4792 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kalkman, J.

R. de Kinkelder, J. Kalkman, D. J. Faber, O. Schraa, P. H. B. Kok, F. D. Verbraak, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52, 3908 (2011).
[Crossref]

Karamata, B.

Keller, B.

Klein, T.

Kocaoglu, O. P.

Z. Liu, O. P. Kocaoglu, and D. T. Miller, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57, OCT533 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. S. Jonnal, O. P. Kocaoglu, R. J. Zawadzki, Z. Liu, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57, OCT51 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kok, P. H. B.

R. de Kinkelder, J. Kalkman, D. J. Faber, O. Schraa, P. H. B. Kok, F. D. Verbraak, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52, 3908 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kumar, A.

Kuo, A. N.

Kusaka, S.

T. Wakabayashi, Y. Oshima, H. Fujimoto, Y. Murakami, H. Sakaguchi, S. Kusaka, and Y. Tano, Ophthalmology 116, 519 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lambelet, P.

Lasser, T.

Laubscher, M.

Laut, S.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Li, X.

Liang, J.

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, Vis. Res. 36, 1067 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. P.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Ophthalmology 102, 217 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pulisfito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. J.

Liu, Y. Z.

N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y. Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, Nat. Photonics 9, 440 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, O. P. Kocaoglu, and D. T. Miller, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57, OCT533 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. S. Jonnal, O. P. Kocaoglu, R. J. Zawadzki, Z. Liu, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57, OCT51 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lu, C. D.

Mangalesh, S.

Matet, A.

B. Wolff, A. Matet, V. Vasseur, J. A. Sahel, and M. Mauget-Faÿsse, J. Ophthalmol. 2012, 542417 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mauget-Faÿsse, M.

B. Wolff, A. Matet, V. Vasseur, J. A. Sahel, and M. Mauget-Faÿsse, J. Ophthalmol. 2012, 542417 (2012).
[Crossref]

Merino, D.

Miller, D. T.

Z. Liu, O. P. Kocaoglu, and D. T. Miller, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57, OCT533 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. S. Jonnal, O. P. Kocaoglu, R. J. Zawadzki, Z. Liu, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57, OCT51 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, Opt. Express 13, 4792 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, Vis. Res. 36, 1067 (1996).
[Crossref]

Morris, G. M.

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, Vis. Res. 36, 1067 (1996).
[Crossref]

Murakami, Y.

T. Wakabayashi, Y. Oshima, H. Fujimoto, Y. Murakami, H. Sakaguchi, S. Kusaka, and Y. Tano, Ophthalmology 116, 519 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nankivil, D.

Olivier, S.

Oshima, Y.

T. Wakabayashi, Y. Oshima, H. Fujimoto, Y. Murakami, H. Sakaguchi, S. Kusaka, and Y. Tano, Ophthalmology 116, 519 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pedro, J.

Pfäffle, C.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 35209 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pircher, M.

Podoleanu, A.

Podoleanu, A. G.

Potsaid, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Ophthalmology 102, 217 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, Optical Coherence Tomography of Ocular Diseases (Slack, 2004).

Pulisfito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pulisfito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Reichel, E.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Ophthalmology 102, 217 (1995).
[Crossref]

Rha, J.

Rogers, J.

Roorda, A.

Rosen, R.

Sahel, J. A.

B. Wolff, A. Matet, V. Vasseur, J. A. Sahel, and M. Mauget-Faÿsse, J. Ophthalmol. 2012, 542417 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sakaguchi, H.

T. Wakabayashi, Y. Oshima, H. Fujimoto, Y. Murakami, H. Sakaguchi, S. Kusaka, and Y. Tano, Ophthalmology 116, 519 (2009).
[Crossref]

Salas, M.

Salathé, R. P.

Sarunic, M. V.

Schraa, O.

R. de Kinkelder, J. Kalkman, D. J. Faber, O. Schraa, P. H. B. Kok, F. D. Verbraak, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52, 3908 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schuman, J. S.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Ophthalmology 102, 217 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pulisfito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, Optical Coherence Tomography of Ocular Diseases (Slack, 2004).

Sheehy, C. K.

Shemonski, N. D.

N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y. Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, Nat. Photonics 9, 440 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shen, L.

South, F. A.

N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y. Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, Nat. Photonics 9, 440 (2015).
[Crossref]

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D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 35209 (2016).
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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Real-time SDOCT imaging video of the combined system showing the cross-sectional SDOCT image of the human retinal layers and the FFOCT reference mirror.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the combined system of FFOCT with SDOCT. BS, beam splitter; DC, dispersion compensation; DM, dichroic mirror; PZT, piezoelectric transducer.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. In vivo human retinal imaging by (c), (d) FFOCT compared with (f), (g) AO retinal camera of near periphery at 6° eccentricity. (a) The SDOCT cross-sectional image of the imaging position with the red (RNFL) and blue (IS/OS) dashed lines indicating the FFOCT imaging depth. (b) Fundus photography with the black box indicating the FFOCT imaging area and the green dashed line showing the SDOCT scanning position. In vivo FFOCT image of at 6° inferior to the fovea, at the (c) RNFL and (d) IS/OS photoreceptor layer without AO. (e) The 2D power spectra of (d) showing the Yellot’s ring, the radius of which is related to the cone photoreceptor spacing. The AO retinal camera image around the (f) RNFL and (g) IS/OS photoreceptor layer at the same retinal location, and (h) the 2D power spectra of (g). Scale bar: 100 μm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. In vivo human retinal imaging by (c) FFOCT compared with (g) AO retinal camera at the fovea. (a) The SDOCT cross-sectional image of the foveal center where the red dashed line indicates the depth at which the FFOCT image is taken. (b) Fundus photograph with the black box indicating the FFOCT imaging area and the green dashed line showing the SDOCT scanning position. (c) In vivo FFOCT image of the human fovea without AO and the zoomed in areas at (d) about 1° eccentricity and (e) the fovea center. (f) The 2D power spectrum of (c). (g)–(j) The AO retinal camera image of the same locations as (c)–(e) for comparison. (j) The 2D power spectrum of (g). Scale bar: 50 μm.