Abstract

Future quantum networks will need flying qubits and stationary nodes. As for the generation of single photons which may act as flying qubits, resonantly excited single-semiconductor quantum dots are ideal in terms of their on-demand single-photon emission, indistinguishability, and brightness. Atomic systems can effectively act as mediators for photon–photon interactions, storage media, or building blocks for stationary qubits. Here, we hybridize these two systems and investigate the non-classical interference of spectral Lorentzian-shaped photons, fine-tuned between the cesium (Cs)-D1 hyperfine resonances. The temporal delay in the dispersive hot atomic cesium vapor amounts up to 50 times the photons’ initial width and reveals beats on the single quanta. The photons’ indistinguishability is preserved even after atomic-enabled delay. This proves that the interaction with the Cs vapor conserves the photons’ coherence. The role of spectral diffusion in the solid-state emitter is studied in single- and two-photon experiments in light of the strong frequency dependence of the atomic medium. Our results pave the way for efficient hybrid interfaces between quantum dots and hot atomic vapors as storage media in future quantum networks.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (3)

D. D. Sukachev, A. Sipahigil, C. T. Nguyen, M. K. Bhaskar, R. E. Evans, F. Jelezko, and M. D. Lukin, “Silicon-vacancy spin qubit in diamond: a quantum memory exceeding 10 ms with single-shot state readout,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 223602 (2017).
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[Crossref]

S. E. Thomas, J. H. D. Munns, K. T. Kaczmarek, C. Qiu, B. Brecht, A. Feizpour, P. M. Ledingham, I. A. Walmsley, J. Nunn, and D. J. Saunders, “High efficiency Raman memory by suppressing radiation trapping,” New J. Phys. 19, 063034 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

S. L. Portalupi, M. Widmann, C. Nawrath, M. Jetter, P. Michler, J. Wrachtrup, and I. Gerhardt, “Simultaneous Faraday filtering of the Mollow triplet sidebands with the Cs-D1 clock transition,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13632 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Trotta, J. Martín-Sánchez, J. S. Wildmann, G. Piredda, M. Reindl, C. Schimpf, E. Zallo, S. Stroj, J. Edlinger, and A. Rastelli, “Wavelength-tunable sources of entangled photons interfaced with atomic vapours,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10375 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Thoma, P. Schnauber, M. Gschrey, M. Seifried, J. Wolters, J.-H. Schulze, A. Strittmatter, S. Rodt, A. Carmele, A. Knorr, T. Heindel, and S. Reitzenstein, “Exploring dephasing of a solid-state quantum emitter via time- and temperature-dependent Hong-Ou-Mandel experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 033601 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. C. Loredo, N. A. Zakaria, N. Somaschi, C. Anton, L. de Santis, V. Giesz, T. Grange, M. A. Broome, O. Gazzano, G. Coppola, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaitre, A. Auffeves, P. Senellart, M. P. Almeida, and A. G. White, “Scalable performance in solid-state single-photon sources,” Optica 3, 433–440 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. D. Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Antón, J. Demory, C. Gómez, I. Sagnes, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Lemaítre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near-optimal single-photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 340–345 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, Z.-C. Duan, Y.-H. Li, S. Chen, J.-P. Li, Y.-M. He, M.-C. Chen, Y. He, X. Ding, C.-Z. Peng, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Near-transform-limited single photons from an efficient solid-state quantum emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 213601 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

G. Schunk, U. Vogl, D. V. Strekalov, M. Förtsch, F. Sedlmeir, H. G. L. Schwefel, M. Göbelt, S. Christiansen, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “Interfacing transitions of different alkali atoms and telecom bands using one narrowband photon pair source,” Optica 2, 773–778 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. S. Michelberger, T. F. M. Champion, M. R. Sprague, K. T. Kaczmarek, M. Barbieri, X. M. Jin, D. G. England, W. S. Kolthammer, D. J. Saunders, J. Nunn, and I. A. Walmsley, “Interfacing Ghz-bandwidth heralded single photons with a warm vapour Raman memory,” New J. Phys. 17, 043006 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Zentile, J. Keaveney, L. Weller, D. J. Whiting, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, “ElecSus: a program to calculate the electric susceptibility of an atomic ensemble,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 189, 162–174 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Jahn, M. Munsch, L. Béguin, A. V. Kuhlmann, M. Renggli, Y. Huo, F. Ding, R. Trotta, M. Reindl, O. G. Schmidt, A. Rastelli, P. Treutlein, and R. J. Warburton, “An artificial Rb atom in a semiconductor with lifetime-limited linewidth,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 245439 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. S. Wildmann, R. Trotta, J. Martín-Sánchez, E. Zallo, M. O’Steen, O. G. Schmidt, and A. Rastelli, “Atomic clouds as spectrally selective and tunable delay lines for single photons from quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 235306 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-S. Tang, Z.-Q. Zhou, Y.-T. Wang, Y.-L. Li, X. Liu, Y.-L. Hua, Y. Zou, S. Wang, D.-Y. He, G. Chen, Y.-N. Sun, Y. Yu, M.-F. Li, G.-W. Zha, H.-Q. Ni, Z.-C. Niu, C.-F. Li, and G.-C. Guo, “Storage of multiple single-photon pulses emitted from a quantum dot in a solid-state quantum memory,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8652 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

P. Siyushev, G. Stein, J. Wrachtrup, and I. Gerhardt, “Molecular photons interfaced with alkali atoms,” Nature 509, 66–70 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. M. Ulrich, S. Weiler, M. Oster, M. Jetter, A. Urvoy, R. Löw, and P. Michler, “Spectroscopy of the D1 transition of cesium by dressed-state resonance fluorescence from a single (In, Ga)As/GaAs quantum dot,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 125310 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

A. V. Kuhlmann, J. Houel, A. Ludwig, L. Greuter, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, M. Poggio, and R. J. Warburton, “Charge noise and spin noise in a semiconductor quantum device,” Nat. Phys. 9, 570–575 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. O. Dudin, L. Li, and A. Kuzmich, “Light storage on the time scale of a minute,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 031801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Chen, M.-J. Lee, I.-C. Wang, S. Du, Y.-F. Chen, Y.-C. Chen, and I. A. Yu, “Coherent optical memory with high storage efficiency and large fractional delay,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083601 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-M. He, Y. He, Y.-J. Wei, D. Wu, M. Atatüre, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, M. Kamp, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “On-demand semiconductor single-photon source with near-unity indistinguishability,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 213–217 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

J. Houel, A. V. Kuhlmann, L. Greuter, F. Xue, M. Poggio, B. D. Gerardot, P. A. Dalgarno, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, A. Ludwig, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and R. J. Warburton, “Probing single-charge fluctuations at a GaAs/AlAs interface using laser spectroscopy on a nearby InGaAs quantum dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 107401 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

N. Sangouard, C. Simon, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, “Quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 33–80 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Akopian, L. Wang, A. Rastelli, O. G. Schmidt, and V. Zwiller, “Hybrid semiconductor-atomic interface: slowing down single photons from a quantum dot,” Nat. Photonics 5, 230–233 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

G. Sallen, A. Tribu, T. Aichele, R. Andre, L. Besombes, C. Bougerol, M. Richard, S. Tatarenko, K. Kheng, and J.-P. Poizat, “Subnanosecond spectral diffusion measurement using photon correlation,” Nat. Photonics 4, 696–699 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Akopian, U. Perinetti, L. Wang, A. Rastelli, O. G. Schmidt, and V. Zwiller, “Tuning single GaAs quantum dots in resonance with a rubidium vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 082103 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. P. Hedges, J. J. Longdell, Y. Li, and M. J. Sellars, “Efficient quantum memory for light,” Nature 465, 1052–1056 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

G. Balasubramanian, P. Neumann, D. Twitchen, M. Markham, R. Kolesov, N. Mizuochi, J. Isoya, J. Achard, J. Beck, J. Tissler, V. Jacques, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Ultralong spin coherence time in isotopically engineered diamond,” Nat. Mater. 8, 383–387 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, “Optical quantum memory,” Nat. Photonics 3, 706–714 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, J. C. Howell, A. Schweinsberg, and R. W. Boyd, “Wide-bandwidth, tunable, multiple-pulse-width optical delays using slow light in cesium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153601 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

B. Lounis and M. Orrit, “Single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 1129–1179 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. Kroutvar, Y. Ducommun, D. Heiss, M. Bichler, D. Schuh, G. Abstreiter, and J. J. Finley, “Optically programmable electron spin memory using semiconductor quantum dots,” Nature 432, 81–84 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C. Santori, D. Fattal, J. Vučković, G. S. Solomon, and Y. Yamamoto, “Indistinguishable photons from a single-photon device,” Nature 419, 594–597 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414, 413–418 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Storage of light in atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783–786 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device,” Science 290, 2282–2285 (2000).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoğlu, “Nonlinear optical processes using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1107–1110 (1990).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

D. Grischkowsky, “Adiabatic following and slow optical pulse propagation in rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 7, 2096–2102 (1973).
[Crossref]

1930 (1)

G. E. Uhlenbeck and L. S. Ornstein, “On the theory of the Brownian motion,” Phys. Rev. 36, 823–841 (1930).
[Crossref]

Abstreiter, G.

M. Kroutvar, Y. Ducommun, D. Heiss, M. Bichler, D. Schuh, G. Abstreiter, and J. J. Finley, “Optically programmable electron spin memory using semiconductor quantum dots,” Nature 432, 81–84 (2004).
[Crossref]

Achard, J.

G. Balasubramanian, P. Neumann, D. Twitchen, M. Markham, R. Kolesov, N. Mizuochi, J. Isoya, J. Achard, J. Beck, J. Tissler, V. Jacques, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Ultralong spin coherence time in isotopically engineered diamond,” Nat. Mater. 8, 383–387 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adams, C. S.

M. A. Zentile, J. Keaveney, L. Weller, D. J. Whiting, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, “ElecSus: a program to calculate the electric susceptibility of an atomic ensemble,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 189, 162–174 (2015).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Akopian, U. Perinetti, L. Wang, A. Rastelli, O. G. Schmidt, and V. Zwiller, “Tuning single GaAs quantum dots in resonance with a rubidium vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 082103 (2010).
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Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

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Nat. Mater. (1)

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Pictorial sketch of the hybrid quantum system: single QD photons interact with hot Cs vapor. (b) High-resolution resonance fluorescence spectrum of the investigated QD charged exciton state: for sake of clarity, the natural linewidth and effect of spectral diffusion are also schematized. (c) Measured (dotted lines) and calculated (dashed lines) [34] Cs-D1 absorption spectra for a 250 mm long vapor cell at various temperatures.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) TCSPC measurements at various vapor temperatures (solid lines) and theoretical predictions (dashed lines). The inset shows all achieved delays depending on the vapor temperature. (b) Simultaneously recorded intensity auto-correlations of delayed single photons. For completeness, the curve for highest temperature and strongest absorption is indicated after background subtraction and enlarged binning (right-hand side, bottom curve only). Otherwise, raw data are presented.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) TCSPC measurement of delayed photons (17 ns, dotted line) and the corresponding simulation (dashed line). For clarity, only parts of the inhomogeneously broadened emission are highlighted, revealing the composition of the detected overall shape. (b) Corresponding spectral shapes after vapor transmission. The color codes of the individual components match between the figure parts (a) and (b); e.g., the purple curve represents the spectral position of vanishing GVD with the smoothest temporal profile. Detuned curves from the vanishing GVD position result in substantially distorted temporal profiles. The QD transmission profile is obtained by a multiplication of the Cs-transmission spectrum and the incoming QD spectral profile as measured in Fig. 1(b).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Sketch of the two-photon interference. Configurations: (b) without vapor cell, with cell (c) before and (d) inside the MZI. The relative time delay between the two paths is always kept at 4.3 ns (gray arrow). (b) Baseline of the HOM interference of the selected QD-transition. Light blue lines represent experimental data; shaded areas are theoretically calculated coincidences. The theoretically calculated curves for non-interfering photons are shown as red curves. (c) HOM measurement when both photons have acquired Δt=2.5  ns of delay in the vapor (configuration c). (d) HOM measurement when only one photon is vapor-delayed by Δt=1.7  ns (configuration d).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Simulated two-photon interference visibilities (left scale) and experienced absorption (right scale) for three QD-transition lifetimes τ versus the acquired delay. Configuration d in Fig. 4 is considered. Red stars correspond to visibilities for an acquired fractional delay of 10 in the three cases.

Equations (2)

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vg=cn(ν)+νdndν  ,
χ(ν)Cs-vaporχout(ν)=χ(ν)einckL=χ(ν)ei2πLcn(ν)νeL2α(ν),with  nc=n(ν)+i2kα(ν).

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